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TRAINING of RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL PERSONNEL THROUGH the POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS of SIBERIA. 19581991. (To the BACKGROUND)



to a m to an image, keeping own integrity of the person in conceptually inexpressible act.

Modern information society needs not only the new ideas and knowledge, but also a variety of ways of their receiving and continuous updating that is not automatic, and assumes need of development of the person owning rational and irrational methods of knowledge. For training in the modern world of the person developing K. Rogers suggested to solve such problems how to release inquisitiveness, to allow people to move in the new direction, to wake research interest. J. Moreno believed that the main method of training in school of the future has to become spontan-

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. K. Marx. Theory of the surplus value. Part 1//Capital. - T of IV. - M.: Gospolitizdat, 1955. - 615 pages
2. Yu. Habermas. Democracy. Reason. Morality. - SPb.: Science, 2000. - 379 pages
3. M. Heidegger. Question of the equipment//Time and life: Articles and performances. - M.: Republic, 1993. - Page 221-238.
4. K. Jaspers. Sense and purpose of history. - M.: Politizdat, 1991. - 527 pages
5. M. Heidegger. Time and life: Articles and performances. - M.: Republic, 1993. - 442 pages
6. E. Tsvetkov. Direction of destiny. - SPb.: St. Petersburg, 2003. - 320 pages

nost. Therefore the fact that overcoming illusion, installations and practice of separation rational and irrational, technical and humanitarian increases the potential of the person and opens a way to new opportunities of education is not casual. A question of questions - as, making active intelligence to stimulate spirituality, decides, eventually, in the course of organic interrelation of internal and external plans of life, providing substantial validity of process of interpersonal personal development and obshchestvennoistorichesky process in general.

Work is partially supported by a grant of the Russian Federal Property Fund, project No. 03-06-80128.

7. Yu. Habermas. Democracy. Reason. Morality. Moscow lectures and interview. - M.: To publish. AKADEMIA center, 1995. - 245 pages
8. V.V. Nalimov. In search of other meanings. - M.: Progress, 1993. - 280 pages
9. Yu. Habermas. A philosophical discourse about a modernist style. - M.: Whole world, 2003. - 416 pages
10. N.I. Kolodina. Cognitive modeling of structure of thought process and construction images / Works of the International scientific and technical conferences "Intellectual Systems (1EEE AB&03)" and "Intellectual CAD" (CAD-2003). The scientific publication in 3 volumes. T. 2. - M.: Publishing house of Physical and mathematical literature, 2003. - Page 294-309.

UDC 378.126.048.2 (571.1/.5)

TRAINING of RESEARCH AND EDUCATIONAL PERSONNEL THROUGH the POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS of SIBERIA. 1958-1991. (To the BACKGROUND)

V.V. Petrik

Tomsk Polytechnic University of E-mail: regionoved@mail.ru

Article is devoted to problems of training of candidates of science through a postgraduate study in higher education institutions of Siberia. On the basis of archival documents the objective and subjective reasons of low overall performance of this traditional form of preparation of scientific shots in higher education institutions of the region in the late fifties - the beginning of the 90th of the 20th century are analyzed

The main form of training of candidates of science in higher educational institutions of the region in the late fifties - the beginning of the 1990th was the postgraduate study. In the activity the administrations, public organizations and staff of faculties sought to achieve that persons with in whole or in part the passed examinations of a candidate minimum, with a reserve on a thesis and the being available publications came to it mainly.

At the higher school of those years there was a practice when candidacies of graduate students without fail were considered and approved previously at meetings of a party bureau of faculties and in Communist Party committees of higher education institutions. Besides the above-mentioned uchity-

fall also criteria ideological - membership in the CPSU and the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, & #34; public активность" & #34; political зрелость" & #34; moral устойчивость" (especially on obshchestvovedchesky specialties), etc. Often recommendations and estimates of party bodies played a crucial role in selection of shots at the direction in a postgraduate study.

Not all educational institutions of the region had own postgraduate study, in a number of higher education institutions it was small and inefficient. By the beginning of the studied period training of scientists through a postgraduate study Tomsk - the university, institutes - polytechnical, medical, electromechanical conducted engineers of railway transport, pe-

dagogichesky, construction; the Novosibirsk institutes - electrotechnical, medical, construction, agricultural, engineers of railway transport, geodesy, aerial photography and cartography; Irkutsk - the university, institutes - mining and metallurgical, medical, financial and economic, agricultural and pedagogical; the Omsk institutes - automobile and road, veterinary and agricultural; Krasnoyarsk - polytechnical, medical, timber and pedagogical; Altai agricultural and Siberian metallurgical institutes.

In 1959 the postgraduate study at the Novosibirsk institute of engineers of the water transport (NIIVTE) in which began to have postgraduate training on one specialty of 5 people with a separation from production was open. By the end of the 1980th the training of research and educational personnel in this transport higher education institution was carried out on ten specialties: shipbuilding, hydrotechnical building, mechanization of reloading works, navigation, operation of ship power stations, economy and management on transport, operation of the ship equipment, etc. For 1959-1991 in NIIVTE it was protected

12 doctor's and 162 master's theses [1].

In the 1960th - the beginning of the 1990th the postgraduate study was created at Altai, Omsk and Kuzbass polytechnical, Buryat agricultural, Kemerovo medical, East Siberian technological, by Bratsk industrial, Novosibirsk the national economy, Tyumen construction, Abakan, Barnaul, Omsk, Chita Pedagogical Institutes and other higher education institutions [2]. By August, 1991 the postgraduate study worked at 67 higher educational institutions of Siberia (from 85), against 28 (from 63) in 1958 [3].

It is necessary to tell that in quantity and quality characteristics of distinction on separate educational institutions were very considerable. The most numerous contingents of graduate students were at the Tomsk university and polytechnical institute where in 1958 89 and 110 people studied respectively [4].

At the same time, in most higher education institutions of the region such form of training of research and educational personnel did not gain big development. Training was conducted only on several specialties, reception and release of graduate students was insignificant. For example, in 1959/60 uch. in a postgraduate study of the Tomsk electromechanical institute of engineers of railway transport there were 17 people, the Krasnoyarsk polytechnical institute - 7, the Siberian road institute - 6, the Omsk agricultural institute - 8, the Irkutsk Pedagogical Institute - 5 people [5].

Such situation was caused by a complex of the objective reasons. Quality of training of experts is in direct dependence on existence of conditions necessary for this purpose: professorsko-pre-

of podavatelsky structure, material resources for researches, etc. In this regard many higher educational institutions of Siberia were not ready to considerable training of candidates of science through own postgraduate study yet. Meanwhile, the continuous building of the contingent of students which was followed by growth of teaching personnel and absence of highly skilled scientific and pedagogical workers weak replenishment them at the expense of aspiran-tov-contract specialists forced higher education institutions to open and expand it. Thereby the low overall performance of a postgraduate study in many respects was defined in advance.

It was promoted also by lack of a competition at inclusion in a postgraduate study, weak control of administrations, the academic councils, public organizations behind the course of postgraduate preparation. A considerable part coming to it not only had no scientific reserve according to the thesis, but even research subjects. Not accidentally in 1965 to 282 places of a postgraduate study of full-time courses of ten technical institutes - Altai (API), Irkutsk (IPI), Krasnoyarsk (Kraspi), Kuzbass (KUZPI), Omsk (OmPI) polytechnical, Novosibirsk (NISI) and Tomsk (TISI) construction, Novosibirsk electrotechnical (NETI), Siberian metallurgical (media) and Tomsk radio electronics and the electronic equipment (TIRIET) submitted only 286 applications [6].

Essential shortcomings were available also in the organization of work of a postgraduate study. In some cases work of graduate students was planned badly, subjects of theses were insignificant, were approved out of time, certification of graduate students was carried out poor. Owing to these reasons in 1965 the share successfully completed postgraduate studies made in API and media - 0%, KuzPI - 11.1%, KrasPI - 15.7%, NETI - 25.2%, TISI - 0%, OmPI - 17.8% [6].

Along with training of candidates of science on places, broad development was gained by the target postgraduate study entered the Minvuzy USSR in 1959. It gave the chance more stoutly and more effectively to satisfy requirements of those higher education institutions of the Siberian region which had no own postgraduate study and were in great need in scientific shots. The target postgraduate study was concentrated at the largest higher education institutions of Moscow, Leningrad, Rostov-on-Don, Voronezh, Sverdlovsk, Novosibirsk and Tomsk. Scales and rates of training were defined by this form of training also by youth of faculty members of newly established higher education institutions. In 1965 the teachers with length of service at the higher school up to three years made: at institutes - East Siberian technological - 56.2%, Tyumen industrial - 48.9%, Novosibirsk the Soviet cooperative trade - 43.4%, Kemerovo medical - 38.5%, Chita pedagogical - 41% [7]. At the Tomsk polytechnical institute in 1967 from 83 teachers of obshchestvovedchesky departments only

13 the person (15.7%) had academic degrees and ranks; pedagogical length of service of 50 teachers (60.2%) did not exceed three years [8].

Therefore the target postgraduate study gave the chance to higher education institutions of the region to solve the major problem - preparation & #34; остепененных" experts. This practice entirely justified itself. Its decision was promoted by implementation of the actions provided by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of November 16, 1967 & #34; About improvement of preparation scientific and scientific and pedagogical кадров". According to this resolution the expansion of a target postgraduate study at the largest educational institutions of the country was planned [9]. Throughout all considered time period the Siberian higher education institutions actively used this form of training of candidates of science. Only in 1968/69 uch. higher educational institutions of the Kemerovo region sent to a target postgraduate study of 245 people [10]. The Tyumen state university for 1976-1980 purpose in a postgraduate study of the leading higher education institutions of Russia trained 59 teachers [11].

At the same time, in development of a target postgraduate study certain difficulties and contradictions collected. Despite a lot of work of high school collectives on selection and training of candidates for the direction for a postgraduate study, many of them did not maintain entrance examinations and were not enlisted on this form of training. It can be tracked according to the table below made on materials of inspection by Minvuz's commission of RSFSR of a number of engineering higher education institutions of Siberia [12].

Besides, a considerable part of graduate students of purpose did not come back after the end of the preparation in the central higher education institutions of the country. For example, for 1960-1968 from 88 graduate students did not return to the Altai polytechnical institute 39 people (44.3%) [13]. From the 103rd persons. The Omsk State University, the 1980th directed in the first half in a target postgraduate study of leaders

the universities, came back home 37 people (36.2%), did not return 14 people (13.6%) [14]. Met similar difficulties also in other higher educational institutions of the region.

Along with a target postgraduate study the importance was attached to training of candidates of science on places.

The real smithy of highly skilled research and educational personnel were such high school cities as Tomsk, Irkutsk and Novosibirsk at which institutes and the universities applicants of an academic degree from many educational and nauchnoissledovatelsky institutions of Siberia and the Far East had postgraduate training. If in the Tomsk higher education institutions in 1958/59 uch. more than 250 graduate students, in Novosibirsk - about 70, in Irkutsk - over 120, in 1990/91 uch studied. - respectively - 1008, 532 and 327 [15].

Studying documents showed that the largest postgraduate studies worked at TGU, TPI, TIASURE, to TMI, the YOKE, IPI, NSU and NETI. So, annual inclusion in 1966-1970 in a postgraduate study of the Irkutsk State University made about 30 people on internal and 20 - on correspondence offices [16]. The biggest number of graduate students was at the Novosibirsk electrotechnical institute in 1985 of-165 people, from them a half - studied in absentia [17].

Training of specialists researchers in a postgraduate study of the called higher education institutions was conducted practically on all leading branches of science and the equipment. In the Novosibirsk State University, for example, 65% of graduate students were preparing in the physical and mathematical directions [18]. Favorable conditions for training of graduate students on technical, geological and mineralogical, chemical science were created in TPI, IPI, TIASURE and NETI [19]. Great attention in a postgraduate study to TGU, the YOKE and NSU was given to training of specialists on humanitarian,

Table. Some data on the higher technical school of Siberia on results of entrance examinations in a target postgraduate study (1967-1989)

Name of higher education institution 1967 1968 1969

It is sent to a target postgraduate study It is accepted It is sent to a target postgraduate study It is accepted It is sent to a target postgraduate study It is accepted

Altai politekhn. in-t 28 13 (46%) 32 25 (78%) 50 31 (62%)

Krasnoyarsk politekhn. in-t 39 21 (54%) 24 18 (75%) 26 21 (81%)

Krasnoyarsk in-t tsvetn. metals 37 20 (54%) 32 15 (47%) 83 14 (42%)

Kuzbass politekhn. in-t 18 6 (33%) 9 3 (33%) 7 4 (57%)

East Sib. technologist. in-t 64 30 (47%) 78 37 (47%) 49 26 (53%)

Siberian automobile and road in-t 21 6 (19%) 21 13 (62%) 25 12 (48%)

Siberian technologist. in-t 26 16 (61%) 26 15 (58%) 19 14 (74%)

biological, economic, to jurisprudence, and in TMI - medical [20].

Having solid scientific and pedagogical potential, a significant amount of the famous scientists, doctors of science, professors, these higher education institutions provided high-quality passing of a postgraduate study on many specialties. Fruitful management of preparation of master's theses was performed by experienced specialists, leaders of schools of sciences and the directions. In the Tomsk higher education institutions A.I. Danilov, V.A. Pegel, K.P. Yaroshevsky, I.M. were the leading scientists in the late fifties - the beginning of the 1990th. Dispersal, M.V. Tronov, V.E. Zuev, M.P. Kortusov, I.P. Laptev, F.P. Tarasenko, V.V. Serebrennikov, M.S. Kuznetsov, A.K. Sukhotin, B.G Mogilnitsky, V.D. Filimonov, M.S. Bobrovnikov, V.A. Schwab, N.N. Kiselyov, A.P. Bychkov, Yu.V. Kupert, A.I. Goncharenko, Chapter Ryzhova, A.S. Revushkin, I.A. Alexandrov (TGU); K.V. Radugin, A.A. Vorobyov, L.P. Kulev, A.N. Dobro-vidov, HECTARE. Month, G.N. Kok, P.A. Udodov, V.A. Moskalyov, I.K. Lebedev, S.S. Sulakshin, G.A. Sipaylov,

A.H. Didenko, L.M. Ananyev, V.Ya. Ushakov, L.Ya. Erofeyev, K.A. Horkov, I.P. Chernov, V.V. Yevstigneyev, Yu.P. Pokholkov, Yu.A. Karbainov, V.L. Chakhlov,

V.Z. Yampol (TPI); A.G Fetisov, A.A. Perelman, I.V. Toroptsev, N.I. Fedotov, A.S. Saratikov, D.I. Goldberg, S.P. Hodkevich, V.V. Pekarsky, B.A. Albitsky, V.D. Sukhodolo, M.A. Medvedev, Yu.N. Shteyngard, E.D. Krasik, V.V. Novitsky, A.K. Strelis, A.Ya. Shiyenevsky, G.Ts. Dambayev, B.I. Alperovich (TMI); G.A. Vorobyov, V.P. Tarasenko, I.P. Chuchalin, E.S. Kovalenko, I.N. Pustyn-sky, A.I. Zaytsev, A.M. Korikov, V.P. Obrusnik, N.A. Lavrovsky (TIRiET-TIASUR); Hypermarket. Horns, L.S. Lyakhovich, D.I. Chemodanov, V.A. Ziberev (TISI); A.P. Dulzon, N.F. Tyumentsev, F.F. Shama-Hove, L.F. Pichurin, S.V. Gudoshnikov, E.G. Becker (TGPI), etc. [21].

In the Irkutsk higher educational institutions, for example in IPI, it is possible to call professors M.K. Kosygin, S.A. Vakhromeev, K.V. Solomin,

S.V. Yeliseyev, I.V. Frantsky, I.K. Skobelev, S.B. Leonov, B.A. Bayborodin, M.B. Vasilyev, A.I. Lyakhov, A.N. Volkov; in the YOKE - M.M. Odintsov, N.A. Florensov, V.I. Dulov, I.A. Parfiano-vich, A.G Zolotarev, B.S. Sanzhiyev, V.V. Vasilyev, A.N. Zykov, B. Wittenberg, G.V. Tropin, Yu.P. Kozlov, N.N. Scherbakov and many other prominent researchers and teachers [22].

It should be noted that the leading Siberian higher education institutions except usual work with candidates for a postgraduate study, sought to expand the system of a preliminary scientific training which was directed to training of trainees-researchers for receipt in a postgraduate study. Therefore administrations of a number of educational institutions came into closer creative contacts with one-profile higher education institutions of the region, took the increased responsibility for a complete set and functioning of a postgraduate study. During this work the scientists left in the cities of Si-

take

also the Far East where directly at departments of institutes considered a ready state of theses and the prospects of their performance, held meetings and seminars at which the issues connected with training of the top skills were discussed.

The importance in training of candidates for a postgraduate study was allocated for Institute of developing the skills of teachers of social sciences (IPC) at the Novosibirsk State University (director I.A. Moletotov) and to faculties of developing the skills of high school teachers (FPK) at the leading higher education institutions of the region [23]. IPC and FPK departments assisted young teachers in preparation and passing candidate examinations, acquainted with setting of scientific research, gave an opportunity to attend courses of lectures for the students, graduate students and trainees who were carried out by authoritative scientists, professors - doctors of science, members of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and also special courses and special seminars on the corresponding specialties, interests and level of training. Active work to the 1970th - with candidates for a postgraduate study, listeners of FPK at NSU was carried out the 1980th by academicians M.M. Lavrentyev, Yu.G Reshetnyak, A.D. Alexandrov, A.P. Yershov, corresponding members of Academy of Sciences of the USSR Yu.L. Yershov, HECTARE. Mikhaylov, professors V.P. Ilyin, V.N. Vragov, T.I. Zelenyak, V.N. Monakhov, D.M. Smirnov,

S.S. Goncharov, etc. [24]. In 1967 FPK at NETI was organized, one of the central directions of which was a training of engineers, teachers of higher education institutions and trainees-researchers for receipt in a postgraduate study, to skills of work with computer facilities [25].

Experience of such leading educational institutions of Siberia as the Tomsk State University and polytechnical institute which successfully carried out training through a postgraduate study, demonstrates that more than 70% of these higher education institutions coming to a postgraduate study were applicants of the relevant departments [26]. Being in quality of the applicant, candidates for receipt for a postgraduate study took examinations of a candidate minimum, keeping in contact with department, began work on a scientific subject which quite often became dissertation. Departments, in turn, not only revealed capable candidates for a postgraduate study, but also as appropriate trained them. For applicants series of lectures on a technique of scientific research, application of computer facilities were organized. Special attention was paid to questions of selection of research supervisors. With graduate students the best scientific shots, mainly from among the most prepared professors, doctors of science were involved. At the same time they tried to carry out selection of future research supervisors with such account that their scientific interests were close to the chosen subject or coincided. Activity of department but - can be an example of comprehensive work with graduate students

howl also the contemporary history of TGU. Here the main part of graduate students was made by the research associates and teachers of young higher education institutions of Siberia and the Far East sent to the university. At department much attention was paid to doaspirantsky training of future applicants of an academic degree. As a rule, connection with them was established 2-3 years prior to receipt in a postgraduate study when the research subject was defined. The attention to need of preparation by future graduate students of 1-2 articles on a subject of the thesis, in-depth study of a foreign language, passing candidate examinations was paid. Such attention to the beginning researchers from highly qualified specialists yeilded very tangible results. During the next re-election for a position of professor, the associate professor also the quality of work with graduate students was considered [27].

In the course of training of graduate students the dean's offices, departments and public organizations constantly exercised control of their work. At meetings of departments, party bureaus reports of graduate students and research supervisors on implementation of individual plans of work, systematically periodically were heard (1-2 times a year) certifications of graduate students were carried out, tried to obtain from each of them protection of master's theses in the established three-year time. The big place in the course of this work was allocated to vocational training of graduate students: listening of lectures and special courses of the leading scientists, acquaintance to fundamentals of modern computer science and computer facilities, participation in scientific conferences, passing of student teaching, etc.

At the same time, having solid potential, in respect of the scientific leadership of graduate students and applicants of academic degrees of higher educational institutions of Siberia, used it not absolutely productively. About the insufficient attention of administrations and the academic councils to this question which developed in some leading higher education institutions, in particular, in the Novosibirsk State University (NSU), tell the following facts. In the second half of the 1970th - the first half of the 1980th in NSU about 75 doctors of science, professors could direct graduate students, however 40 part-time professors from the academic scientific research institutes, owing to congestion the main work, had from one to three people. At the same time at 20 research supervisors of this higher education institution about 5 and more graduate students studied [28].

Not in the best way in this regard the situation in the Tomsk State University where a postgraduate study over 80 doctors of science, professors directed was. At norm on the research supervisor on average up to 5 graduate students, some recognized scientists, such as A.M. Grishin, V.E. Panin, M.S. Kuznetsov, V.P. Fadin, N.S. Golosov, V.V. Serebrennikov, A.K. Sukhotin and others had more than 10 people [29]. However, despite considerable loading, most of them coped with objectives.

Staff of the Siberian higher education institutions including public organizations, showed interest in formation of change of professorial shots, held the questions connected with work of a postgraduate study on control. So, for example, communists of the Tomsk polytechnical institute at the meeting (January, 1963) sharply criticized heads of those departments which did not conduct systematic work on selection of candidates for a postgraduate study. Thereof considerable number of graduate students had no scientific reserve. Fast carrying out pilot studies was delayed because of insufficient development of laboratory base of many departments. Providing graduate students with materials, scientific literature was badly adjusted, on a number of departments issues of the publication of works of applicants of academic degrees were not resolved. Owing to these reasons only an insignificant part of graduate students defended dissertations in time. From 163 people who completed TPI postgraduate studies from 1958 for 1962, 118 people did not present the works to protection. For the specified time did not let out any candidate of science of department of metallurgical science and heat treatment of metals, geophysical methods of investigation, No. 43, etc. The meeting in the decision demanded to eliminate the being available defects, to establish strict control of work of graduate students from managers of departments, research supervisors and dean's offices [30].

It is necessary to notice however that the basic and consecutive line on strengthening of control of process of formation and developing the skills of research and educational personnel, critical evaluation of the done work allowed some higher education institutions to try to obtain increase in effectiveness of a postgraduate study, using for this purpose various forms of administrative and party influence. For example, Communist Party committee of the Irkutsk State University (ISU), considering at the meetings such questions as & #34; About a condition of training of research and educational personnel through postgraduate study ИГУ" (February, 1968), & #34; About activity of a postgraduate study университета" (November, 1974), & & About work of administration and Communist Party committee to the YOKE on training of graduate students to teaching деятельности" (April, 1981), demanded from departments of development of accurate plans of scientific activity, recommended to enter into practice of work of a party bureau and the academic councils of faculties detailed discussion of candidates for receipt in a postgraduate study [31].

Owing to practical implementation by the management to the YOKE of these and also some other decisions, the majority come to a postgraduate study of the university the passed candidate examinations had a reserve on a subject of the forthcoming dissertation research. As result, the efficiency of this form of training of research and educational personnel increased.

At the Siberian metallurgical institute the academic council repeatedly analyzed process of formation of personnel capacity of higher education institution (1967, 1970, 1975, etc.) [32].

The taken measures gave the chance a little to increase effectiveness of work of a postgraduate study of a number of the highest educational institutions of the Minvuza system of RSFSR, however in the majority of the Siberian higher education institutions the low efficiency of its functioning affected. By the way, at ten institutes of Novosibirsk which had a postgraduate study, for 19b8-1973 the percent successfully ended training made 45.5% that was much lower than all-ministerial indicators [33]. In June 19b7 inclusion in a postgraduate study of the Tomsk construction institute because of extremely low effectiveness of its work and in the second half of the 19б0th was closed - x the release of graduate students happened at the expense of sets of previous years [34]. In the early eighties the state of affairs in a postgraduate study of the Altai State University (it is open in 1982) developed so critical that Minvuz's board of RSFSR made to the management of higher education institution a warning of its closing [35].

It is known that the most great difficulties in the organization of timely protection of theses arose at graduate students at the end of completion of training. In the region the specialized councils (special councils) to the middle of the 1970th could provide protection only of 39.8% of specialties, from their total number on which in Siberia the training of graduate students was conducted [3b].

In 197b there were significant changes in postgraduate preparation. On the basis of resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR the order of award of academic degrees and ranks changed [37]. The The Highest Certifying Commission (HCC) which was earlier operating at Minvuz with the USSR was transformed to VAK at Council of ministers of the USSR the Held events for work reorganization WACA promoted rearrangement of special councils, change of an order of examination of a candidate minimum, new requirements to execution of theses. It set for high school collectives the task of development of the whole system of measures for improvement of work of a postgraduate study on places.

The reorganization of special councils which was expressed in sharp reduction of number of specialties in the second half of the 1970th created additional difficulties and further negatively affected efficiency of a regional postgraduate study. So, if in the Tomsk State University in 1971-1975 11 councils which had the right to accept to protection master's theses on b2 to specialties worked, then in 197b — 1977 by the decision of presidium and boards of VAK USSR created 10 councils for award of an academic degree for 15 specialties [38]. At the Omsk institute of engineers of railway transport in 197b — 7 special councils for protection of master's theses worked with 1980: on construction, traveling and road machines, electrical machines, theoretical bases of electrical equipment, networks and communication channels, the rolling stock and draft of trains, electrification and power supply railway

transport, to highways. On other specialties, in view of their absence, graduate students had to be protected out of Omsk [39].

In this regard graduates of a postgraduate study of young Siberian higher education institutions where there were no specialized councils, fell into even more difficult situation as for protection of master's theses they were sent to other higher education institutions (more often central), in which because of abundance of the arriving theses turns were established that led to an additional waste of time, and sometimes and to disappointment of some researchers [40].

During the considered time period a number of higher educational institutions of Siberia together with regional (regional) authorities repeatedly appealed to VAK USSR about opening of new special councils. In 1981 — 1987 with assistance of the Tomsk regional committee of the CPSU the number of specialized councils in TGU grew from 14 in 1981 to 18 in 1987 [41]. In the Irkutsk State University by the beginning of the 1990th there were 10 councils, increased as well number of specialties on which training of candidates of science was conducted — to 48 [42].

Only in special councils of NETI for the second half of the 1980th 325 master's theses were defended [43]. In general, by the end of the studied period on the basis of the leading Siberian higher education institutions of the Minvuza system of RSFSR it was created and functioned b5 specialized councils, and the amount of scientific specialties reached 95 [44]. At the same time, their quantity in other Siberian higher education institutions and, first of all in most educational institutions of a system of Minpro-sa, Minbyt, Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Agriculture and Centrosoyuz remained insufficient for improvement of training of candidates of science on places. The achieved results did not satisfy requirement of the higher school of the region in & #34; остепененных" research and educational personnel also demonstrated inefficiency of functioning of a postgraduate study as main source of replenishment of faculty members by qualified professionals.

It is thought that one of deterrents at the heart of ineffective activity of a postgraduate study was considerable deterioration in material conditions in which there were graduate students. First of all it belonged for payment work of graduate students — a grant. If in 1971 the size of a grant was equal b7...79 to % of the average salary, then in the 1980th — the beginning of the 1990th it decreased up to 45.53% [45]. Also bad providing graduate students with domestic conditions had negative impact on prestige of a postgraduate study. According to high school local committees and trade-union committees, graduate students, especially the contract specialists who worked several years at scientific and teaching work often family, simply were removed from turn on housing. Besides, years of training in full-time postgraduate study did not join in the general pedagogical experience that involved decrease in the social status of the employee of the higher school.

The reasons of the material plan stated above caused gradual falling of interest in a postgraduate study from workers of key branches of the national economy (industry, construction, transport, agriculture) where the level of compensation came nearer or exceeded the corresponding indicator for research and educational personnel [46].

The analysis of archival documents showed that in 1958 from 182 graduates of a postgraduate study of higher educational institutions of Siberia defended dissertations in time 42 (23.0%) graduate students, by the end of the studied period from 613 finished training - 30.9% came for protection that was below the average value across Minvuz of RSFSR which made 50%. Also appears from documents that in 1991 over a third of graduates of a postgraduate study of higher education institutions of Tomsk, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk completed postgraduate studies with representation or protection. The best in

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. Essays of history of the higher school of Novosibirsk: Sb. under the editorship of

A.S. Vostrikova, etc. - Novosibirsk: NGTU publishing house, 1994. - Page 71; Current archive of the Novosibirsk institute of engineers of the water transport. The annual report on work of higher education institution for 1990/91 uch. g - L. 18.

2. The state archives and the centers of documentation of the contemporary history of Siberia, documents of local state governing bodies, annual reports of higher education institutions of the region for 1958/59 uch.
3. Current archive of the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation (THAT Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation). Annual statistical reports of higher education institutions of Siberia for 1958 and 1991, form 5-HK.
4. Center of Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Tomsk Region (CDCHTR). T. 607. Op. 1. 2434. L. 56.
5. State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF). T. A-605. Op. 1. 223. L. 33; 1974. L. 26; 2762. L. 88.
6. THAT Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Statistical reports of technical colleges of Siberia for 1965, form 1-HK.
7. National Archive of the Republic of Buryatia (NARB). F. R-1751. Op. 1. 1105. L. 10; Center of documentation of the contemporary history of the Tyumen region (TSDNITYUO). T. 124. Op. 246. 194. L. 39-40; State Archive of the Novosibirsk Region (SANR). F. P-4. Op. 76. 148. L. 4; State Archive of the Kemerovo Region (SAKR). F. P-75. Op. 11. 141. L. 2; State Archive of the Chita Region (SACR). F. R-177. Op. 2. 202. L. 9.
8. Russian center of storage and studying documents of the contemporary history (RTsHIDNI). T. 17. Op. 103. 1032. L. 165.
9. The CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee. - Prod. the 8th, additional - M.: Politizdat, 1981. - T. 9. - Page 387.
10. GAKO. F. P-75. Op. 11. 141. L. 2-4.
11. TSDNITYUO. T. 124. Op. 222. 60. L. 13.
12. The table is made and calculated by data: GARF. T. A-605. Op. 1. 4990. L. 124-125.
13. Center of Storage of Archival Fund of Altai Krai (CSAFAK). F. P-1. Op. 117. 234. L. 46-47; F. P-3948. Op. 1. 44. L. 55-56.
14. Center of Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Omsk Region (CDCHOR). T. 9277. Op. 1. 33. L. 20; 37. L. 24-25.
15. THAT the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation on the higher education and the state archives of Siberia. Statistical reports of the Irkutsk, Novosibirsk and Tomsk higher education institutions for 1958/59 and 1990/91 uch. form 1-HK.

the region the level of training of graduate students showed the Tomsk State University. Here, nearly 65% of the graduate students who ended in 1989/90 uch. the postgraduate study, could defend successfully master's theses or submit them to protection. At the same time, the analysis of release of graduate students in those higher education institutions where this form of training was open rather recently and its growth was artificially forced, demonstrates that such practice was not optimum and finally failed. It belonged to a number of the highest educational institutions of Barnaul, Tyumen, Kemerovo, Chita, Ulan-Ude, Mountain Altai, Khakassia and Tuva [47].

Nevertheless, cardinal increase in a postgraduate study in the Siberian higher education institutions, in the conditions of the sharpest shortage & #34; остепененных" scientific and pedagogical workers, was considered as the main cure of a personnel problem.

16. State Archive of the Irkutsk Region (SAIR). F. R-71. Op. 1. 1745. L. 1; 5469. L. 3.
17. Current archive of the Novosibirsk electrotechnical institute. The statistical report on work of a postgraduate study of higher education institution for 1985/86 uch., form 1-HK. L. 17.
18. GANO. F. R-1848. Op. 1. 2057. L. 53.
19. TsDNITO. T. 320. Op. 10. 92. L. 125-126; F. R-816. Op. 1. 225. L. 10-11; F. R-1913. Op. 1. 351. L. 20-21; GAIO. F. R-1807. Op. 3. 426. L. 23; Center of Documentation of the Contemporary History of the Irkutsk Region (CDCHIR). T. 3435. Op. 1. 27. L. 39-40; GANO. F. P-4. Op. 76. 148. L. 4-5.
20. TsDNITO. T. 115. Op. 10. 39. L. 160-161; T. 357. Op. 11. 27. L. 129-130; TsDNIIO. T. 127. Op. 84. 54. L. 46-47; GANO. F. P-269. Op. 32. 3. L. 170-173.
21. State archive and center of documentation of the contemporary history of the Tomsk region. Documents of local bodies of authority and management, annual reports of higher education institutions of Tomsk for 1958-1991
22. TsDNIIO. T. 3435. Op. 1. 27. L. 39-40; T. 127. Op. 72. 28. L. 63-64; Op. 78. 18. L. 126-127; GAIO. F. R-1807. Op. 3. 435. L. 67-68; F. R-717. Op. 1. 1013. L. 32; 1349. L. 192.
23. Novosibirsk university: experience of integration of science and education / Under the editorship of the prof. I.A. Moletotov. - Novosibirsk: NSU publishing house, 1991. - Page 140, 144.
24. Current archive of the Novosibirsk State University. F. R-1848. Op. 1. 3022. L. 12.
25. GANO. F. P-4. Op. 85. 261. L. 125-126.
26. GARF. T. A-605. Op. 1. 4990. L. 117.
27. For the Soviet science (TGU). - 1981. - On Dec. 17
28. GANO. F. R-1848. Op. 1. 2471. L. 117-118.
29. GATO. F. R-815. Op. 35. 317. L. 18; Red banner (Tomsk).-1981. - Jan. 18; For the Soviet science (GGU). - 1984. - On Sep. 13
30. TsDNITO. T. 607. Op. 1. 3246. L. 24-26.
31. TsDNIIO. T. 127. Op. 84. 54. L. 46-47; Op. 109. 36.

L. 124-125; T. 132. Op. 1. 245. L. 69-70; 269. L. 16.

32. GAKO. F. P-75. Op. 27. 134. L. 135; Novokuznetsk Branch of the State Archive of the Kemerovo Region (NBSAKR). F. R-86. Op. 1. 116. L. 26; 339. 3-5.
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