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Rejection conflict: Gotha in Byzantium at the end of the 4th Century.



seriya History. Political science. Economy. Computer science. 2010. No. 7 (78). Release 14

UDC 94(495)01

REJECTION CONFLICT: GOTHA IN BYZANTIUM at the end of the 4th V.

Belgorod

university

He is YOUNG. V.V. SBITNEVA11 of LIPICh2)

In work the attack serving empires is investigated it is ready led by Alaric to Greece at the end of the 4th century. On the one hand, it was the attempt of Germans to put pressure upon Constantinople for the purpose of incorporation in imperial structures. From other party, the second after invasion of sulfurs. 3rd century robbery of Greece by Germans brought it into decline. At the same time, this invasion allowed Greeks to realize last time itself descendants of ancient Greeks.

e-mail: sbitnevay@mail.ru

For one and a half millennia which passed since falling of an antique civilization in historical consciousness already considerably that circumstance that Great resettlement of the people originally fell upon east provinces of the Roman Empire, upon the formed territorial and political and cultural complex of Early Byzantium was forgotten.

The gothic infiltration in military-political structures of Constantinople happening after Adrianople in the last quarter of the 4th century 1

was the first and major episode of this process

Alaric, the leader of the Visigoths participating in a campaign of the emperor Feodosiy against the usurper Evgeny was distinguished from the barbaric leaders lodged in Moesia and Thrace with the influence and force. Alaric was released from a campaign earlier, than and the high military post hoped to receive other east troops attracted with Feodosiy in this campaign for the help of the empire.

Under the pretext of a delay in payment of a salary which became at that time permanent of Gotha acted from places of the accommodation and commited robberies in Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. Alaric devastated the Balkans to Constantinople in February-March of 395 g, but was forced to recede to Illirik (Claud. Rufin. 2.70 settlement, the 179th settlement) because the Constantinople courtier (the prefect Pretoria) Flavy Rufin2 "entered the intercourses with this ambitious leader and induced it it is ready to lift for search of more comfortable lands for the settlement" 3. Rufina Alaric in the movement did not ruin a manor.

Began to play a major role of action not of emperors, and court leaders which in the race for power leaned just on barbaric, mainly gothic, forces in "big-time politics" of that time. Literally in the first years after Feodosiy's death in January of 395 g and "undressed 395 g" in real policy noticeable symptoms of the fact that the historical fate of the Latin West and Greek East went on different vectors began to be felt.

Led by Alaric after devastation of the Northern Balkans three directions of realization of the energy had the started moving forces further: Constantinople, Il lyric poet and Greece. Greece was an optimal variant for robbery. After death

* Work is prepared within the Federal target program "Scientific and Nauchnopedagogichesky Shots of Innovative Russia" for 2009-2013, the Government contract of P322 of 28.07.2009 "The person of a transitional era: Late antiquity - Early Byzantium".

1 Williams S., Friell G. Theodosius: The Empire at Bay. L., 1998. P. 13-23, 91-102. About the previous events see: Lenski N. Failure of Empire. Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century A.D. Berkeley-Los Angeles-London, 2002. P. 116-137, 320-330.
2 Jones A.H.M., Martindale J.R., Morris J. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. Part I. AD 260-365. Cambr., 1971. P. 775-776.
3 F.I. Uspensky Istoriya Byzantine empire. M, 1996. Page 117.

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their patron Rufina in November 395 g (by hand other gothic commander Gayna) Gotha Alaric were the rebels who are liable to destruction.

The commander-in-chief of the West Stilikhon had to meet Alaric in Thessaly and block to it a way on the South. Stilikhon's troops reached Thessaly, locked Alaric in Greece, however, east emperor Arkady ordered to Stilikhon to leave (Zos. V.7.3) and also to clean Illirik. Alaric went after that to the South, to Attica and Peloponnese.

About Alaric's invasion into Greece in 396-397 many sources remained, see: Claud. Rufin. 2.186 settlement 4, BG 183-193, 496, 513-517, 535-543, 564-567; Stil. 1.173-187, 277-299; 2.191-217; Eutrop. II. 214-218; Cos. IV. Hon. 461-483; Hieron. Ep. 60.16; Eunap. VS 476, 482; Philost. 12.2; Socr. VII.10; Oros. VII.36-37; Zos. V, 5-7.

Most fully and coherently the last pagan historian, in combination comets and the ex-lawyer of the fisc in Constantinople reports to Zo-sim (boundary of the 5-6th centuries) about invasion to Greece. We give completely this otryvok5.

Zos. V.5: "(5) On approaches to Thermopylae it [Alaric] secretly sent the messenger to the pro-consul Antiochus and the chief of garrison of Thermopylae Geronty to inform on the approach. (6) After that pass was open because of leaving of the main parts holding the fort. Barbarians got out of hand and moved a stream to Greece. They immediately began to plunder country people and absolutely ruined the cities, killing men of all age and capturing women and children, driving them in crowds, like herds. Also and all property taken as production gathered them. (7) Barbarians passed all Boeotia and other areas of Greece through after they got into Greece through Thermopylae, and so devastated them that their name became a symbol of destructions and riots of these days. Only Thebes avoided the general fate, partly because of the fortress of walls, and partly because Alaric had no patience necessary for a long siege, in aspiration to capture of Athens. (8) Fivantsa thereby were saved, and barbarians moved to Athens, expecting that they have to take easily this city because he was too great to be well protected its population. The siege had to be conducted before full delivery as, among other things, [in port] Piraeus there was no sufficient stock of food. Alaric's intentions were that, but this ancient city defeated him by means of a certain divine protection, having punished for sins and also for disrespect to gods. Thereby the city avoided destruction.

6. I also should not hold back the reason for which there was a wonderful rescue of Athenians because it will be arousing piety for all who about it will hear. When Alaric and all his army approached the city, the leader saw the goddess Athena protecting the city and strolling along its walls. She looked exactly as its statue - in full arms and readiness to reflect attack. While the goddess directed forces defending, Alaric saw Achilles's hero, just the same what he was described by Homer near Troy when in the anger he battled, revenging for Patroclos's death. (2) This vision was such strong and effective that Alaric refused the plan to be at war against the city and sent messengers with the address to make the peace. After definition of terms of the contract and exchange of oaths Alaric entered in Athena only with several satellites. He addressed Athenians with all goodwill and after ablution accepted gifts from the elected citizens and also handed the. After that he left the city, and all Attica remained safe. (3) The city of Afiny was the only thing which escaped in accident which shook all Greece at the time of Valent's government as I described in the previous book and nowadays again got rid of huge danger. Alaric, meanwhile, left all Attica safe and sound, without having damaged it for fear of the sign shown to it, and
4 About Klavdiana as a source on a wide historical background see: Cameron A. Claudian, Poetry and Propaganda at the Court of Honorius. Oxf., 1970.
5 N.N. Bolgov's translation.

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went to Megarida which he took sudden attack. After that its march to Peloponnese continued without the special resistance of inhabitants. (4) As Geronty allowed Alaric to pass through Istm, the last freely occupied all cities without fight. Those from them that were located near Istm, had no walls at all and counted on safety of strengthening which the isthmus was. Corinth was crushed by the first of them, then neighboring settlements, after that - Argos and area between it and Sparta were ruined. (5) Even Sparta did not avoid general ruin of Greece because of the Roman greed in those days. Before neither the army, nor certain men of courage could win against this city, but now all Greece had to obey perfidious governors who excessively dared to abuse the power up to various whims, and all the behavior sought for general death".

the Fate of the city of Athens of this time was a polemic subject among historians. Evnapy with whom he completely agrees Zosima (the text Zosima in general in many respects depends on the text of Evnapiya who did not remain entirely), specifies that Athenians in walls were in safety. Old walls around the city, however, were absolutely unsuitable for defense it was possible to count on strengthenings of the Acropolis more likely (as at the time of the Persian invasion). The reference Evnapiya to ruin of temples of CVS 475-476) it is inexact it is dated. Claudius Klavdian ^ийп. 2.191) speaks about taking of the Athenian women during these events. Filostorgy (12.2) says that Alaric took Athena, but he means, most likely, only Piraeus. Jerome (ER. 60.16) points that Attica was destroyed. Other sources report that they of Athena were robbed (Phylost. HP,2; Nuyegonut. ER.60.16). Demetra's temple in Eleusis was also burned. After that elevsinsky mysteries did not renew any more.

About Alaric's invasion to Greece wrote to modern times E. Gibbon6, F.I. Uspensky, T. Gregorovius7, Yu.A. Kulakovskiy8, etc.

Despite a pious pagan legend of the last phenomenon of pagan gods, there are no doubts that Athena were not destroyed because paid big vykup9.

Alaric became a Christian only on the eve of these events, in 395 g 10 Zosim (Zos. V, 5) accurately specifies that Alaric was not a Christian before Rufin, despite other message of Klavdian ^ийп put pressure upon him. 2.15 settlement, 69th settlement).

Alaric was on Peloponnese about a year. Corinth, Argos and Sparta were ruined, Mycenae and Olympia recognized Alaric's power. Only the town of Tegeya in Arkady showed armed resistance. It seemed that it is about the long-term settlement. Hervig Tungsten notes that jewelry for gothic women was the main production, vessels for milk, statues, etc. 11 Destructions were so considerable that their consequences were felt in several decades.

Only in the spring of 397 g Stilikhon went to the help to the emperor Arkady by the sea from Italy and landed on the Peloponnese coast of the Gulf of Corinth. In Elida goty were locked on the plateau Foloya:

Zos. V. 7: "Stilikhon sent the troops in a campaign, having hurried to the aid of unfortunate Athenians. Having landed on Peloponnese, it squeezed out the barbarians running to

6 E. Istoriya's gibbon of decline and destruction of the Roman Empire. T.3. M, 1996. Settlement page 366
7 Gregorovius F. Istoriya of the city of Athens in the Middle Ages. M, 2009. Page 33-41.
8 Yu.A. Kulakovsky. History of Byzantium. 395-518 years. SPb., 1996. Page 139-140.
9 Tungsten X. Gotha. SPb., 2003. Page 203.
10 About Christianization it is ready there is rather extensive literature. Let's point to important work of Delehaye H. Martyrs de l'eglize de Gothie//Analecta Bollandiana. 31. 1912. P. 274-294 and also: M.L. Ryabtseva, N.N. Bolgov, Yu.N. Sbitneva of 308 gothic martyrs of an era of gunnsky invasion//Bospor Kimmeriysky and the barbaric world during era of antiquity and the Middle Ages (Bosporsky readings X). Kerch, 2009. Page 21-25; N.N. Bolgov, M.L. Ryabtseva, E.A. Krasnikova. Gothic monks-missionaries from Constantinople, John Chrysostom and Tavrika (in the press), etc.
11 Tungsten X. Gotha. SPb., 2003. Page 203.

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Foloye, (2) where he could starve without effort them to death. After that Stilikhon did not wallow in pleasures, did not devote himself to comic actors and shameless women, but allowed the soldiers to plunder what was left by barbarians. Thereby, he allowed the enemy an opportunity to leave Peloponnese with all good captured by them and to be transported to Epirus to plunder the local cities. Stilikhon eventually pushed aside is ready from Arkady to Epirus and was announced patrikiy the East".

In 397 g Alaric, being with by own efforts in Epirus and ruining it, it was recognized from east emperor, received from it Dux Illirik's title and the place for the settlement - to Emafy in the center of Macedonia. The new stage of difficult process of development of a system of adaptation of federat in the empire where it was necessary to coordinate practice of "feeding" of federat from a certain territory, functions of federat on defense of concrete territories and their entry into administrative and military facilities of the empire began. Investment of barbaric leaders with the highest military positions became an optimum formula here.

The fate of Athens during Alaric's invasion in late antiquity could not but already cause parallels with the fate of Rome taken and plundered in 410 g by same Ala-rikhom. Protection of Athens Achilles's shadow and the goddess Athena already in the image Evnapiya and Zosima represents a parallel and contrast with the fate of Rome which refused paganism and adopted Christianity, but was plundered. "Those who doubt the validity of these views, can accept the theory according to which the Acropolis was too strong that it could be taken, and Alaric who was not just barbarian destroyer was forced, a part because of huge repayment, by a part because of awe of ancient glory, to refrain from plunder of the city which was more glorified and ancient, than rich or strategically important" 12.

At this time legends were born rather intensively because the era of the largest historical events disposed to it. The falling world looked for points of support. For still, in the majority, miracles were habitual and clear to pagan Greece, they followed the centuries-old tradition of divine intervention in important events going from Homer.

Christian miracles then concerned generally private human life (what numerous hagiographical compositions, works Salviana13, chronicles, etc. confirm), and the Christianity which already accepted the state under the shade did not realize a possibility of Divine protection for all state or its capital yet. The Christian world then looked for personal rescue and Gotha Alari-ha became formal Christians already by then.

Wonderful rescue of the Christian city with the God's help will come when external, absolutely alien enemy appears. In 451/452 g St. Pyotr and St. Pavel (by means of dad Lev) expelled Attila from Italy. Further similar events will take place more than once: the Virgin's phenomenon against Avars in Constantinople at the beginning of the 7th century, etc.

Gotha as showed further events, could not be incorporated in imperial structures. Alaric will soon reach Rome in search of service and a salary and will storm it. In Constantinople the second will ripen the "gothic knot" cut during Gayna's mutiny 400 g and its suppression with active participation of the patriarch John Chrysostom even earlier. After that Constantinople will manage to reflect more or less safely all other waves of barbaric invasions, or directing them to the West (Huns in the middle of the 5th century, Avars at the beginning of the 7th century), or absorbing (Slavs in Greece the 6-10th centuries), but sometimes and losing extensive provinces (Arabs in the 1st floor. 7th century).

12 Gregorovius F. Uk. soch. Page 41.
13 For more details see: A. Zobnina. Reasons of fall of the Western Roman Empire eyes of contemporaries (Salvian Massilsky). M, 2007.

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The rejection conflict with Ghats happened, first of all, because of extremely unsuccessful time of their arrival to the empire. Before the empire "digested" all barbarians won by it and reflected external. Gotha came to the empire when it already ran low and was not valid for their incorporation though Gotha wanted to join in the empire, but not to destroy ee14. After Ghats in the territory of the empire also other German tribes directed. Balance of two worlds was broken. Falling of the West became for a number of reasons neizbezhnym15. Split of the empire and resettlement of Germans in the West, but not in the east, were caused by a number of the coincided factors: big weakness of the imperial power, big Christianization, purposeful policy of the Constantinople governors.

Alaric's raids across the Balkans and especially Greece opened the road to the main direction of the Constantinople policy in relation to barbarians during an era of Great resettlement narodov16. Formation Byzantine diplomatii17 and Christianization of surrounding tribes and the people will become the next stage.

Rejection of Alaric by pagan Greece was, perhaps, the last manifestation classical traditsii18 as the consolidated Hellenic rejection of the external enemy from which already the second time (after gothic invasion from overseas in the 3rd chetv. 3rd century) the Roman Empire which was gradually turning in Vizantiyu19 could not protect Hellas.

A CONFLICT OF HOSTILITY: GOTHS IN BYZANTIUM IN LATE 4 CENT. AD

Yu.N. SBITNEVA" V.V. LIPICH21

Belgorod State University e-mail: sbitnevay@mail.ru

of The article deals with attack of Goths headed by Alarichus on Greece in late 4 AD. On the one hand, it was an attempt to make a pressure on Constantinople in order to be incorporated into the imperial structures. On the other - second intrusion after mid-3 AD resulted in Greece&s decline. At the same time this invasion made the Greeks for the last time feel like descendants of ancient Hellenes.

14 Heather P.J. Goths and Romans 332-489. Oxf., 1991.
15 For more details see: Ward-Perkins B. The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization. Oxf., 2006.
16 Hodkin T. The dynasty of Theodosius. L., 1889. P. 140.
17 N.N. Bolgov, Ryabtseva JR. Imperial policy and diplomacy on late Bospor (sulfurs. The III-VI centuries)//Bospor and Northern Black Sea Coast during an antique era. SPb., 2008. Page 165-180.
18 Bowersock G. Hellenism in Late Antiquity. Cambr., 1990.
19 Millar F. A Greek Roman Empire. Berkeley, 2006.
Joshua Thomas
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