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Climate in ancient history of the Finno-Ugric people

izvestiya of Komi of scientific center OURO RAHN Release 1. Syktyvkar, 2010.


UDC 94(3): 551.583 (=511.1) CLIMATE IN ANCIENT HISTORY of the FINNO-UGRIC PEOPLE I.L. Stallions

Institute of language, literature and history Komi NC OURO RAHN, Syktyvkar

On the basis of researches of the Russian and foreign scientific various specialties the review of a role of climate changes in historical development of the Finno-Ugric people since formation of the Ural linguistic community to the middle of the I millennium AD is given. Impact of a climatic factor on gradual division of the Ural and Finno-Ugric linguistic communities, migration processes, resettlement of ancient finno-ugr is shown.


On the basis of researches of the Russian and foreign scientists of various specialities the review of a role of climatic changes in historical development of the Finno-Ugric peoples since formation of the Uralic language community to the mid of I millennium AD is given. The influence of the climatic factor on gradual division of the Uralic and Finno-Ugric language communities, migratory processes, settling of ancient Finno-Ugrians is shown.

History of the Finno-Ugric people is rich with events and is various. The destiny scattered them by different parts of Eurasia - from Western Siberia to the Baltics, from the Arctic Ocean to Danube. Differences in culture, a way of life are high. Today the Hungarian, the Finn, the Komi, Mansi will not understand each other. However their languages kept the most ancient words testifying to community of origin of these people. Gradual crushing, disintegration of their ancient community, some other important stages of development of the Finno-Ugric people are very closely connected with global climate changes to which value in the history of a human civilization many Russian and foreign researchers to some extent paid attention [1-6].

Their works, as well as detailed studying the major aspects of history of finno-ugr, Finno-Ugric languages by scientists of various specialties - linguists, archeologists, historians, ethnographers, and in particular their instructions on interrelation between some plots of this story and changes of climatic conditions [7-12] do possible to make an attempt to make the overview of a role of a climatic factor in the history of finno-ugr. Need or, at least, its expediency is dictated by the fact that, in the author's opinion, not everyone still connections of climate changes with ethnohistorical processes at the Finno-Ugric people became a subject of discussion. Certainly, it is impossible to cover influence of climate in one article on

all Finno-Ugric history therefore we will be limited only to its most ancient part here.

All development of humanity was to some extent connected with its resistance to adverse effect of adverse climatic conditions, with the aspiration to find the "place in the sun" allowing to avoid this influence or at least to minimize that. It is natural that by any human efforts it was impossible to stop or slow down the global natural cataclysms similar to freezing. The pressure of glaciers broke rather settled life of the Paleolithic person, wiped out or forced to move to huge distances ancient tribes, depriving of them an opportunity to develop the culture. And only millennium later with retreat of ice before people there was an opportunity to make habitable new spaces, to accustom, gradually forming the special traditions of activity.

About 15 thousand years ago the fast global warming of climate which opened ways for folding of various ethnocultural, linguistic communities began, and about 12700 the climate in Western Europe was almost same as today. In the VII millennium BC in Europe it became warmer, than now. In the last centuries of this millennium became cold a little, but then there came warmer period (VI-IV millennium BC). The new phase of warming was marked by the birth of the Ural linguistic community uniting far before -

k of the present Finno-Ugric and Samoyed people. Researchers speak about its existence already in relation to the VI millennium BC [1, 12, 11].

Earlier, when warming the VII millennium BC, this community, probably, was not yet as Western Siberia during that era was less spoiled by climatic shifts to the best, than, for example, the Far East or the extreme Northeast of Eurasia. Moreover, in the West Siberian region some cold snap took place that obviously did not favor to the people who wished to equip here the life. Meanwhile, exactly in this region the ancestral home of the Ural people was located: from the Ural Mountains in the West to Yenisei and lower reaches of Angara and the Podkamennaya Tunguska in the east of and from the Polar circle to lower reaches of Tobol and the northern foothills of Sayan Mountains and Altai. And in the VI—IV millennia BC, on the contrary, Western Siberia treated those regions where especially positive anomalies of climate were observed [8, 1, 11].

In process of warming of climate the population finding more and more opportunities for livelihood grew. Over time borders of the ancestral home became close for much the increased number of people. Of course, in comparison with the present, despite gain, population density remained very low. However the hunting-rybolovchesky type of economy demanded extensive reserve territories of development which in the area of residence of any given sort were not boundless at all. As a result or growth of population was slowed down (owing to the shortage of food, hunger and increase in mortality), or a part of inhabitants was forced to move to other areas.

Perhaps, division of the Ural linguistic community on Samoyed and Finno-Ugric which, according to experts, occurred at a turn of V and IV millennia BC was also connected with this relative overpopulation. If to proceed from relative overpopulation as an important factor of division of Ural residents, then it is represented to the author more probable that the separation of Samoyeds from finno-ugr occurred, considering climate changes, at the end of the V millennium BC. Because at the beginning of the next millennium there came the peak of the warm period (climatic optimum) shown in the majority of regions of Eurasia including in West Siberian. Undoubtedly, new improvement of climatic conditions gave the chance to receive more food in the made habitable areas: it is more than fish which growth is promoted by water temperature increase, it is more than berries and other gifts of the wood. All this made salutary impact on demographic processes owing to what at the beginning of the IV millennium BC the problem of relative overpopulation was probably removed from the agenda, and the population which was earlier "superfluous" had an opportunity to earn money of livelihood in the homeland, but not to look for them in other regions. Therefore, mass resettlements and, as a result of them, division of Ural residents had to happen not in this favorable time, and during the previous period [1,8,11,12].

The climatic optimum proceeded during almost all the IV millennium BC though temporary cold snaps took place. Probably, it allowed finno-ugra to coexist more millennium in relative unity - relative because as fairly believes to P. Hyde, in the conditions of low population density, long distances separating residences of different childbirth, infrequent contacts between them inevitably there were differences in local dialects, dialects [12, page 171] and, quite perhaps, in cultural and community and economic specifics of different local groups. However even conditions of a climatic optimum could not provide the boundless growth of number of inhabitants, naturally. Therefore from time to time probably in separate local groups nevertheless there was rather excess population which was forced to move out of borders of the ancestral home. On this process also the mentioned temporary cold snaps, one of which occurred at a boundary of the first and second third of the IV millennium BC, made the impact. Perhaps, during this period a part of finno-ugr went to the Urals, in particular, to the basin of Kama [1].

The middle of the IV millennium BC was warm, but also significantly drier, than the previous period. As a result steppes gradually lost vegetation, becoming semi-deserts, and the steppe strip moved on the North where earlier meadows were located. After change of flora also animals moved. The population of the areas lying south of the territory of resettlement of finno-ugr, escaping from a drought, it was forced to move in search of livelihood to the north, pushing aside or mixing up with Finno-Ugric tribes. Not accidentally in the middle of the IV millennium BC the inflow of inoetnichny newcomers from the South on the former Ural ancestral home took place. Strengthening of a break between the finno-ugra which mixed up with newcomers and the Samoyeds who settled out in the direction of Yenisei became result of the migrations caused by droughty climate. A part of finno-ugr under pressure of southerners could leave on the West, towards Volga and Baltic, including also the North of Europe which in the conditions of very warm climate of that time could be quite attractive to immigrants [12, 13].

At the end of the IV millennium BC the climate everywhere began to change. It became more damp, semi-deserts receded to the South, the grass cover in the steppes lying to the south of Finno-Ugric lands so they became quite suitable for life again and inflow of immigrants from these areas on the Finno-Ugric territory was restored if did not stop completely, then, in any case, considerably weakened. It had to give to Finno-Ugric tribes the chance to develop in quieter conditions, without the significant external pressure and the sad prospects of assimilation. However the positive investigation of the begun changes of climate was "neutralized" by other party of the happening changes - some cold snap that, for obvious reasons, had the slowing-down impact on growth of number finno-

ugr: became vegetable "gifts of the nature" less, there were problems with fishery (decrease in water temperature negatively influences populations of river fishes). In these conditions there is again rather excess population which in search of livelihood was forced to go to other places [1]. Not accidentally during this period the tribes of culture of yamochno-edge ceramics (which, under some assumptions, belongs to protofinnougra) which appeared in Karelia during warming are settled across all territory of the region [14, page 21].

In the middle of the III millennium BC there came very cold period. In Finno-Ugric labor and tribes there was a problem of the "excess" population again, migrations amplified. Some moved on the West, to the Urals where there were already related tribes - to the basin of Kama and also in upper courses of Vychegda and Pechora, and then, perhaps, and further. There are assumptions that some groups financial-but-ugrov in the III millennium BC reached the Baltics and, in particular, appeared in the territory of modern Estonia [12, page 79-80, 161-162]. To the territory of Estonia the tribes with Finno-Ugric lines could come from more northern areas, from the territory of Finland or Karelia (as it was already told above, there is an assumption that they appeared there in 3300-3200), owing to a cold snap of the middle of the III millennium BC which forced people to migrate to more southern areas.

Other part of the population of Western Siberia remained on the old residence so far. Having exempted from "extra mouths to feed", the ancient ancestral home still could provide remained food especially as the period of a cold snap and moistening was short - about 2200 the climate changed for the better a little, and resettlements to the Urals were sharply reduced if did not stop absolutely. As a result of these processes the gradual isolation of the Finno-Ugric tribes divided by the Ural Mountains on two branches between which contacts weakened [1,11,15, 12,16] began.

Possibly, warming of climate in 2200 and improvement of living conditions promoted also easing of intensity of resettlements of the "European" Finno-Ugric childbirth further on the West that can demonstrate in favor of opinion of the prominent Hungarian linguist to P. Hyde that finno-Ugra lived then not to the west of Volga and the mouth of Kama. The same warming, I believe, promoted emergence in the Baltics from the South of baltsky pastoral tribes that there was just about 2200. Perhaps, in areas of former dwelling of Balts the drought, and northern areas, on the contrary, in the conditions of warmer climate of steel quite suitable for maintaining pastoral economy (in the south) began [15, 12].

At a turn of III and II millennia BC there came new, not too long cold snap. The climate on both sides of the Urals was very humid. Once again the problem of "excess population" which was solved, as before, due to migrations declared itself. Trans-Ural finno-Ugra appeared besides in the face of hozyaystven-

crisis leg: on the ancient ancestral home of the wood began to become boggy, water level in the rivers rose, flooding inundated meadows - base of local cattle breeding. Eventually it was necessary to move the South where the forest strip gradually won new territories from the steppe. There east finno-Ugra began to contact actively to the Iranian people living to the south that influenced their transition further to maintaining the making economy [1, 10-12].

Considerable resettlements happened also on other side of the Urals. Tribes of finno-ugr moved ahead from become overpopulated areas on the West, to the basin of Oka, and further to the Baltics. More northern areas (basins of Vychegda and Pechora) also attracted immigrants with relative low-density of population and thereof, considerable opportunities for hunting and fishery. But the cold snap nevertheless significantly interfered with development of the North, and rather mass resettlements to those regions, it appears, coincide with the beginning of warming, after 2000. In process of improvement of climatic conditions the inflow of the population increased by the North, having reached probably peak to the middle of the millennium as the climate and in the winter and in the summer practically throughout present Russia was warmer than about 1500 also to the land [1, 14, 15].

In the subsequent time (approximately between 1400 and 1300) the climate changed to the worst again. The cold snap and moistening of climate led to gradual retreat of the broad-leaved woods on the South and the West. Their place was taken by a fir-tree taiga in which an animal and a bird was found in one and a half, and even is twice less [11, page 194; 16, page 163-164], and was far more difficult to live in them. So migrations to northern areas if continued, then in smaller scales. On the contrary, the cold snap could influence outflow of a part of the population from the North. Perhaps, the movement of the population of the Northern Trans-Ural region (scientists connect it with ancient Ural residents [7]) to more southern Areas of Trans-Ural region and their mixture in those places with a northern part of Ugrian tribes began then.

The migration flows caused by climate changes and relative overpopulation moving in the dispersing directions (on the South, the West and the North), led at a turn of the millennia to disintegration of Finno-Ugric community on two or even three groups: Ugrian, prafinno-Volga and prapermsky (to P. Hyde believes that prapermsky and prafinno-Volga communities separated from each other in the middle of the II millennium BC) [12, page 172, 199; 7].

Of course, it is reasonable to assume that divergence of migrations of Finno-Ugric tribes in the European part (one group was settled on the North, another - on the West), considerable remoteness of one accustoming region from another, their noticeable climatic difference and also quite probable significant ethnocultural differences between the dofinnougorsky inhabitants of two of these regions who joined eventually the list of finnoyazychny newcomers complicated to the prafinsky people preservation of linguistic community. Therefore division prapermsky and

prafinno-Volga communities hardly especially lagged behind on time allocation of ugr. However owing to climatic conditions as it was already noted above, migrations prafinsky on the North, most likely, lagged behind on time resettlements for the West. Therefore, and differences between two groups prafinsky (northern, prapermsky, and southern or, more precisely, southwest, prafinno-Volga) tribes, perhaps, were more brightly shown not at a turn of II and I millennia, and is closer to the middle of the II millennium BC

As P. Veresh [17] notes, difficult environmental-climatic conditions of the last centuries of the II millennium BC played an important role in ethnocultural history of the ancient ugr living in the forest-steppe of the Trans-Ural region. The territory of their resettlement which was located in the south of Western Siberia as a result of climate changes was exposed to bogging. To inhabitants of the forest-steppe, being accustomed to new environmental-climatic conditions, it was necessary to reduce number of cattle, or to breed more horses, or to pay the increasing attention to hunting. Those who "relied" on horse breeding had to move far away from swamps, to the South. As a result, according to P. Veresh, about the 12th century BC the process of division of ancient ugr which part (future ancestors of Hungarians) moves in a steppe zone began. P. Veresh connects advance to the steppe of tribes of cherkaskulsky archaeological culture between the XII-X centuries BC with this migration

The end of the II millennium BC brought the next climate change and brought to life a new stage in the history of finno-ugr. Disengagement of trees - non Ugrian tribes on the Magyar and the Ob ugr amplified. In the south of the Urals, droughts began, the taiga receded, and northern Ugra (future Khanty and Mansi), trying to keep former complex economic way (in which as it was told above, by this time the hunting role considerably increased), decided to leave the droughty region in the south of the Urals and moved on average (and, perhaps, lower) Ob. Southern Ugra (future Magyars) remained in steppes and in the changed conditions adapted to lead other life, having passed to nomadic cattle breeding. Certainly, this division happened not suddenly - differences in ways of managing developed during earlier period as the Areas of Trans-Ural region, border with the steppe (where there lived the southern Ugrian tribes) and were convenient earlier for development of cattle breeding. In this regard appropriate to remember L.N. Gumilev's thought that boundary landscapes have a huge impact on formation of new ethnic groups. That during this period (by the end of the II millennium BC), according to P. Hyde, finno-Ugra reached the White Sea obviously, it is also necessary to connect with the warming promoting development of high latitudes [17, 18, 10, 12].

In the first ages of the I millennium BC temperature went down that became especially noticeable in the 9th century BC. It naturally led again to appearance of rather excess population, activization of resettlements. I believe that it is possible to connect the most intensive settling by the prafinno-Volga tribes of a number of regions with it, and

in particular, the Baltics what writes P. Hyde, the calling that period with "the beginning of a pribaltofinsky era" about and also possible disintegration of the prafinno-Volga community on Baltic-Finnish, pra-Mordovian and pramariysky. The come cold snap affected also a final distance from each other of the Ugrian people. The taiga promoted on the South, restricting the forest-steppe. As a result Ob Ugra appeared completely in a taiga zone and they had to change the economic way (there was practically no prospect left for maintaining livestock production in the conditions of reduction of opportunities for a cattle pasture). A role was played probably also by the amplified inflow on their territory of the immigrants mentioned already from the North forced to migrate because of a cold snap to more favorable habitats. After all, Ob Ugra, having passed to the appropriated economy, forgot about horse breeding. And pravengra, leaving from the approaching taiga and following the receding steppe, moved on the South where their contacts with Iranians amplified. As a result roads of the praugorsky people dispersed finally, and to the middle of the I millennium BC their community completely broke up [8, 1, 10, 12].

In the middle of the I millennium BC the climate improved a little. Perhaps, advance of Sami to Finland and Scandinavia about which writes P. Hyde and also the beginning (or strengthening) contacts of the Baltic-Finnish tribes with baltsky is connected with some warming. The last under the influence of the become warmer climate promoted to the north where faced ancestors of bodices and Estonians [12]. In any case, to P. Hyde referred this process just to the middle of the I millennium BC [12, page 80]. During a warming era (6-5th centuries BC) probably in the territory of Karelia tribes late White Sea appeared (it is connected with anan-insky historical and cultural community) and also pozdnekargopolsky (its sources - on average the Volga region) cultures [14, page 45, 53].

Warming was short, and the second half of the millennium was very cold, in particular the last centuries (in some regions become the coldest this millennium). These conditions led to the crisis phenomena in demographic development of the Finno-Ugric people: in Karelia and Finland the population was reduced. It is possible to connect with a cold snap also the begun process of disintegration of prapermsky linguistic community: ancestors of Udmurts began to stand apart from ancestors of the Komi and Komi-Permyaks [19, 15].

Possibly, considerable development during the same period was gained by migrations at the Ob ugr and Samoyeds. In this regard, apparently, allocation of pramansiysky and prakhantyysky languages from Ob-Ugrian community also began (to P. Hyde the beginning of this process dates backy to the last centuries BC). Samoyeds reached the Altai uplands. It is quite probable that these resettlements were also connected with appearance of rather excess population owing to the shortage of food because of the worsened climate. Obviously, these intensive migrations became a step to disintegration of praca-modiysky community on northern and southern subgroups. This disintegration - as well as division of Ob-Ugrian languages - later when came to the end

the climate began to change again. To P. Hyde refers disintegration of Samoyeds on northern and southern subgroups and completion of division of prakhantyysky and praman-siysky languages to the first centuries AD [12].

It is possible to assume that it occurred owing to climate changes. The climate in the first half of the I millennium AD remained unstable, warming alternated with cold snaps; also essential regional distinctions were observed. Cold snaps caused moisture content of soils, flooding of floodplains, bogging, limiting natural resources and compelling the population or to change managing type, or to migrate to more favorable southern regions [6, page 261]. Possibly, these processes affected strengthening of migration activity of the Ob ugr and Samoyeds. But also partial warming also caused migrations, but already return orientation when, on the one hand, the nomadic southern people, following the steppes receding on the North, began to restrict prasamo-diyets (L.N. Gumilev wrote that he, in particular, was very droughty for all steppe zone of Eurasia 3rd century AD that caused considerable migrations it hun-is new [7, page 200]); on the other hand, more northern regions of Siberia became priyemlemy for dwelling, and a part of Samoyeds and the Ob ugr moved there.

With the caused fluctuations of climate, resettlements of hunn it is directly connected, quite perhaps, and history the protomagyar. L.N. Gumilev assumed that one of branches of hunn which moved on the West in the middle of the 2nd century AD "mixed up from ugra of the Volga-Ural Entre Rios and turned in 200 years into the East European ethnic group, which... it is accepted to call & #34; гуннами"" [7, page 218 - 219]. In this regard the assumption it is appropriate to remember accord of names of these people: Hun-garus (Hungarians) and Hunni (hunna, Huns); as writes P. Hyde, the first concordant in the name "Hungarus" is borrowed hunn (Huns) [16, page 34]. It is possible that a part the protomagyar (or ugr as L.N. Gumilev said) could mix up really from hunna. Other protomagyars under pressure of the last moved to other region; possibly, emergence the protomagyar in Bashkiria was connected with it and happened in the second half of IV - the first quarter of the 5th century AD when migrations of hunn (Huns) especially became more active owing to the come culmination of a temporary usykhaniye of steppes in the West [13, page 45; 7, page 200]. At the end of the 4th century one of groups the protomagyar, leaving from a pressure of hunn, moved to Northern Prikamye (Kungur forest-steppe), having influenced local tribes [7, page 276-277].

The climatic situation, meanwhile, brought to life a new wave of migrations, this time the Turkic people. Under their influence the protomagyars gradually leave Bashkiria to the South Russian grassy steppes, and from there is farther on the West [16, page 16, 196]. The migrations caused by climate changes which became history as Great resettlement of the people played a role and in ethnogenesis of Maris. Pressure of multilingual nomads and also probably Slavic (or Slavo-Germanic) tribes from Northern Black Sea Coast,

the prafinno-Volga people interfering in areas of dwelling and on the territories, neighboring to them, in III and at the end of the 4th century, caused withdrawal living on border of the wood and forest-steppe of local tribes on the North - across Sura and Oka to Volga, then in Povetluzhye and on Big Kokshaga. In the Volga part of Oka and Sursky Entre Rios and in Povetluzhye in the subsequent time (5-7th centuries) there was a formation of ancient Maris. It is possible to assume that isolation of ancestors of Maris and related to them Mary (the earliest meryansky monuments belong to the 6th century) also turned out to be consequence of Great resettlement of the people (see "Finno-Ugra of the Volga region and Cisural area in the Middle Ages. Izhevsk, 1999", page 26, 30, 36, 38, 202-203, etc.).

Resettlements of that era and in ethnogenesis of a mordva had essential value: researchers note migrations of the tsninsko-Moksha tribes in the territory of resettlement verkhnesursky and Oka surskoy mordva which consequence considerable transformation of culture of local community turned out to be. Probably, and isolation of Meshchora and a muroma from drevnemordovsky tribes also was a consequence of rough migration processes of that era (see "Finno-Ugra of the Volga region and Cisural area in the Middle Ages", page 86, 117-118, 126-127).

Did not avoid impact of migration processes and praudmurtsky tribes. It was already told about migration the protomagyar in Prikamye above at the end of the 4th century. There were both Old Slavic tribes, and one more group of ugr from the Trans-Ural region here (at a boundary of the 6-7th centuries). And the drevneudmurtsky tribes living to Entre Rios of Ufa and Béla and in the basin of the Tulvy River as a result of mass inflow of foreign-language trans-Ural and South Ural immigrants, in the 6-7th centuries were or are assimilated, or forced to depart to the North and the West [6, page 285, 289, 309]. Possibly, settling by ancestors of Udmurts of headwaters of the Cheptsa River in the second half of the 5th century or at a boundary of the 5-6th centuries what write R.D. Goldin about ("Ancient and medieval history of the Udmurt people", page 364) and M.G. Ivanov is connected with pressure of the alien population ("Finno-Ugra of the Volga region and Cisural area in the Middle Ages", page 208-209).

Even groups of the pastoral population which archeologists connect with the southern nomads cattle-farmers, perhaps, reached here from steppes of the Southern Trans-Ural region intruded in the remote regions of the European Northeast in the 5-6th centuries; ethnic origin of their diskussionn. It could be the tribes concerning the gunnsky union, the Ugrian people, Turkic peoples or mixed on structure immigrants who, probably, merged with radical inhabitants of edge, having been a part of the population of again arising associations. According to archeologists, division of uniform community of ancestors of the Komi and Komi-Permyaks on two different is connected with invasion of nomads, one of whom settled down in the Vychegda region and on the top Mezen, the second - in Prikamye [1].

On the lower Ob, Pechora and the top Vychegda there were Ugra and Samoyeds in process of warming of climate moving the North and the northwest. Quite late appearance of Samoyeds in polar areas is confirmed by language data [7;

8, page 106; 22, etc.]. It and is logical. Similar migrations could happen only in time or, at least, in anticipation of a climatic optimum. The same way occurred, obviously, and resettlements of the Ob ugr.

"Great resettlement" directly affected also the southern part of resettlement of the Baltic-Finnish tribes. So, researchers note the military collisions caused by resettlements of the people happening in the middle of the I millennium AD in Estonia (where, I will notice in brackets, inhabitants are engaged in agriculture, transition to which was quite logical in the changing climatic conditions). Perhaps, outflow of a part of the population in the IV—VII centuries from East Estonia to Ingria [15] is connected with it. Perhaps, with "great resettlement of the people" also the beginning of process of the disintegration of the Baltic-Finnish community taking place, according to a number of researchers, in the VI—VIII centuries is connected [12, page 91]. On the linguistic map of Europe ancestors of bodices, Estonians, Izhora, Veps, the Karelian and Finns appeared.

"Great resettlement" did not affect unless present territories of Karelia and Finland where the wave of stepnyak, obviously, did not reach. But also here resettlements happened quite actively. Gradual warming of climate well affected development of economy and demographic processes. Already the population began to grow in the first half of the I millennium AD, new settlements were created, the populated territory extended. Ancestors of Finns, Veps and the Karelian gradually moved on the North becoming more and more favorable for life. The Sami who accustomed there earlier receded to the north. In process of warming, more successful development of economy and growth of the population the migration activity spread, the territory occupied by the Baltic-Finnish tribes increased. Having occupied the Karelian Isthmus and Prionezhye, all of them got on the territory of Finland more intensively, moved ahead towards the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea [15, page 269; 12, page 92, 111].

Ahead there were a small climatic optimum which played a huge role in formation of a number of Finno-Ugric ethnoses and small Ice Age which led finno-ugr nearly to universal demographic accident. But it is a subject for special article.

Article is prepared with assistance of the program of basic researches of OIFN RAS "Genesis and interaction of social, cultural and linguistic communities", the project ""Role of Climate Changes in Ethnodemographic History of the Finno-Ugric People of Russia".


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