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Antiquated images in domestic publications of the letter of T. Myuntser & #34; Mansfield рудокопам" or & #34; Альштедтцам"

 © 2005 Yu. Magakov


It is unlikely it is possible to find the diplomaed historian of the senior generation who in student's years would not study program documents of Peasant war in Germany in our country. This subject of a practical training on stories of the late Middle Ages is classical for the domestic system of university training of historians. The major place in work on it is traditionally taken by reconstruction and studying the program created by supporters so-called "country and plebeian" or "the national direction" in the reformational movement led by T. Myuntser. However for at least half a century - since 1950 when to the public there was the III volume "Anthologies of History of the Middle Ages" under N.P. Gratsiansky and S.D. Skazkin's edition, and till 2001 inclusive when the 3rd part of "A workshop on history of the Middle Ages" under N.P. Mananchikova and T.V. Mosolkina [1-4] edition was published, - the is-tochnikovy base of studying this "axiomatic" problem remained absolutely invariable. Mainly, excerpts from works by T. Myuntser which "were taken from the book Ro-zentalya & #34 were it; Thomas Myuntser"" 1925 and the transfer of "Pis-ma-tezisov" ("the Stateyny letter") made by M.M. Smirin in 1950 [1, page 83].

It is obvious that it, the condition of istochnikovy base of this subject which stiffened at the level of the second quarter of the 20th century predetermined her stereotypic and unilateral perception by many dozens of generations of domestic historians. To overcome it it was impossible and after the publication V. Pervukhin in 1970 in "The anthology of world philosophy" of the Russian texts of "The Prague appeal" and "A sermon before princes" [5] in view of their fragmentation and unsuccessful edition of the translation. And only the publication in 1989 M. Volodarsky of the translations which are carried out by him and M.M. Smirin in full of historically correct edition of "The Prague appeal" and also T. Myuntser's letters of 1524 - 1525 [6] as it was represented, was capable to change essentially current situation to the best, to promote as new awakening of research interest in this perspective, and improvement of quality of vocational training of domestic historians. However force of inertia was so big that authors-originators of the "Workshop on history of the Middle Ages" published in 2001 included in the edition only Myuntser's texts which are going back to N.N. Rosenthal's edition 1925, having limited only to a mention of the publication of V.M. Volodarsk 1989 [4, page 91].

It must be kept in mind also that circumstance that its extreme ideological bias assuming, in particular, especially ma-was an essential lack of domestic historical scientific and educational literature for almost all the 20th century

terialistichesky education of youth in his dogmatic understanding. Proceeding from the known provision F. Engels, that during a medieval era owing to supremacy of religion "any social and political movement was forced to take the theological form" [7, page 314], and at the same time incredibly simplifying it, domestic historians it is free or involuntarily attached to religious plots of historical sources significance of no more than external "theological packing" which, allegedly, without the slightest damage to any given maintenance of "an ideological product", it is possible and to neglect. The methodical recommendations for teachers which had directive force demanded: "It is necessary to take care of that the religious phraseology of Myun-tser obviously not similar to language of revolutionary fighters of the latest centuries did not make a false impression" [8, page 298]. The diligent zatushevyvaniye of religious motivation of thoughts and actions of people even of those historical eras when the religious outlook was undividedly dominating was a consequence of such artificial separation of "form" from "contents". For the sake of roughly imposed atheism in the published historical sources excessively free statement and extensive lacunas often distorting their sense and almost always interfering with adequate perception and the correct historical analysis were allowed. The help device of such editions in general differing in backwardness in cases of need of explanation of religious plots either was absent absolutely, or was present formally, suffering from excessive laconicism. As a result an essence of the bible argument and historical implication of sources of an era of "evangelization of the Western European Christianity", when the reformational dogmas based on the principle of the fullest compliance to the Scripture ("solo Scriptura!"), gained value of ideology of powerful socio-political movements what was also Peasant war in Germany, in a domestic historiography it is conscious or forced were ignored. And it inevitably led to their defective perception and the distorted interpretation especially noticeable at correlation with results of researches foreign and, in particular, the West German historians [9-11].

Told fully treats such valuable historical source as Myuntser's letter "Mansfeldsky to miners", and in V.M. Volodarsky's publication it is designated as the letter Alshtedttsam [6, page 338-339, 344]. About significance which was attached to this document in a domestic historiography of the 20th century, the fact that till 1989 it was the only thing the work which is completely published in Russian from all creative heritage of Myuntser demonstrates at least [1, page 115-116]. Without setting a task

detailed comparison of two editions of the translation of this text sated with rebellious pathos and, especially, its comprehensive historical research, we will be limited to consideration only of the antiquated characters used in it by the author of images whose historical analysis was earlier or is impossible in view of full withdrawal of mentions of them in domestic publications, or taking into account the dominating historiographic tradition it was represented irrelevant.

In all editions of this document which are going back to N.N. Rosenthal's text of 1925, first of all the section of the letter interesting us was provided in the following look: "Do not give in even if enemies will address you with a kind word" [1, page 116; 2, page 129; 3, page 183; 4, page 121]. The text of the same fragment in V.M. publication. Volodarsk 1989 significantly differs: "Do not allow to move to pity yourself even if Esau will address you with the tender speech" [6, page 339], but also Life contains Myuntser's reference to Chapter 33 of the antiquated book [12, Life., 33].

It is impossible to understand this discrepancy without specifics of a social and political situation of the period of a violent statement in our country of monopoly of Marxist ideology in its vulgar and dogmatic expression. Possibly, in 1925 quatercentenary anniversary of Great peasant war in Germany was used for creation of an image of Myuntser - the leader of a country and plebeian people at large whose beliefs, by F. Engels's definition, on the one hand, anticipated communism, and with another - approached atheism [13, page 364, 370371]. In this regard the mention moreover with reference to the Scripture was represented by such "ardent revolutionary" in the letter appeal to an armed revolt of antiquated Esau absolutely inappropriate. In these conditions in N.N. Rosenthal's edition of the letter "Mansfeldsky to miners" quite in the spirit of the times "apolitical" Esau was changed abstract, but, especially, by politically relevant "enemies". (About the scientific fate of N.N. Rosenthal see: [14, page 64]). Anyway, but as a result Esau's image for long decades obviously for ideological reasons was withdrawn from all subsequent domestic publications of this document.

It would seem with the publication V.M. Volodarsky in 1989 of the reliable translation of the letter of Myuntser and the problem of ideological "editing" of this fragment of a historical source was solved by return of Esau to his text and at last the possibility of its correct analysis opened. However on an end of the 20th century in the solution of this task there were difficulties generated as it is represented, consequences of long pseudo-atheistic education of many generations of domestic historians and as a result - loss by us of the whole layer of the bible cultural tradition living and until now in works of modern Western European researchers [15, page 110].

Really, having addressed the bible texts which became generally available and help hri-

stiansky literature [16-18], it is easy to find out that Esau in the antiquated legend is Abraham and Sara's grandson, Isaak and Revekki's son and the senior twin brother of the ancestor of the people Israeli Jacob. Twins at the birth received the "speaking" names. The name of the senior - Esau - means hairy, shaggy what was associated, apparently, with idea of wildness of a look and, maybe, uncontrollability of temper. Younger, the mother who appeared from a womb, holding the firstborn's leg - Esau, Jacob which means holding a heel, a zapina-tel received a name, or it can be interpreted as the one who trips. Very much early Esau proved as the skillful hunter and the hunter who was obviously giving preference to meat food in this connection he, apparently, also got the nickname which became his second name, Edom, meaning red in the mediated sense, perhaps, - bloody, meat or even - blood-thirsty, the meat eater. Over time Esau-Ed became the ancestor of the tribe idumeev.

In youth the father's favourite who was starving after unsuccessful hunting the meat eater Esau thoughtlessly sold to mother's favourite, the mild Jacob more or less settled living, the birthright for "bread and foods from lentil" [12, Life., 25, 27-34]. When the grown old and gone blind Isaak decided to bless the firstborn Esau as the successor and the receiver, Revekka taught Jacob to receive fraudulently father's blessing [12, Life., 27, 1-29]. No wonder that after the called events "... Esau began to hate Jacob for blessing with which his father blessed it; also Esau in the heart told: days of crying after my father come, and I will kill Jacob, my brother" [12, Life., 27, 30-41]. Jacob for fear of Esau on the advice of Revekki ran to the Mesopotamic area of Harran to the uncle on mother Lavanu [12, Life., 27, 42-45; 28, 3]. For many years Jacob in the foreign land carried out, got numerous posterity and considerable property there, than excited envy of strangers; on God's command he made the decision to return home [12, Life., 2931], however feared Esau's revenges and asked God: "Save me by hand my brother, by hand Esau because I am afraid of him that it, having come, did not kill me and mother with children" [12, Life., 32, 11]. Only having allocated rich gifts to Esau and also having secured with blessing of God who named his Israel (i.e. The theomachist), Jacob decided to enter Esau's possession [12, Life., 32, 13-32].

In the letter fragment interesting us Myuntser directly refers to Chapter 33 of the antiquated book Life where he is narrated about a meeting of stepbrothers: Jacob went ahead of the family "and bowed to the earth seven times, approaching the brother. Also Esau to him towards ran, both embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him, and cried" [12, Life., 33, 3-4]. Jacob, calling itself "the slave... my master" [12, Life., 33, 5-8], low asked Esau to accept the gifts "because I saw your person, kind of who saw the person God's, and you were favorable to me;... Also asked him; and that took" [12, Life., 33, 10-11]; at the same time

careful Jacob evaded as from the proposal of the brother further to follow a uniform caravan, and from the maintenance offered them [12, Life., 33, 12-15].

In connection with the reference Myuntsera V.M. Volodarsky in the comment of 1989 probably with some surprise noted: "In specified the Myuntsery head it is, on the contrary, about Jacob's aspiration to propitiate Esau". And, resolving the arisen contradiction, claimed: "Myuntser peretolkovyvat the text in the course necessary to it" [6, page 344]. If the first part of this comment in relation to contents of this concrete chapter of the bible book Life seems absolutely fair, then its second part inevitably generates or bewilderment concerning the meaning of the "peretolkovyvaniye" which was allegedly taking place, or doubt in quality of theological qualification of Myuntser and bible competence of his addressees from among leaders of the alshtedtsky "union of the elite". In this regard it is represented that truly to understand use of Esau's image by Myuntser in connection with his possible "tender speech" turned to the risen "brothers", it is possible only proceeding from all plot of bible story about Esau and Jacob, their descendants and probable perception by her Myuntser and his supporters.

The fact is that the bible legend carries the beginning of rivalry of twins Esau and Jacob to the uterine period of their existence, and alarmed mother their Revekka received the answer to a question of its reasons from God: "The Lord told her: two tribes in your belly, and two various people will come from your womb; one people will become stronger than another, and bigger will serve smaller" [12, Life., 25, 22-23]. Predefiniteness of submission of descendants of the elder brother - idumeev - the event from the younger brother to "twelve knees of Israel", was confirmed also after stealing of father's blessing by Jacob. Esau who lifted "loud and very bitter cry" [12, Life., 27, 34], after all too received blessing of the father, and together with it also a prophecy: "And you will live we throw yours, and will serve your brother; there will be time when you oppose and will overthrow a yoke it from your Vyya" [12, Life., 27, 40]. After Jacob and Esau's touching meeting described in the 33rd chapter of the book Life, ways of brothers dispersed: "Also Esau on the same day in the way to Seir came back. And Jacob moved to So-khof..." [12, Life., 33, 16-17]. Living separately in the head of the childbirth, brothers as though finally reconciled. In any case they in common buried the father Isaak [12, Life., 35, 29], and in the further bible narration is not present instructions on their personal hostility.

Told does not mean at all that prophecies on Esau's revolt against Jacob did not come true. There went time and during the era which followed disintegration of the uniform Hebrew state to Israel and Judea after the death of the tsar Solomon to government of the tsar Judaic Ioram, the son Iosofat, "Edom from under Judas's hand acted, and they over themselves put the tsar. And

Ioram went to Tsair, and all chariots with it; also there was he at night, and Idumeyan, surrounding it, and chiefs over chariots struck, but the people ran away into the tents. Also Edom from under Judas's hand till this day" [12, 4 CAR., 8, 20-22 acted; 2 Paragraphs, 21, 8-10].

Falling away of descendants of Esau - idumeev Plateau Seir - along with other misfortunes of the Hebrew people seriously weakened defense capability of Israel and Judea in the face of the accruing military threat from Babylon. And if the prophet Isaiah, expecting the forthcoming disasters with which "my loins shiver; torments seized me as the flour which is giving rise" [12, Is., 21, 3-4], first called I go-meev to return to structure of related tribes: "address and you come" [12, Is., 21, 12], in a final part of the book it, speaking on behalf of God, predicted to separatists of Edom terrible revenge: "... I trampled down them in my anger and trampled on them in my rage; their blood splashed on my copes, and I soiled all attire; Because day of revenge - in my heart, and year my expiated came..." [12, Is., 63, 1-6; 34, 5-15]. Damnations to Idumei become an obligatory element of prophecies of antiquated authors of an era of invasion of troops of the tsar Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylon capture of ancient Jews. Jeremiah on behalf of God promised: "... And I naked will rob Esau, I will open undercover places it, and it cannot disappear. Its tribe, both his brothers and his neighbors will be exterminated; also there will be no it.... Also Edom horror will be; everyone, passing by, will be surprised and posvishcht, looking it at all ulcers..." [12, Iyer., 49, 7-22]. Ezechiel echoed Jeremiah: "... so Lord speaks: here I - on you Mount Seir! also I will stretch on you my hand and I will make you empty and uninhabited. I will reduce your cities to ruins, and you will become empty, and learn that I am a Lord. As you have an eternal hostility, and you betrayed sons Israel in hands I mark at time of misfortune them, during final death: For it... I will make you by blood, and blood will pursue you; as you hated blood, blood and will pursue you. Also I will make Mount Seir the empty and deserted steppe and I will exterminate on it coming and returning. Also I will fill heights with her killed it; on your hills and in your valleys and in all your ruts will fall struck by a sword..." [12, Iyez., 35, 1-15; 25, 12-14]. "Smaller" antiquated prophets Ioil [12, Ioil., 3, 19], Amos [12, Amos, 1, 11-12] and Obadiah [12, the Bus, 1, 1-14, 18-19, 21] carried on this resistant tradition.

Thus, from positions of religious consciousness Esau and his descendants - idume - appear as initial and irreconcilable enemies of bogoizbranny Israelis and God. From this point of view of embrace, kisses and Esau's tears at his meeting with Jacob [12, Life., 33, 3 - 4] cannot be sincere, they no more than manifestation of artful hypocrisy, a cynical trick of the eternal opponent that, apparently, and was meant by Myuntser, warning the "elected brothers" against potential impact of "the tender speech" of Esau. In this "external" aspect the translation edition which is going back to N.N. Rosenthal's text of 1925

for ideological reasons of the antiquated Esau who hid an image under abstract "enemies" as it is paradoxical, transfers Myuntser's thought to the reader who is not really tempted in bible tradition more precisely, than historically correct, but, alas, accompanied with the contradictory comment, V.M. publication. Volodarsk 1989. However such "free" address with a source can hardly be justified from any point of view, and, in particular, also because it completely erases any trace of historical implication of the document which besides mental features in the conditions of the begun armed revolt can bear also information "closed", or, in relation to "the union of the elite" of Myuntser, "secret" character. Antiquated Esau's image in consciousness of sincerely believing people of the Middle Ages could be perceived as their embodiment of "misters and princes" on whom Myuntser conferred responsibility for all disasters and defects of the time [1, page 114].

Really Esau is a zealous hunter and the aficionado of food from a game. And on an outcome of an era of the classical Middle Ages in connection with completion of centuries-old process of "internal colonization" in the Western European countries exclusively domonical right for possession of the woods and grounds is spread and consequently, and on "noble" hunting; consumption of a game in these conditions becomes pronounced class privilege [19, page 203-215; 20, page 191-195, 217, 332; 21, page 36-37, 43-45]. All these changes caused the furious protests and the German peasantry which are quite clearly expressed in contents of requirements of the Twelve Articles program (Article 4-5) of Great peasant war in Germany [1, page 124-125]. Esau inspiring fear at the same time in the antiquated legend acts as the soldier, on a prophecy of the father, predetermined to live "sword" [12, Life., 27, 40] that obviously corresponds to the conventional military class function of the medieval knights nobility obliged "to be at war for all" [20, page 239]. At last the "mild" farmer and the cattle-farmer Jacob presents to aggressive hunter Esau rich gifts and low asks them to take for the right to live on the earth of their general father [12, Life., 33, 5-11] that, proceeding from social and economic realities of the Middle Ages, could be perceived as expression of the rent relations between the señor and the dependent holder.

Moreover, it is possible to assume that use of antiquated Esau's image by Myuntser (along with all other and not his accidental references to the Scripture) in the letter appeal to a revolt had hardly camouflaged for profane persons and at the same time quite obvious program character for his supporters from "the union of the elite" for armed struggle. According to a biblical scene, aggressive Esau and his descendants at God's will are intended for service to "the bogoizbranny people" of descendants of the "mild" toiler Jacob [12, Life., 25, 22-23]. However

rebellious successors of Esau - idume - rose against ordered them over a mission of service and on behalf of God are damned by his "great" and "small" prophets from Isaiah to Obadiah for that. And, therefore, their terrible death is inevitable and charitable, and direct and active participation in their universal and ruthless destruction is a religious debt of each truly believing person. As confirmation of legitimacy suggested probably a final part of the letter of Myuntser of May 12, 1525 directed to his irreconcilable enemy - to the Catholic count Ernst Mansfeldsky can serve. In this categorical part of the message call sent on the eve of decisive fight at Frankenhausena (on May 15, 1525), Myuntser, being guided, in particular, by the text of the prophet Obadiah entirely devoted to a damnation of Edom: "But at least you as the eagle, rose highly and among stars suited your nest, and from there I to a nizrin you" [12, the Bus, 1, 4], wrote: "And the prophet Obadiah says that your nest has to be destroyed and broken" [6, page 342] and by that obviously and certainly united the real addressee with an image of antiquated Esau. Therefore, it is possible to assume that in religious consciousness of Myuntser and his supporters this bible character is filled with the social contents reflecting their perception of public realities of the first quarter of the 16th century

Socially painted antiquated Esau's image in V.M. Volodarsky's publication of a final part of the letter Myuntser "Alshtedttsam" very organically is complemented with a mention of one more character of antiquated legends who was absent in all previous editions of these document which are going back to N.N. Rosenthal's edition: "Kuijt, beat Nimrod's anvil, plunge down to the ground a tower him!" [6, page 339]. Unfortunately, neither Nimrod's image, nor his attributes (anvil, a tower), obviously, closely related, still were commented in any way and, therefore, were historically comprehended in the context of Myuntser's letter. Told, judging by A. Laube's work [22, page 257-258], is peculiar also for the East German (GDR) to a Marxist historiography of an end of the 20th century

It is known that Nimrod or Nimvrod (i.e. rebellious, shocking) Life is mentioned in the book as the great-grandson Noya, the grandson Hama, the son Husha [12, Life., 10, 6-8] and the nephew of damned we Ache Canaan [12, Life., 9, 18-27]. The antiquated text containing simple transfer of names of descendants of Nov is much less laconic concerning Nimrod who is especially allocated from among sons Husha: it "began to be strong on the earth". As well as Esau-Ed, Nimrod is characterized as the outstanding hunter whose noun became common: "He was the strong hunter before the Lord; therefore it is said: the strong hunter as Nimrod, before the Lord". At last, Nimrod acts as the lord of the first of the terrestrial states mentioned in the Bible: "Its kingdom in the beginning with -

stavlyal: Babylon, Erekh, Akkad and Halne, in the earth Sennaar" [12, Life., 10, 8-10; 1 Paragraphs, 1, 10].

With a name of Nimrod - the founder and the lord of such great center of the evil and "mother of all defects" as what Babylon at bible authors of an era of the Babylon capture of ancient Jews appears, numerous myths of the people of the Middle East which to some extent influenced Christian representations are connected. So, this name was associated with ungodly arrogance of pagans as Nym sort appears in legends as the initiator and the head of construction of the Babel tower "height to heaven" with the purpose to make "name" [12, Life., 11, 4-5]. Divine punishment by misunderstanding of participants of "Babel" [12, Life., 11, 6-9] turned its image in medieval Western European Christianity into an embodiment "the raznoyazychiya", leading to ethnopolitical separatism is evil: "As once Babylon multiplication of languages to old troubles added still the worst new, and multiplication of the people increases a harvest of crimes", - Rangerius Lukksky claimed at the beginning of the 12th century [20, page 257]. Joachim Florsky (apprx. 1132-1202) whose mystical doctrine, in the general opinion, made huge ideological impact on Myuntser [23, page 112-120; 24, page 194-196; 25, page 112-113], "castigated the Babel tower - a symbol of arrogance of the people obsessed with the Satan" [20, page 258]. It is obvious that his idea of creation on the basis of "the Eternal Gospel" of the universal "Holy Kingdom of the Spirit" which had to include not only the people of Catholic Western Europe, but also Orthodox Christians with Jews [18, t. 1, page 634], assumed also the approval of language unity [20, page 258], and inevitable destruction genetically vicious owing to origin from Nimrod and "his tower" of terrestrial ethnopublic entities. Carrying on this tradition in the "Sermon before princes", Myuntser unambiguously spoke about modern to him social and political orders as about "the kingdom of a devil" and predicted his ambulance and inevitable death: "Ah, dear misters as the Lord on an old pot an iron stick will nicely walk" [5, page 116]. Proceeding, apparently, from ioakhimitsky ideas of "confusions" as means of transformation of all Christian society from one "state" in another [18, t. 1, page 634], Myuntser not accidentally and by no means not only in the propaganda purposes in an initial part of the letter, obviously exaggerating scales of 1525 of the insurgent movement which began in the spring, claimed: "All German earth, both French, and Italian wakened, the Lord wants to play this game, to villains there will be no rescue" [6, page 338]. Told gives the grounds for the assumption that an appeal "to plunge down to the ground Nimrod's tower" the appeal to destruction of the public institutions providing socio-political domination in modern to them the world of "misters and princes" as descendants ungodly idumeev, conducting the sort from Esau-Edom meant for Myuntser and his adherents nothing but; in other words - an appeal to unichtozhe-

niya of state and political institutes of feudal society.

As for the "Nimrod's anvil" mentioned in this fragment, it, apparently, is connected in certain mediated way with a Middle Eastern legend that Nimrod insufferably suffered forty years from the mosquito sent by God which through a nose got into his brain. According to Muslim interpretation of this myth, Nimrod received simplification only at the time of blow by a hammer on an anvil that does not exclude also at all consequences of this sort of "therapy", other, opposite for Nimrod, which were might contain by some other version of this legend. It is interesting to note also that circumstance that in Middle Eastern mythological tradition acts as Esau-Ed as the rival and Nimrod's murderer [17, t. 2, page 218-219], and consequently, and as successor of his terrestrial power.

At last in extremely emotionally rich final part of the message Myuntser close to the text retells fragments of the 20th chapter of the Second book Chronicles, or Chronicles [12, 2 Paragraphs] and, finishing the letter an appeal to firmness "in true belief", notices: "When Jehoshaphat heard these words, he bit the dust" [6, page 339].

To the Drevneiudeysky tsar Jehoshaphat (i.e. The Lord is a judge) it "was lucky" in domestic publications of the letter "Mansfeldsky to miners" slightly more, than to completely "missed" Esau and Nimrod. His name was told in the corresponding text of "The anthology of history of the Middle Ages" 1950 [1, page 116], though disappeared from all subsequent editions [2-4], except for V.M. Volodarsky's edition [6, page 339].

Encouraging the supporters, Myuntser referred to the antiquated legend that when numerous enemies (and among them that is important, "inhabitants of Mount Seir" - Esau's descendants - idume), having united, attacked Judea and her pious tsar Jehoshaphat had no forces to be protected, he announced a general post and brought together all population of the country for a prayer. In response to unanimous and plaintive entreaty of the people and its tsar about the help God lips "Ioziila..." [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 14] said the levit from sons Asafov: "... So the Lord to you speaks: be not afraid and be not terrified a great number of this great because not your war, but God's... Judas and Jerusalem! be not afraid and be not terrified. Tomorrow act towards to them, and the Lord will be with you. Also Jehoshaphat the person to the earth admired, and all Jews and residents of Jerusalem fell before the Lord to bow to the Lord" [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 15-18]. The next morning Jehoshaphat called the soldiers for firmness and fidelity then Jews acted in a campaign.

The deep-seated faith of Jehoshaphat and his people on advantage was rewarded. Executing promised, God "excited disagreement" in an enemy camp: "Because rose Ammonityan and Moavityan on inhabitants of Mount Seira, beating and exterminating them and when were through with Seir's inhabitants, then began to exterminate the friend

friend" [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 22-23]. Different races enemies of Judea so furiously were engaged in self-destruction that the pious troops of Jehoshaphat really had not to battle against them as to looks of the Jews who approached the battlefield appeared only "... the corpses lying on the earth..." [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 24]. Three days winners collected rich trophies: "... both the property, and clothes, and precious things, and gathered to themselves so many that could not bear..." [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 25] then with triumph returned to Jerusalem [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 26-28]. The wonderful victory of Jehoshaphat, according to a biblical scene, had a powerful international resonance: "Also there was a God's fear on all kingdoms terrestrial when they heard that the Lord was at war against enemies of Israel" [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 29]; it eventually led to stabilization of political situation the integrated deep belief of Judea: "Also Iosafatovo's kingdom became quiet, and God gave it his rest from all directions" [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 30].

It is obvious that Jehoshaphat's image expressed the deepest conviction of Myuntser in bogo-ugodnost of the begun revolt and sincere belief in its inevitable victorious final - those feelings which he sought to inspire also in addressees of the letter. However the value of this bible character and the related plot, apparently, leaves far beyond expression only of religiouspolitical optimism of the author of the considered message as Myuntser's behavior and under his direct influence of all peasants-sko-plebeian army near Frankenhausen, is represented predetermined or, even moreover, programmed by them.

It is known that on May 15, 1525 during decisive moments of the armed opposition with troops of the landgrave Giessen Philip and his allies Myuntser said an ardent sermon before inhabitants of the insurgent strengthened camp (vagenburg), and they in full accordance with bible Ioziil's prophecy: "Not to you to battle this time; you become, stand and you look at the Lord's rescue sent you" [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 17] practically did not react to promotion of the groups of princely landsknechts surrounding them, artillery and a knightly cavalry on initial boundaries of the attack in any way [26, page 534; cf.: 27, page 219; 28, page 361].

One more antiquated image - the image of a rainbow - played the most fatal role in the subsequent succession of events. It is known that as an emblem of "the union of the elite" Myuntser took the image of a rainbow; under a banner with this symbol at the head of group from three hundred people it came to Frankenhausen [27, page 215, 219; 28, page 361]. It is obvious that the rainbow in national beliefs is connected with good signs. However this optical effect has also a bible implication. This sign, according to the text of Chapter 9 of the book Life, was elected by God as a symbol of the precept concluded with the updated mankind acting through Nov and its posterity

after a Flood: "I believe my rainbow in a cloud that it was a precept sign between Me and between the earth. Also will be when I guide a cloud at the earth, the rainbow in a cloud will be; And I will remember my precept which between Me both between you and between any living soul in any flesh; also more water a flood on destruction of any flesh will not be" [12, Life., 9, 13-15]. Though the motive of the cleaning flood in domestic publications of texts of Myuntser is reflected only in the final of his letter to the tax collector I. Tseyssu of July 22, 1524 [6, page 338], this idea, judging by symbolics of "the union of the elite", held a specific place in religiouspolitical beliefs of the leader of the so-called "national" direction in the reformational movement.

The rainbow which appeared in the sky over Frankenhausen, apparently, at a culmination point of a sermon brought ingenuous flock of Myuntser to a state of mystical ecstasy. Shaken by coincidence of the heavenly phenomenon to symbolics of a myuntserov of a banner and probably absolutely convinced by so obvious sign of divine protection of own invulnerability, insurgents, literally following bible Jehoshaphat's appeal: "Trust the Lord, your God, and be firm; trust his prophets, and there will be success to you" [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 20], led by the rebellious prophet prayed and sang the religious anthem when gun kernels fell upon them, and after them the furious attack of infantry and the opponent's cavalry [26 followed, to page 534; 27, page 219; 28, page 362]. Repetition of the miracle shown to pious troops of the tsar Jehoshaphat in the Palestinian "valley of blessing" [12, 2 Paragraphs, 20, 26], contrary to Myuntser's beliefs, [27, page 215] did not happen on the tyuringsky "mountain of fight", and its fanatically persistent expectation turned back real "bloodbath" for the risen commoners: from their approximately six-thousandth group more than five thousand people died on May 15, 1525 [27, page 220].

So, Esau, Nimrod and Jehoshaphat's images in the letter "Mansfeldsky to miners" or Alshtedttsam taking into account their bible contents allow to judge more fully as mental features of Myun-tser and his adherents, and the socio-political content, the nature and targeting of their actions in events of Peasant war in Germany. These antiquated images in Myuntser's text had not rhetorical and abstract and theological value: they literally proved and authorized feelings, thoughts and actions is sincere, to fanaticism of the believing people, quite really both constantly correlating themselves and the reality surrounding them with any given biblical scenes.

It is possible that further researches as the religious images used by Myuntser, and his references to bible texts will allow to modify essentially the ideas of ideology and the program approved in a domestic historiography for the 20th century so nazy-

the vayemy national or country and plebeian direction in the reformational movement of Germany of the first quarter of the 16th century


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Siegfried Helge
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