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MONUMENTS of NIZHNY NOVGOROD PRITOBOLYA of the TURN of BRONZE AND IRON CENTURIES (Yurtoborovsky residential district)



PAMYATNIKI NIZHNY PRITOBOLYA of the TURN of BRONZE AND IRON CENTURIES

(Yurtoborovsky residential district)

V.A. Zaha, O.Yu. Zimin

The authors consider the materials of the monuments dated to the transitional period and the Early Iron Age in the Lower Tobol basin located on rather limited territory in the Yurtoborovsk neighbourhood locality. The available complexes enable us to trace the process of ousting the culture of the population represented by the Gamayun-Itkoul (Karagaj-Aul) culture bearers by the culture of the "forest" Baitovo people. A cultural layer and household constructions of some monuments contain the materials of the Baitovo, Sargatka and Gorokhovo cultures.

Processes of formation and development of cultures in transitional from bronze to iron time and in the early Iron Age in a subtaiga part of Nizhny Novgorod Pritobolya can be documented by materials more than two dozen monuments concentrated generally on the compact territory — in the Yur-toborovsky residential district (area of of Yurto-bor of Yarkovsky district of the Tyumen region) (fig. 1).

1. Karagay-Aul 1. The ancient settlement, is in cape depth at confluence Tapa and Tobol, on the right coast of the last, in 1.5 km to the southeast from Yurtobor. Represents two close (oval and round) the platforms strengthened by ditches and shafts. On perimeter of strengthenings the remains of land dwellings remained. One dwelling is explored. Materials are published, are dated transitional time from bronze to early iron [Zaha, Zimin, 1999].
2. Karagay-Aul 4. The ancient settlement, rounded shape, is strengthened by shaft 3 m wide, up to 0.3 m high. There is on the right coast of Tobol in 1.8 km to the southeast from Yurtobor, in 720-750 m from the ancient settlement Karagay-Aul 1. On perimeter of strengthenings 26 dwellings of subsquared land type sizes 6x10 and 7.5x13 of m, up to 0.3 m high are located. Opened by I.A. Buslov in 1991. Partially destroyed by forest shelter belts. The ceramics of transitional time from bronze to early iron, similar to ware from the ancient settlement Karagay-Aul 1 is collected [Zaha, 1995].
3. Kalachik 3. The settlement, is located on the left coast of Tobol in 2.5-3 km from to the northwest from. It is small. Chechkino, on the edge of a low uval (dune). Three dwellings of land type are recorded by the sizes from 5x5 to 6.0x6.5 m,

Fig. 1. Arrangement of monuments of the early Iron Age in the Lower Pritobolye.

On a note — the Yurtoborovsky residential district.

□ — the ancient settlement; & #43; — settlement; — burial ground.

0.3 m high in which center small deepenings were traced. Two dwellings are partially destroyed by lesoposadochny furrows. The ceramics transitional from bronze to time iron, a similar penalty-gay-aulskoy (fig. 7, 14-16) is collected.
4. Vak-Kur 1. The settlement, is located on the right coast of Tobol in 300-500 m to YuYuV from Yurtobor, to the left of the road conducting in being Karbansky Bridge (to the right of the road there is an ancient settlement Vak-Kur 1), occupies a middle and high part of a sandy grivka about 3000 sq.m. Presented by 10 dwellings of land type the sizes from 8x8 to 10x12 m, up to 0.3 m high. Blocked by the medieval burial ground Vak-Kur.

At a burial ground research (in 1986, 1987 — V.A. Zakh, in 1990 — I.A. Buslov) dug partially out two dwellings (fig. 5, 1-4).

The dwelling 1 represents the subrectangular platform of 6x11 m in size ennobled on 0.3 m extended by a long axis practically from the North on the South. It is opened 16 economic and Stolbov of the holes filled with light gray and dark brown sandy loam. Some holes of the considerable extent of rounded shape and also in the form of flutes served as peculiar "pits" from which soil was used for powder of walls of the land dwelling.

The dwelling 2 8x9 m in size, 0.3 m high is located to the southwest the first, its southeast part is investigated. Economic and stolbovy holes, including holes - "career" are opened. The settlement layer (light brown sandy loam) is blocked by a layer of gray sandy loam and cut with the burials filled with also gray sandy loam. Economic holes - "career" other holes — light brown and light gray sandy loam are filled with dark brown sandy loam.

On all area of an excavation the ceramics met, are found polished from walls of vessels (fig. 5, 8, 14) and clay to a pryaslitsa. The bronze temporal ringlet (fig. 5, 9) is found in a cultural layer of the dwelling 1. Ware of a round-bottomed form, an ornament covers the top third of a vessel, is presented by prints of the rolled (?) comb, edge vdavle-niya, "bracket", vdavleniye of a priostren-ny corner of a wide stick, ranks of poles or "pearls" (fig. 5, 5-7, 10-13, 16, 15). In a form and an ornament the ware is similar to ceramics from the ancient settlement Vak-Kur 2, close to bai-tovsky complexes, but with some line -

mi, characteristic of ceramics of ancient settlements Karagay-Aul 1, 4. Proceeding from it opened and described as two different monuments, Vak-Kur 1, 2, perhaps, it is necessary to consider one archaeological object representing the ancient settlement with the land dwellings located around it.

5. Vak-Kur 2. The ancient settlement, consists of two strengthened platforms, is located on the right coast of Tobol in 500 m to the southeast from Yurtobor on the northwest region of the small cape. On the round platform with a diameter about 80 m, of 5000 sq.m there are 19 land dwellings the sizes from 9x9 to 9x13 m, 0.3 m high. The oval platform is closed with a ditch round, its sizes: on a long axis — about 160 m, on short — 100 m, the area more than 1 hectare. About 42 land dwellings, by the sizes similar to constructions on the round platform, are delineated by a ditch 2 m wide, 0.3 m in depth. Outside both strengthened platforms there are 82 land dwellings. Some dwellings are destroyed by the road running nearby and forest shelter belts. The ceramics of the early Iron Age — baitovsky (?) is collected and also the bronze hryvnia (fig. 2, 7-17, 19-31) is found.
6. Caraulny Yar 4. The ancient settlement, is located in 2 km to SVV from. Guard Jara on a meter pine-forest terrace of the right bank of Tobol. On the platform limited to a ditch 2.5 m wide 0.4 m in depth and shaft 2-2.5 m wide, 0.2-0.3 m high, 13 land dwellings the sizes from 9x9 to 10x12 m, 0.4 m high remained. Behind the system of defense there are seven more dwellings — platforms of the same sizes and one zapadina x9.0 size 9^ of m, 0.3 m in depth. The area of a monument is about 16,000 sq.m. The part of dwellings is destroyed by the pit located nearby and opened. On an arable land the ceramics of the early Iron Age close to ware from monuments of Vak-Kur of 1, 2 (fig. 7, 1-13) is collected.
7. Chechkino 1. The ancient settlement, is located on the western outskirts of. It is small. Chechkino, on a terrace, in 70 m from the left bank of the old riverbed of Tobol. Strengthened by shaft and a ditch. Recorded six housing zapadin. The excavation of 88 sq.m explored three medieval dwellings: one — completely, two — partially. Together with medieval materials the stock (possibly, from graves) relating to the early Iron Age is found. Materials are partially published [Zaha, 1996].

Fig. 2. Materials of the early Iron Age.

1, 2, 4, 5, 18 — Karagay-Aul 2; 3, in — Karagay-Aul 3; 7-17, 19-31 — Vak-Kur 2.

S. Chechkino Z. The soil burial ground, is found at a research of the eneolitichesky settlement located on the left coast of Tobol in 1.5 km to the southwest from. It is small. Chech-cinema on ostanets 5 m high. Two soil burials of the early Iron Age are dug out. Burials were in a layer of dark gray gumusirovanny sandy loam. The probable size of the first — 1.45x0.84 m, depth from a surface — 0.53 m. Buried (some bones of a skull and teeth remained) lay the head on the southeast, presumably on a back. To the right of a skull the vessel, around the right hand — an iron knife is found. In the second burial which presumable size of 0.92x0.71 m, depth from a surface — 0.64 m, the congestion of bones of a skull and teeth is revealed. Near the remains of a skull there was a vessel, to the North and south of it — pieces of ochre (fig. 6, 5-8).

S. Chechkino 4. The settlement, is located in the territory of kurganny, possibly medieval, Chechkino's 3 burial ground, on the southwest outskirts of. It is small. Chechkino. Zafiksi-

rovana three partially destroyed zapadina with a diameter from 8 to 10 m, up to 0.4 m in depth. On a slope of the left-bank nadpoymenny terrace of Tobol destroyed by vyduva the ceramics of late bronze — the early Iron Age is collected.

10. Kalachik 1. The ancient settlement, is located in 2 km west of. It is small. Chechkino on the small cape of the left nadpoymenny terrace of Tobol. Represents the subsquared platform limited from the South and East side to break of the coast from the North and the West — shaft and a ditch. From North side two bastions are recorded. On the surface of the platform indistinct contours zapadin and the eminences reminding the become swollen barrows or the remains of land dwellings are noticeable. The excavation on a slope of a terrace opened two burials (one — with a vessel of barkhatov-sky type) and the remains of the dwelling ditch which is poorly deepened to the continent. The ceramics of the early Iron Age is various, but, in our opinion, at the same time, includes three groups of vessels: the baitovsky, sargatsky and mixed shape (ceramics of the last group, from our point of view now — rather gorokhovsky shape). Materials of the ancient settlement are published [V.A. Zaha, E.M. Zaha, 1994].
11. Kalachik 4. The settlement, is in 0.7 km to the southwest from monuments Kalachik 2,
3, on the edge of a four-meter terrace of the small small river, in the place where its terrace and a terrace of the left bank of Tobol form the cape. Consists of three dwellings of land type sizes 4x5 and 6x7 of m, up to 0.4 m high. One of dwellings is partially destroyed by the field road. The ceramics and a clay product (fig. 7, 17-21) are found. The settlement is dated transitional time from bronze to iron.
12. Yurtobor 3. The multilayered settlement, is located on the three-meter sandy cape of a radical right-bank terrace of Tobol when falling river into it. Tapas, in 150-200 m west of Yurtobor. Three dwellings of boborykinsky culture are dug out [Zaha, 1995a]. Besides, materials of the eneolit, early iron and the Middle Ages are found. The ceramics of baitovsky culture (about 170 fragments) lying in the dwelling 1 which is dug out completely and interhousing space (fig. 3, 7-14, 16-20, 30) belongs to the early Iron Age generally.
13. Cheganovo 2. The settlement, is on a high sandy dune — ostanets of a left-bank terrace of Staritsa of Tobol, at the northwest outskirts of of Cheganovo, is strongly destroyed by the road conducting in of Iyevlevo. In

of Fig. 3. Ceramics of the early Iron Age.

1-6, 15 — Cheganovo 2; 7-14, 16-20, 30 — Yurto-bor 3; 21, 24, 25, 29 — Yurtobor 12; 22, 23, 26-28 — Yurtobor 15.

It was investigated 1990 by an expedition of the Tyumen State University under the leadership of V.T. Galkin. Materials are not published. The ceramics of the early Iron Age (fig. 3, 1-6, 15) is found.

14. Yurtobor 6. The ancient settlement, is on the right coast of Tobol in 250 m to YuYuZ from Yurtobor. The ring ditch and a shaft surround the platform with a diameter of 55 m on which eight dwellings of land type of 4x5 m in size, 0.3 m high are located. Outside the platform there are four more land dwellings. Judging by the baitovsky ceramics found not far from strengthenings, the monument is dated the early Iron Age [Zaha, 1995].
15. Karagay-Aul 2. The settlement, is located at south country the oval strengthened platform of Karagay-Aul complex 1, on both sides of the road conducting from Yurtobor to Karbansky Bridge. Consists of 13 zapadin, stretched by a chain from the northeast on the southwest. In a relief of the dwelling look as the deepenings surrounded with the roller. The sizes vary them from 6x7 to 10x10 m, depth — to
0.5 m. Four bilocular dwellings, 9x15 m in size, 0.5 m in depth. In the destroyed part of a monument the ceramics of the early Iron Age (fig. 2, 1, 2, 4, 5, 18) is collected.
16. Karagay-Aul 3. The settlement, is on the right coast of Tobol, at a parcel of the road conducting from Yurtobor to Karbansky Bridge in the place where it is crossed with the route of of Staroaleksandrovk — the item Yarkovo. About 17 land dwellings of various sizes were stretched by a chain from the North on the South along the route. The monument is strongly destroyed by a road ditch on the edge of which the remains of three constructions are noticeable. The ceramics of the early Iron Age (fig. 2, 3, 6) is collected.
17. Yurtobor 12. The settlement, is located on a three-meter terrace of the right bank of river. Tapas, in 1 km to the southeast from Yurtobor, at the road on Karbansky Bridge. Represents two groups of dwellings. The first, northern includes 11 dwellings of land type of 10x11 m in size, 0.2 m high and one zapadina of 30x30 m in size, 0.4 m in depth. The second group is presented by one dwelling of land type and 12 zapadinam. The area of a monument is about 20,000 sq.m. Dwellings are extended by a chain along a terrace from the North on the South. In places of violation of the turf the ceramics of the early Iron Age and the Middle Ages (fig. 3, 21, 24, 25, 29) is collected.
18. Yurtobor 15. The settlement, is located in 1 km to the southeast from Yurtobor on a two-meter terrace of the right bank of river. Tapas. Consists of three housing zapadin 5x5 m in size, 0.3 m in depth and one land dwelling of 5x3 m in size, 0.4 m high. Dwellings are extended by a chain from the North on the South. The area of a monument is about 1000 sq.m. The cultural layer is broken by places, the ceramics of early iron (fig. 3, 22, 23, 26-28) is collected.
19. Yurtobor 16. The settlement, is located in 170 m west of a monument Yurtobor 15 on a two-meter pine-forest terrace of the right bank of river. Tapas. Noted 28 zapadin by the sizes from 4x5 m to 10x8 m, 0.4 m in depth. Dwellings are located by compact group. In a southwest part of the settlement three eminences (barrows) by the sizes of 9x6 m, 0.9 m high are recorded; 12x9 m, 1.5 m high. At two deepenings in the center are noticeable. The area of a monument is about 10,000 sq.m. The cultural layer is destroyed by places, the ceramics of the early Iron Age is collected.
20. Yurtobor 20. The ancient settlement, is in 4.5-5.5 km to the southeast from Yurtobor on the right high terrace of Staritsa of river. Tapas. Yim -

Fig. 4. Materials of the ancient settlement Yurtobor 20.

1 — the plan of a monument; 2 — the plan and a section of an excavation; 3-10 — ceramics.

et difficult device. 18 dwellings of land type and one zapadina are located ranks on the platform focused along edge of a terrace and delineated by shaft and a ditch 3.5 m wide, 0.5 m high, 0.4 m in depth respectively. In this platform the additional ditches and shafts sometimes blocking dwellings are traced. The remains of three more land constructions by a chain adjoin the line a ditch — a shaft — a ditch, forming the second platform of the ancient settlement which does not have strengthenings from the southwest. Outside platforms there are three dozen land dwellings of different types and the sizes, part of them collapses as a result of a coast erosion.

The excavation of 7x4 m partially explored one of dwellings in a northeast part of a monument. On cuts were fixed: the turf — 0.1 m; light gray sandy loam — 0.15-0.45 m; the continent — light sand. Economic and stolbovy holes, including holes - "career" are cleared away. Filling of holes — generally dark gray and carbonaceous sandy loam. The ceramics of baitovsky type, a fragment of clay pryasliyets are found. The ancient settlement is dated an era of early iron (fig. 4).

21. Average Cormorant 2. The settlement, is located on a meter pine-forest terrace of the southeast coast of the lake. An average Cormorant in 15 km from Karbansky Bridge, in 1.2 km to severo-vos-

Fig. S. Plans of the settlement Vak-Kur 1, ancient settlements Vak-Kur 2 and Karagay-Aul 1 (1), materials of the settlement Vak-Kur 1 (2 — the plan of the settlement; 3, 4 — the plan and cuts of excavations; the 5-1st — stock).

to current from the hunting ground Zauralselstroy. Six dwellings of land type by the sizes from 7x7 to 9.5x10.5 m, 0.3 m high are noted. In the centers of five dwellings there are zapadina the sizes from 5.0x4^ m, up to 0.2 m in depth. The area of the settlement is about 800 sq.m. In the destroyed part of a monument the ceramics is collected

doandronovsky bronze and early Iron Age.

22. Average Cormorant 4. The settlement, is on a one-and-a-half-meter terrace of the southern coast of the lake. An average Cormorant in 15 km from Karban-sky Bridge. Four housing zapadina the sizes from 5x4 to 7.5x5 m, 0.4 m of races in depth -

Fig. 6. Materials of monuments Average Cormorant 4 and Chechkino 2.

1-4 — the layout, ceramics and the plan of the settlement the Average Cormorant 4; 5, 6 — plans of burials 1, 2 burial grounds of Chechkino 2;
7 — a vessel from burial 2; 8 — a vessel from burial 1.

are put by a semicircle. The area of a monument is 1200 sq.m. In places of exposure of a cultural layer the ceramics of sargatsky culture (fig. 6, 1-4) is collected.

23. Big Cormorant 4. The settlement, is located on a half-meter terrace of the southeast coast of the Lake Bol. Cormorant and channels,

connecting the Lake Bol. also It is small. Cormorant. From seven dwellings of land type four have holes on perimeter and zapadina in the center, three — only holes. The sizes of dwellings fluctuate from 4x5 to 7.5x7^ m, height is 0.3 m. In the destroyed square of the settlement the ceramics of sargatsky culture is collected.

Fig. 7. Materials of monuments transitional from bronze to time iron.

1-13 — the plan and ceramics of the ancient settlement Caraulny Yar 4;
14-16 — ceramics of the settlement of Kalachik 3; 17-21 — ceramics of the settlement of Kalachik 4.
24. Aytar 1. The Kurganny burial ground, extends on 800 m from the southern outskirts of. Lake the Yalutorovsk district on the two-meter height between Lakes Aytar and Churtal-dy. Opened for I.V. Zhilina in 1981. Contains 115 embankments of generally small sizes — with a diameter of 2-4 m, 0,40,5 m high. Big barrows — with a diameter of 2025 m — are rare; one barrow has diameter of 40 m, height of 3.5 m. All barrows with traces

of extortionate holes. The small eminences located in low places at a mane sole, perhaps, are not barrows, have natural origin. Three barrows are investigated.

Barrow 1. With a diameter of 8 m, 0.3 m high, with an embankment of rounded shape. Completely robbed. In an embankment the fragment of ceramics of an era of bronze is found. On cuts were fixed: the turf — 0.1 m; black loam — 0.5 m;

the continent — yellowish loam. Single burial was in the central part of a barrow, is made in a subsquared hole by the size ^8x0.9 in m, 0.31 m in depth, focused on the line the northeast — the southwest. At the bottom of a hole, several bones of a backbone, edges and fragments of two long — legs remained. It is possible to assume that buried lay on a back in the extended situation, the head on the southwest. In a sepulchral hole it is revealed several fragments of ceramics and a piece of caked iron (fig. 8, 1-3). Burial is dated the early Iron Age.

Barrow 2. With a diameter of 12 m, 0.6 m high, with an embankment of rounded shape, an extortionate hole in the center. In the central part of a barrow in an embankment at a depth of 0.54 m the puncture of rounded shape of 5.8x4.7 m in size, 0.25 m thick is found. On a section were fixed: the turf — 0.1 m; black loam — 0.5-0.9 m; in a layer of black loam — the puncture lying on the buried soil 0.25 m thick; the continent — yellowish loam. The subsquared sepulchral hole size 2.0x1^ of m, 0.14 m in depth was in the center of a barrow, is focused on the line the northwest — the southeast. In a grave several fragments of bones and a bronze ring (fig. 8, 4-6) remained. Burial belongs, most likely, to sargatsky culture.

Barrow 3. With a diameter of 13 m, 0.6 m high, with an embankment of rounded shape. In the southern part of a barrow in an embankment at a depth of 0.23 m vessel fragments are found. On cuts were fixed: the turf — 0.1 m; black loam — 0.4-0.9 m; the continent — yellowish loam. Burial was in the center of a barrow. The sepulchral hole of 2.20x1.44 m in size, is focused by a long axis 0.1 m in depth on the line the West — the East. Burial is robbed. Bones of two people buried on a back in the extended situation by the head on the West are found. From things two glass gilded beads (fig. 8, 7-9) remained. Burial is dated the early Iron Age.

It is not the full list of the monuments in the Lower Pritobolye relating to transitional from bronze to iron of time and an era of early iron. On a large number of settlements, with the dwellings similar to described, there is no lifting material. However the available materials nevertheless allow to track, from our point of view, cultural development of local community from pe-

rekhodny time before emergence of complexes of sargatsky culture.

The earliest are materials of ancient settlements Karagay-Aul 1, 4 and settlements Chechki-no 2, 4 and Kalachik 4. Fortification constructions are presented by the single and coupled ring strengthenings. Dwellings are located in one or two rows on perimeter of shafts and ditches. In the center of ancient settlements there was a free not populated space. Dwellings of land type, in the form of the platforms of subrectangular and subsquare forms raised over a surface. On perimeter of platforms holes or flutes from which soil for powder of walls of land designs undertook are traced. In the center of the dwelling there was a center, economic holes. Columns of a framework were established in the holes located at the edges and in the center of the platform. Judging by Stolbov' arrangement of poles in the dwelling explored on the ancient settlement Karagay-Aul 1, construction was, perhaps, a truncated and pyramidal form, became covered by poles, birch bark and the turf. Similar dwellings were constructed also on not strengthened settlements.

The ceramic complex of the considered monuments is peculiar. In the test of ware chamotte impurity, occasionally talc is noted. Vessels of a goshkovidny round-bottomed form, with the roundish or flattened edges of nimbuses, with low necks and a stocky trunk. The ornament covers the top third of a vessel. Patterns are executed in the edge, patching and rolled equipment, represent combinations of ranks of inclined pieces, horizontal ranks or a grid, corbels of poles and the geometrical interpenetrating figures [Zaha, Zimin, 1999].

To this type of monuments we find parallels first of all in the Lower Pritobolye. The complex with similar strengthenings and ware is investigated on the southern coast of the Andreevsky lake [Romanova, Sukhina, 1974].

Ancient settlements with similar ring strengthenings are open in the basin of Iset and Nerda, These complexes (gamayuno-itkulsky) were allocated by V.A. Borzunov in the Tyumen option of gamayunsky culture [1992]. It is represented to us that an originality of fortification constructions, dwellings, ceramics and, at last, the subsequent cultural complexes give the grounds to distinguish karagay-aulsky materials from gamayunsky, itkulsky and zhu-ravlevsky and to assume existence in this region of independent cultural education, the beginning of formation koto-

Fig. B. Burial ground materials Aytar 1. 1-3 — a barrow 1; 4-v — a barrow 2; 7-9 — a barrow 3.

horns the pine forest 6, 20, Karagay-Aul 3 belongs to the end of the VIII—VII century to AD, and . Most character -

perhaps, and by earlier time. a ny complex for this period is

The following on time for karagay-the ancient settlement Vak-Kur 2. It, as well as the ancient settlement materials pamyat- ragay-Aul 1 can be considered as Ka-aulsky, represents doubled

nicknames Vak-Kur 1, 2, Caraulny Yar 4, Yurto- the roundish and oval strengthened platforms.

However by the sizes they there are less karagay-aulsky. Dwellings on platforms are located chaotically, occupy also their center, and on ancient settlements Yurtobor 6, 20 — only the central part. If the strengthened area became less, then the number of dwellings outside the strengthened platforms increased. In a form and the sizes of the dwelling of this and previous periods are almost similar.

The ceramics from the listed above monuments is not uniform. Ware from the settlement Vak-Kur 1 and from the destroyed dwellings of the ancient settlement Vak-Kur 2 has some elements (the truth, a little modified), characteristic of vessels from the ancient settlement Karagay-Aul 1: prints of the rolled stamp, dual poles on edge of a nimbus, however in the main weight carries already baitovsky lines. Ceramics from the ancient settlement Caraulny Yar 4 also baitov-Skye, partly — with convexo-concave profiles.

Judging by a configuration of defensive works, ware figuration, the considered complexes are transitional from karagay-aulsky to baitovsky. The last in the subtaiga Areas of Pritobolya differ from widespread in its forest-steppe part a little.

Characteristic of culture of forest-steppe baitovets whose northern line of an area is drawn near the Tura River is given in works of [1987, 1989] as N.P. Matveeva. Are investigated one - and bilocular poluzemlyanochny dwellings. Ware of gorshkovidny and cup-shaped forms, is enough tolstostenn, with plentiful impurity of sand in the test, occasionally with insignificant impurity of talc. Flat nimbuses. Vessels are decorated with a corbel of poles or "pearls", the comb prints, heats drawn by lines. N.P. Matveeva brings baitovsky complexes out of barkhatovsky, dating baitovsky culture from VII in end 5th century BC as, according to her, at the beginning of the 4th century BC in this territory the sar-Ghat population appears. It assimilates baitov-ets and partially pushes aside them in the southern taiga.

In the Lower Pritobolye baitovsky culture has a bit different shape. Dwellings only of land type, with the platforms raised over a surface delineated by holes or rovika are known. Ware in forms and an ornament is close forest-steppe, but less zapesochen, walls of vessels is thinner. A certain similarity in figuration is observed with ware of bogochanovsky culture (for example, motive from the alternating poles and

"pearls"), but forms and profiling of nimbuses of vessels are sharply various [Mogilnikov, Danchenko, Trufanov, 1991]. The genetic continuity between so-called gamayuno-itkulsky (karagay-aulsky) complexes and nizhnetobolsky "forest" baitovsky ceramics is traced [V.A. Zaha, E. Zaha. M.,1993].

So far it is impossible to explain with full confidence a difference between forest-steppe and "forest" baitovsky materials. Perhaps, complexes with "forest" baitovsky ware and land dwellings existed forest-steppe slightly earlier.

Materials of the ancient settlement Kalachik 1, the settlements of Yurtobor 3, 12, 15, Cheganovo 2 reflect the new period in development of complexes of early iron. The configuration and the square of ancient settlements change: defensive works of a monument Kalachik 1 in the form of a ditch and a shaft with the acting bastions delineate a small part of the cape of a nadpoymenny terrace of Tobol. 1 dwelling explored on Kalachika represents a semi-dugout, slabouglublenny in the continent. Also land constructions remain.

Ware of the ancient settlement Kalachik 1 is presented more than 300 vessels of the different types lying in common and almost evenly in all horizons of a cultural layer. Three main groups are allocated. The first is made by baitovsky ware (about 30% of total number), 8% of vessels are typical for the sargatsky culture, about a third of fragments and disorders as it was noted earlier, combine signs of bai-tovsky and sargatsky cultures, taking in a complex an intermediate position [V.A. Zaha, E.M. Zaha, 1994, page 36]. However now it is represented to us that the ceramics of the third group is closer to complexes of gorokhovsky culture as differs, in particular, in prevalence of reception of figuration, characteristic of the last.

The stock of the considered complex contains 100 products: clay navershy in the form of strongly stylized head of an animal; a bronze tip of an arrow, three-blade, with the thorns lowered below the hidden sleeve (this type appears in the 6-5th centuries BC, the greatest distribution receives in centuries BC [Kuzminykh, 1983; Smirnov,

1961]); pryaslitsa (10); clay sinkers (4); stone tochilets (2); polished ceramic - scrapers (82); besides, oshlakovanny fragments of ceramics, a stone with grinding traces are found [V.A. Zaha, E.M. Zaha, 1994].

Thus, in the middle of the I millennium BC the considered territory joins in an area of sargatsky community; materials of this period differ in a variety and fix emergence of two new components: sargatsky and gorokhovsky.

It is possible to carry the soil burial ground of Chechkino 2, the kurganny burial ground to sargatsky monuments Aytar 1 and also not strengthened settlements Karagay-Aul 2, Yurtobor 16, the Average Cormorant 2, 4, the Big Cormorant 4. Dwellings are presented by semi-dugouts (zapadina with bunding on perimeter) and constructions of land type, in the form of sublime platforms. Practiced as a kurganny way of burial (a sepulchral hole in the center of subhens-gannoy of the platform), and burial in soil holes, and not deepened to the continent.

Borzunov of V.A. Zauralye at a turn of bronze and iron centuries (gamayunsky culture). Yekaterinburg: Urals. un-t, 1992. 188 pages

V.A Zaha, E.M. Zaha. About a cultural and historical situation in the Lower Pritobolye at a boundary bronze and early iron centuries//the Archaeological cultures and cultural and historical communities of the Big Urals. Yekaterinburg, 1993. Page 61-62.

V.A Zaha, E.M. Zaha. The ancient settlement of the early Iron Age Kalachik 1 on Tobol//Western Siberia — development problems. Tyumen: IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1994. Page 32-44.

V.A. Zaha. Ring strengthenings of a turn of bronze and iron centuries in the Lower Pritobolye//the Third historical readings of memory of Mikhail Petrovich Gryaznov. Omsk, 1995. Part 2. Page 113117.

Zaha V.A. Boborykinsky a complex of the settlement of Yurtobor 3 in the Lower Pritobolye//the Ancient and modern culture of the people of Western Siberia. Tyumen: Tyum. un-t, 1995. Page 12-28.

Zaha of V.A. Chechkino 1 — the ancient settlement H-HS of centuries in the Lower Pritobolye//the Tyumen historical collection. Tyumen, 1996. Page 29-35.

The funeral stock (the burial ground Aytar 1) includes a glass gilded beads, a bronze ring and inexpressive fragments of ceramics. In general the ware found on the specified monuments is close to sargatsky.

The considered materials from Nizhny Novgorod Pritobolya, despite their small number, testify, in our opinion, to a genetic continuity between hectare-mayuno-itkulskimi (karagay-aulsky) and local baitovsky complexes. As for cultural development during the subsequent period, the available data do not allow to interpret it unambiguously. Further, more in-depth study of time of emergence of complexes of sargatsky culture in this territory is required.

RATURA

V.A. Zaha, O.Yu. Zimin. The ancient settlement Karagay-Aul in the Lower Pritobolye//the Messenger of archeology, anthropology and ethnography. Tyumen: IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1999. Issue 2. Page 151-156.

M.V. Romanova, L.V. Sukhina. The ancient settlement-5 and the 7th early Iron Age on the Andreevsky lake//From the history of Siberia. Tomsk: Tom. un-t, 1974. Issue 15. Page 43-46.

N.P. Matveeva. The initial stage of the early Iron Age in the Tobolo-Ishimsky forest-steppe//the West Siberian forest-steppe at a turn of bronze and iron centuries. Tyumen, 1989. Page 77-103.

Matveeva N.P. Sargatskaya culture on Central Tobol. Novosibirsk: Science, 1993. 175 pages

V.A Mogilnikov, E.M. Danchenko, Trufanov of A.Ya. Bogochanovskoye the ancient settlement and problems of cultural stratification of forest Priirtyshje during an era of late bronze and early iron//SA. 1991. No. 3. Page 196-220.

Kuzminykh S.V. Metallurgiya Volga-Kamya in the early Iron Age. M.: Science, 1983.

K.F. Smirnov. Arms of savromat//MIA. 1961. No. 101.

Tyumen, Institute of problems of development of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

William? Peter Milton
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