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Youth of Orlovschina in guerrilla and underground fight



istoriya

Ruslan OSIPOV

YOUTH of OREL REGION IN GUERRILLA AND UNDERGROUND FIGHT

Activity of youth of the Oryol Region in guerrilla and underground fight is shown in article based on materials of the State regional archive of the Oryol region.

In the article based upon materials of the Orel State Archive the activity of the youth of Orel region in secret underground and partisan warfare is shown.

youth, guerrillas, League (Komsomol).

OSIPOV

Ruslan Pavlovich —

applicant of department

history of Russia

university

r-osipov@mail.ru

propaganda, patriotism, Komsomol; young, partisan, agitation, patriotism, Young Communist

In defeat of fascist troops during the Great Patriotic War the important role was played by fight in the back of the enemy in which active part was taken by youth.

Being guided by directions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and SNK of the USSR of June 29, 1941 and the decision of the Politburo of the Central Committee "About the organization of fight in the back of the German troops", the Oryol party organization together with youth developed preparation for conducting guerrilla fight. On June 26, 1941 the regional committee of party made the decision on creation of the destructive battalions designed to struggle with enemy intelligence agents, parachutists and saboteurs.

In July, 1941 in the area 75 destructive battalions numbering 10 thousand persons were created. In the territory of the area for underground and guerrilla work 19 secretaries of district committees and city town committees of Komsomol, 17 chairmen of executive committees of deputies of workers, 539 communists and 459 komsomoltsev1 were left.

The important role the organizations of the guerrilla movement in the back of the enemy was played by directive letters of the Oryol regional committee of party to district committees of August 29 and on September 5, 1941

Guerrilla groups and diversionary groups had to interfere with delivery of the enemy equipment, weapon and manpower to the front line, to prevent export to Germany of values and food.

The youth moved forward on senior positions in groups. D. Tsukanova, L. Karpova, L. Afanasyeva were first secretaries of Znamensky, Navlinsky, Krasnozorensky district committees of Komsomol.

Tasks of regional committees of party and Komsomol on development of the guerrilla and underground movement were carried out by members of bureau of regional committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League Ivan Ivanovich Bortsov, Lyubov Mikhaelovna Shestopalova, Aleksandra Ulyanovna Yatsu-kova, Lavrenti Grigoryevich Burnusov, Tsilya Efimovna Haymovich. In October, 1942 on the instructions of regional committees of party and the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League A.S. Bakin who brought a big contribution to strengthening of underground district committees and recovered work among molodyozhi2 was sent to guerrilla groups of the Bryansk forests. On its initiative in guerrilla groups the Komsomol members were placed on decisive sites.

The Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League provided guerrillas with equipment, kept in contact with regional committee of Komsomol. The recommendations of the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League brought benefit to guerrillas. In May, 1942 the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League accepted postanov-

1 Essays of history of the Bryansk organization CPSU. in, 1968, p. 215, 252.
2 In the same place, p. 224.

Tula, Prioksky book prod. -

a leniye "About actions of the Komsomol organizations in temporarily occupied areas". In it the Central Committee instructed on assistance of guerrilla groups to the Komsomol organizations. Then the decision on inclusion in Komsomol in guerrilla groups followed, the position of the assistant commissioner of group on Komsomol work was entered.

Komsomol members were accepted in the created groups, entered into the underground organizations. By the time of occupation 33 Komsomol organizations as a part of which there were about 200 people were created

Communists and Komsomol members had a cementing force of 72 groups, the occupied areas created in in the summer of 1941. In total in the back of the enemy 7 youth guerrilla groups battled. In usual groups the youth made 70%. In guerrillas entered the whole families.

The large role in unity of guerrilla formations was played by military personnel and commissioners.

To fall of 1941 the guerrilla war ran high also in the southern districts of Orlovschina. On October 1, 1941 fascists occupied Dmitrovsky district. And in the same night the Komsomol members went to the forest on the bases prepared in advance.

By the beginning of 1942 the German troops felt resistance of a people at large, weapon and ammunition warehouses more often began to burn, to be derailed echelons with manpower and the equipment.

Guerrillas distributed thousands of leaflets among local community.

Blows of guerrillas to communications of the enemy were considerable though they also had no fighting experience. Guerrillas acted on the main direction of approach of fascist troops.

When Germans started strengthening of the Oryol base counting upon capture of Moscow, guerrillas created the base of national war against invaders. All massif of the Bryansk forest entirely or partially passed to guerrillas.

The opponent was expelled more than from 500 settlements where over 200 thousand people of the population lived. 12 districts of the area and especially Dmitrovsky, Shablykinsky, Hotynetsky and Znamensky's territory of areas were controlled partizanami1.

1 GAOO, t. 1650, op. 6, 25, l. 2 (about.).

Release of the specified areas, laid the foundation of existence of big guerrilla edge which with minor change of the territory existed before exile of aggressors. Among the population big political work was carried out. In the freed settlements, local propagandists strengthened work.

For July, 1942 in South guerrilla country 167 lectures and reports were given.

Propaganda work among the population became widespread in Dmitrovskom, Shablykinsk and Znamensky areas. This work as summer of 1942 was conducted on Orlovschina by more than 8 thousand communists and Komsomol members.

Komsomol zones of guerrilla edge actively helped party bodies to carry out government procurement of food, to raise funds in fund of defense of the country.

Educational and organizing work among guerrillas and the population by the end of 1942 was conducted by 56 secretaries of underground district committees, city town committees, district committees of party and Komsomol. The broad scope of political work in the back of the enemy allowed to direct more purposefully the most mass form of national war — fight of the population for disruption of political, economic and military actions ok-kupantov2.

Not allied youth and Komsomol was the fighting assistant in the solution of these big tasks. So, in July, 1943 the Komsomol members guerrillas of all districts of the Oryol Region took active part in "rail war".

166 guerrilla formations acted on the occupied territory.

Thus, fighting in which thousands of young men and girls were involved had huge value in defeat of fascist army. Brought up in the years of war, they passed severe examination, proved the actions of what feats the youth is capable.

Besides guerrilla groups, in the cities and other settlements invaders were combated by the underground organizations and groups.

In Oryol in 1941 — 1943 the action - is active

2 GAOO, t. 1283, op.2, 32, l. 7.

bring down about 20 underground youth groups.

The youth of Orlovschina made an immortal feat, having shown to the whole world examples of courage, firmness and devotion the Homeland.

The circle of youth in days of the Great Patriotic War left heroes who the courage, iron firmness, selfless bravery won deep love and recognition of all people.

In the forefront these heroes can be met youth everywhere. In two years of war of a high rank of Heroes of the Soviet Union more than 400 Komsomol members and pupils of Komsomol are awarded.

Hundreds of thousands for the courage and courage shown in fights with the German aggressors are awarded awards and the medals of the Soviet Union. It is enough to tell that only in 6 months 1943 — from January 1 to July 1 — in the Red Army the awards and the medals awarded 100737 Komsomol members.

The Great Patriotic War was unprecedented rise of consciousness of the citizens of our country who were working in the back and provided the front to all necessary. The patriotism of the people of the multinational country was an important factor in achievement of a victory over fascism.

The youth battling in days of the Great Patriotic War at the front and in the back, generally consisted in Komsomol which at the beginning of 1939 united over 5 million young men and girls.

Under the direction of party bodies a lot of work was carried out on strengthening of a Komsomol underground.

Growth of mass resistance to invaders led to big losses of enemy troops. Thanks to dedicated fight of patriots in the back of the enemy his significant forces were held down, and fascist command could not use them on fronts. At the same time diversionary and fighting activity and blows of guerrillas to garrisons of the opponent, his commandant's offices and administration ruined barbaric plans of destruction of the Soviet people, their stealing in slavery, plunders of a national wealth of our country.

As it appears from all above, the youth in days of the Great Patriotic War selflessly battled for a victory of our army over fascist invaders.

Historical process is relentless and irreversible. Generations with their fundamental and passing values change. Fluctuations and furthermore cardinal changes of a political situation are reflected by the principle of "pendulum" in assessment of historical events. One of such great historical events, in our opinion, is also the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet people against fascist Germany 1941 — 1945. Today this problem acquired the greatest relevance and the importance.

Robert Sanchez
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