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Reforms in the field of management of education in the territory of Western Siberia in activity of the Siberian committees



UDK. 061.24 (571.1/.5): 37.014.3

A.V. Blinov

REFORMS in the field of MANAGEMENT of EDUCATION in the territory of WESTERN SIBERIA IN ACTIVITY of the SIBERIAN COMMITTEES

Activity of the First (1821-1838) and the Second (1852-1864) Siberian committees on creation of an optimum control system of education in the territory of Western Siberia is analyzed. Interaction of the central and regional authorities is considered, vyyvlena debatable questions and are given the main results of changes of a control system of education.

Introduction in 1803 within the Russian Empire of district model of management of education laid the foundation for a series of the reforms connected with reorganization of a system of the central and local office educational process. In Western Siberia which did not receive the independent educational district under the decree of January 24, 1803, reorganization processes continued before establishment of the West Siberian educational district in 1885. Basic changes in a control system of the Siberian educational institutions fall on 1828 and 1859 and are connected with activity of the First (1821-1838) and the Second (1852 — 1864) Siberian committees which played an invaluable role in reforming of a control system of education in the region.

By the time of establishment of the First Siberian committee the established practices of control over educational institutions of Siberia through a vizitator from the Kazan educational district sputtered out and obviously showed the shortcomings to which local authorities repeatedly paid attention. In March, 1823 addressed to its Imperial Majesty the official report of the Tobolsk and Tomsk governor general P.M. Kaptsevich in which it was talked of a lack of Siberia of educated officials, need of change of established practices of training and opening of the university consisting at least of two faculties — legal and medical and gymnasiums in Tomsk was directed. Pupils had to contain in all institutions at public expense, and educational institutions, in the educational relation, had to be subordinated to the Ministry of national education, and in economic — to local head department [1, l. 13—17]. Opening of the Siberian university could serve as the first step to creation of the independent educational district in the territory of Siberia.

At the same time development of the project and the trustee of the Kazan educational district, the valid councilor of state M.L. Magnitsky begins. According to the plan presented to the Ministry of national education, in Barnaul it was planned to open the highest school as office of the Kazan university [2, page 158].

M.L. Magnitsky's project which got support of the governor general P.M. Kaptsevich in the fall of 1823 bysh is submitted for consideration of the First Siberian committee which, agreeing with basic provisions of the project, suggested to choose as the place of foundation of the highest school Tomsk, and local supervision to assign to civil governors [3, l. 135 about.].

Since February, 1824, after introduction of the project by the First Siberian committee for the Highest consideration and receiving approval, its detailed completion within the Ministry of national education which is followed by correspondence with the governor general P.M. Kaptsevich concerning the charter and the state uchebnygs institutions, funds for a covering of expenses, etc. begins [4, page 273].

Final permission of the matter followed in 1828 when according to the charter of 1828 there was a vizitator eliminated post, and all educational institutions of Siberia are subordinated to the civil governors given the rights of trustees of districts [5, l. 31]. Established practices existed almost 24 years.

The new stage of reforming of a control system of educational process in the territory of Siberia falls on the middle of the XIX century and is connected with vigorous activity of the Second Siberian committee.

According to the plan of works of the Second Siberian committee approved in November, 1852 it was planned to discuss an issue of need of establishment in Siberia of the special educational district for the purpose of achievement of unity in management of educational institutions. On inquiry to the governor general of Western Siberia G. of X. To an asfort about the state of affairs in the field of management of education in November, 1853 bysh the answer in which it was offered to exempt civil governors of the Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces from a duty of trustees of schools and to subordinate all educational institutions of department of the Ministry of national education to the main guardianship of the governor general of Western Siberia [5, l is received. 31].

Further, according to the order of the Second Siberian committee, all preparatory work was transferred to the governor general and the Ministry the people -

TGPU bulletin. 2009. Release 12 (90)

an education leg therefore interdepartmental correspondence began.

In November, 1853 the governor general of Western Siberia G. of X. Asforty addressed to the minister of national education offers on reorganization of a control system were directed: introduction of a position of the trustee which functions concentrated in the governor general's hands, and creation at it special office [5, l. 32].

As a result of coordination of reorganization actions it became known that the governor general of Eastern Siberia did not share the point of view of the West Siberian governor general and spoke against any changes. Addressed to the minister of national education he wrote: "On number of the educational institutions existing actually in this region will not draw need for establishment of the special Siberian educational Federal District so far" [5, l. 33ob.]. Despite inconsistency of opinions of the Siberian authorities, bysho is decided to continue reorganization actions only within Western Siberia. In May, 1854. The Siberian committee on request of the ministry of national education for expediency of changes, reported that it in return finds everything the proposals of the West Siberian governor general accepted by the ministry useful and quite answering the purpose [5, l. 35].

As a result between the governor general and the Ministry of national education of a bysh the five years' correspondence in coordination of ways of implementation of offers which came to the end with development of the "Regulations on Management of a Teaching Department in Western Siberia" project is begun.

In March, 1859 the project was considered at a meeting of the Siberian committee. On this matter in the magazine of Committee it is written down: "Slushana a note of the minister of national education of March 23 with submission of the draft of the provision on management of civil educational institutions in Western Siberia. Committee, finding the made project... to the corresponding local circumstances of edge, as well as those bases which bysh are specified by Committee in the past 1858, put: this project. to submit for the royal approval" [5, l. 152]. Positively bysh the issue and of financing is resolved. Initially required sum of 4,287 rub of a bysh is reduced to 3,900 rub and had to be given from means of the State treasury: in 1859 at the expense of the sums intended on chrezvygchayny expenses, and since 1860 it is included in the estimate of the Ministry of national education.

A number of circumstances became the reasons of so long decision-making: desire to enter the uniform principles of management of a teaching department in territories of Eastern and Western Siberia; the prolonged development of the project on management of an uchebnysha of institutions of the West Siberian educational district caused by office red tape of decision-making; search of sources of financing of this project.

On April 12, 1859 bysho "The provision on management of civil educational institutions of Western Siberia" according to which the head department by all civil educational institutions in the region was assigned to the West Siberian governor general is Most highly approved: "... governor general as chief director of edge and chairman of the board of head department... there is the highest observer of exact and correct performance of all resolutions on a teaching department in the region entrusted to it, keeping in the relation to it, the power of supervision and permission appropriated to it by the general and local institutions" [6, l. 31].

On the above-stated basis a number of the rights was provided to the governor general: 1) appointment, movement and dismissal of ranks of educational management; 2) representation to awards, pensions, an additional salary according to the petition of the chief inspector; 3) the organization of investigations concerning illegal actions or disorders in educational institutions; 4) dismissal and representation under court of officials of educational management, except the chief inspector subordinated to the Ministry of national education.

For direct supervision of educational institutions at the governor general the position of the chief inspector of schools with the following duties was established: supervision of the correct and conscientious performance of duties by employees of educational department (directors and the teacher of educational institutions), control of observance in educational institutions of the established rules. Besides, as the chief inspector the duty of consideration of all affairs on a teaching department coming to Head department of Western Siberia for which production of a bysh the position of the secretary of the chief inspector is founded was imputed.

Subsequently this Provision was distributed by the decree of December 18, 1867, with minor changes and additions, and to Eastern Siberia [6, l. 92 about. — 93].

The control system of educational institutions of Western Siberia installed in 1859 without changes existed not for long. Within the first year the insufficiency of the state appointed by this situation was felt owing to what on November 19, 1860 the governor general of Western Siberia submitted to the minister of national education the petition for need of increase in office of the chief inspector addition of a position of the assistant to the secretary, increases in a salary of the secretary, etc. [7, l. 141].

In April, 1862 in the Siberian committee the draft of the Provision on management of civil educational institutions in Western Siberia which was aiming to give the appropriate power, situation and means to the chief inspector for the valid achievement of the object set for it was considered.

The assumed changes, against situation on April 12, 1859, were as follows: granting to the chief inspector the rights for definition and dismissal of subordinated uchilishchny ranks from the IX class below; permission of delivery from the economic sums up to 300 rub; permission during absence of the governor general to enter all rights presented to trustees of districts, etc. [7, l. 141-141 about.]

In general this model of management of educational process, despite separate korrekti-

rovka, existed till 1882 (elimination of a position of the governor general of Western Siberia), and in 1885 in the territory of Western Siberia bysh the independent educational district in accordance with general practice is founded.

Thus, the most important milestones in laying of bases of a control system of the Siberian education for the 20-80th of the XIX century are connected with activity of the First and Second Siberian committees.

List of references

1. RSHA (Russian State Historical Archive). T. 1264. Op. 1. 638.
2. Christmas S.V. Historical overview of the activities of the ministry of national education of 1802-1902 SPb., 1902.
3. RGIA. T. 733. Op. 84. 95.
4. I.V. Shcheglov. Chronological list of the major data from the history of Siberia 1032-1882 Surgut, 1993.
5. RGIA. T. 733. Op. 84. 164.
6. RGIA. T. 733. Op. 194. 219.
7. RGIA. T. 733. Op. 193. 71.

A.V. Blinov, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor.

Kemerovo state university.

Krasnaya St., 6, Kemerovo, Kemerovo region, Russia, 650043.

E-mail: kafoi@history.kemsu.ru

Material came to edition 20.11.2009

A. V Blinov

REFORMS OF EDUCATION MANAGEMENT IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE ACTIVITY OF SIBERIAN COMMITTEES

The paper analyzes the activities of the First (1821 - 1838) and the Second (1852 - 1864) Siberian Committees aimed at establishment of rational education management system in Western Siberia. Interaction between the central and the regional authorities is discussed, debatable points are revealed and the results of changes in education management system are summarized.

Kemerovo State University.

Ul. Krasnaya, 6, Kemerovo, Kemerovskaya oblast, Russia, 650043.

E-mail: kafoi@history.kemsu.ru

Crystal Jackson
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