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the city the Reach in a historical section (the beginning the XVIII October, 1917)



oksana of ChURYuKANOVA

The CITY the REACH IN the HISTORICAL SECTION

(the beginning of the 18th century - October, 1917)

History of one of the small cities of Russia - the Reach - is a component of social and political, economic and cultural evolution of the Russian state.

The history of Plios - one of small Russian cities is a component of political, economic and cultural evolution of the Russian state.

plyossky customs and defensive system, Plyossky tithe, district city, merchant and petty-bourgeois town; Plios customs defending system, Plios dessiatina, chief town of an uyezd (district).

ChURYuKANOVA

Oksana Viktorovna —

applicant

Russian

social

university

The reach can be considered as the most ancient city of the Ivanovo Region today. The set of archaeological and annalistic data indicates existence of the Reach during the domongolsky period: the city arose owing to kolonizatsionny process and was one of strong points of Old Russian colonization of edge.

Construction of the first Moscow fortress on Volga in 1410 by the grand duke Vasily Dmitrievich and the construction of a plyossky customs and defensive system pursued the important aim of fixing of quickly growing Moscow principality on the Volga trade way and played a significant role in implementation of centralization policy Moscow knyazey1.

At the beginning of the 17th century. A reach, having lost the strategic importance of the strengthened point, becomes the center of extensive Plyossky tithe — the church district. At the end of the 17th century. The reach gains value of trade gate of future Ivanovo-Shuysky industrial region arising in east part of the Volga-Klyazma Entre Rios.

Peter I's transformations contributed to the fast development of the industry in. Reach: already during the period from 1778 to 1784 in the Reach there were three linen manufactories developing a flamsky cloth, pestryad, ravenduk and other products.

From the second half of the 18th century the number cloth, linen, tanning, distilling, etc. enterprises actively grew in the Reach. At the beginning of the 18th century of. The reach considerably surpassed many other cities of the Volga region in the economic value, thanks to favorable arrangement on the main trade artery of the country — the Volga River — and convenient access dorogam2.

Long time the Reach was considered as the suburb of the Kostroma County. The decree of the empress Catherine II dated 1778 assigned to the Reach the status district goroda3. Then the city "most highly" receives the coat of arms: in the top blue field of a board — a gallery stern with three lamps and the lowered ladders (coat of arms of the Kostroma province), in the lower part of a board — a river reach in the silver field.

Since the end of the 18th century the economic development of the Reach continued already more rapidly. In the city was two brick,

1 Complete collection of the Russian chronicles. T. XVIII. — SPb., 1895, building 85.
2 The Tver D.I.K to a question of a role of merchants in the course of formation of the All-Russian market in the 17th century — M., 1967, p. 292.
3 PSZRI. A meeting 1 (from 1649 to December 12, 1825) in 45 t. - SPb., 1830, t. XX, 17751780, No. 14233-15105, p. 744.

two malting plants, brewery, two mitkalevy factories. Plyossky merchants did active business other cities. In the Reach and from the city conducted main post and trade roads.

In the 60th of the 19th century. The reach reaches the highest economic recovery. It occurred for the reason that in the absence of the railroads Reach was the closest Volga pier to the city of Shuya and the village to Ivanov where since the end of the 18th century the textile industry began to develop quickly.

In 1797 at the emperor Paul I the namestnichestvo in Kostroma was abolished. Kostroma and Galich (Unzhenskaya) provinces were merged to one Kostroma province. The reach which was since 1778 the district city was nominated zashtatnym1. Such status of the city remained till October, 1917

Town-planning history of the Reach is caused by two major factors: the changing conditions of its functioning as the military and administrative, economic, cultural center and constant features of its location. A peculiar land relief on which the Reach is located — the high and steep coastal slope which is cut through by the valley of the Shokhonki River flowing into Volga and deep ravines — in many respects defined features of planning of the city and its development.

Development of navigation in Volga at a boundary of the XIX—XX centuries became the attraction reason in the Reach of considerable number of tourists from Moscow. The reach became the popular country place. Torn off from all other ways with -

1 Troitsk P.S. Historical and archaeological essay. — Kostroma: Provincial printing house, 1909, p. 15, 41.

communication, except Volga, the city kind of dropped out of history, remained as the small, cozy merchant and petty-bourgeois town up to now. This abandonment, historical and cultural identity, a unique environment, a rare unification of the city and a landscape attract the creative intellectuals, artists here (starting with I.I. Levitan, the pioneer of beauty of the Reach).

history of the Reach is inseparably linked

Since the end of the 19th century with a name of Isaak Ilyich Levitan who created here a considerable part of the best cloths — about two hundred works among which there is "Birchwood", "Evening. Gold reach", "Silent monastery", "Gold slobodka", etc. 2

Work on etudes in the Reach in the 90th of the 19th century was especially fruitful for talented young painters — friends and I.I. Levitan's pupils: A.M. Corin, S.A. Vinogradov, V.V. Perepletchikov, V.N. Baksheev, M.H. Aladzhalov, etc., become subsequently pride of the Russian fine arts.

I.I. Levitan's contemporaries developed and deepened remarkable lines of the Russian realistic art, its nationality, plastic clarity of art language, ability to transmit difficult human experiences through state of nature in the creativity. Distinctive features of the Russian landscape painting, the live certificate to what are the numerous pictures painted in the Reach, the deep patriotism, love for the native nature, high perfection of an art form are.

2 Petrov V.A. Isaak Ilyich Levitan. — SPb.: Artist of Russia, 1993; Prorokova S. Levitan. — M.: Young Guard, 1960, etc.
Lisa Massey
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