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Category: History

Russians in life of the Carpathian Russia



a. LUGOVOI, associate professor of the Transcarpathian branch of the Kiev slavistichesky university, Uzhhorod society of the Russian culture;

L. Borodina,

associate professor of the Uzhhorod national university, Uzhhorod society of the Russian culture

RUSSIANS IN LIFE of the CARPATHIAN RUSSIA

The population of the Carpathian Russia called in the past Ugrian is later the Subcarpathian Russia, and now Transcarpathia, owing to the geographical and administrative reasons was in continuous contact with the boundary people: from galichana in the east, with Poles and Slovaks in the North and the West, with Hungarians and Romanians in the south. And as the edge was a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, these contacts extended also to the Czech Republic, the Balkans and, naturally, Austria. Each of the cultures of the called countries and the people contributed to development of language, customs, life of Russinians of Transcarpathia.

As for contacts with Russia, great Russian culture, they originally carried not geopolitical, but rather historical character. Nevertheless, these contacts were close, and it is worth to remember about them.

Many experts it is from the Carpathian Russia in HUSh-H1H of centuries, having got an education in Vienna, Budapest, Lviv, directed to Russia where quickly moved ahead on service, held important posts. So, I.S. Orlay became the scientific secretary of the Russian medico-surgical academy; I.F. Baludyansky - the first rector of the St. Petersburg university; V.G. Kukolnik - professor of the Main Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg; P. Lody - professor of the St. Petersburg teacher's college and university, etc. So Russia learned the Carpathian Russinians, calling them karpatorossa. About it it is possible to read, for example, at I.I. Popa1 and in other sources.

We want to tell about the return - about influence of natives of Russia on culture and science of the Karpatorussky region. (We will specify that the name

"The Transcarpathian region, area" - it is one-sided because, looking from Europe, the edge lies in front of the Carpathians, not behind them).

The materials covered in article are partially based on personal memoirs of one of authors (Lugovoi). Such sections, naturally, are not supported with documents and do not apply for full, comprehensive illumination of a problem. Sometimes we call only surnames of any given figures, without mention of names, etc. But if not to mention them, then these data will sink into oblivion together with their eyewitnesses that is undesirable.

We will begin with Konstantin Matezonsky's identity. A surname Matezon-sky - a pseudonym. Its real name is unknown. It arrived in Uzhhorod at the beginning of 1838 from Peremyshl where got from Russia, presumably, as the refugee after a failure of the December revolt of 1825. In Uzhhorod K. Matezonsky caused a stir in the fact that the first entered a polyphonic chant in local churches. Before in penalties-patorussky temples sang in unison. During the easter church service of 1838 the uzhgorodets for the first time heard singing of chorus in 4 voices that created a furor as among priests, and parishioners. The chorus "Matezonsky the father" - was so tenderly called by the regent's uzhgorodets - was well-known also after his death (1858). Under the name "Harmony" the chorus existed more than 100 years, made tours to Hungary, the Czech Republic, etc. 2 K. Matezonsky for the first time acquainted residents of the Subcarpathian region with D. Bortnyansky's compositions, A. Verstovsky, itself composed notes of "Memorial service". K. Matezonsky was close to a buditel of Russinians A. Dukhnovich, about A. Pushkin spoke as about the personal acquaintance.

There passed years, there came the rough XX century with its cataclysms. After civil war thousands of emigrants left Russia, many of them settled in the Subcarpathian Russia which was a part of Czechoslovakia. The choice of the residence was not casual. The name "Subcarpathian Russia" reminded the Russian emigrants the homeland, local Russinians talked in language clear to them...

Among White Russians there were many intelligent, highly educated people who brought a lot of Kar-patorussky edge, new and fresh in life. As K. Matezonsky was already mentioned, we will continue a musical subject. In 1933 from Prague to Uzhhorod the radical Petersburger Pyotr Petrovich Miloslavsky - the follower of the famous master of choral art A.A. Arkhangelsky moved to residence. P.P. Miloslavsky organized chorus "Boyang" which actively promoted the Russian folk song and orthodox chants in Uzhhorod. At the same time Pyotr Petrovich was engaged in studying the Carpathian national melodies. A series of musicological articles on this subject was written to them. After accession of the Subcarpathian Russia

to the Ukrainian SSR (1945) P.P. Miloslavsky headed widely known and today the Transcarpathian folk choir. During lifetime of Pyotr Petrovich (he died in the concert hall during the rehearsal in 1954) this chorus traveled all over all Soviet Union with triumph, went on tour from Moscow to Sakhalin. Still in the repertoire of this collective the works collected and arranged by this venerable musician sound. In Uzhhorod the Fund of Items Miloslavskogo3 is created.

The name of Lidiya Stepanovna Pankratova, in Ilyashenko's girlhood is widely known in Transcarpathia and beyond her limits. She was a cousin of Andrey Bely, was familiar with Alexander Blok and L.D. Mendeleyeva. Blok expressed desire that Lidiya of Ilyashen-co, the actress of theater of Meyerhold, played the Stranger in his performance. About Lidiya Stepanovna in the mid-seventies of the last century the Moscow journalist L. Grafova wrote in the magazine "Theatre" and in Komsomolskaya Pravda. Lidiya Stepanovna lived the fact that she gave French lessons (P.P. Sova's daughter, Svetlana Petrovna was one of schoolgirls). In post-war Transcarpathia L.S. Ilyashenko-Pankratova spent much trouble on the organization of new theaters. Conducted studio classes in youth theater studio of V. Dvortsin (in one of articles V. Fedini-shinets calls it Jewish - it is wrong as the frame of theater was made by students of the Russian office of faculty of philology of the Uzhhorod university, workers of the Uzhgorodpribor plant and others - people of different nationalities, and played generally Russian and Soviet classics, foreign dramatic art). Lidiya Stepanovna was present at many rehearsals. Her stories about Meyerhold Antigone inspired to production of a performance according to the play by the playwright Zh.Anuya... It wrote memories of A. Blok, but, perhaps, they are lost forever as in the mid-eighties she died in mukachevsky nursing home.

In the pre-war "Russian cultural and educational society of Alexander Dukhnovich" - the full name of nowadays existing "Society of A. Dukhnovich" (the word "Russian" is forgotten partially) so sounded - many emigrants worked. Let's call at least Olga Kuftinu-Poluek-tova who was a member of the Prague troupe of the Moscow Art Theatre (Moscow Art Theatre) and in Uzhhorod was engaged in director's work.

One of authors of these lines also took part in the children's studio run by it, participated in production of "The tale of the dead tsarevna and of seven athletes". In general the Russian subject was then a frequent guest in the repertoire of amateur groups of zakarpatets. It is enough to specify that in the village of Chinadiyevo Mukachevskogo of the area in 1937 the peasants together with teachers put scenes from Pushkin "Boris Godunov".

But we will address other figures of the Russian emigration in the Subcarpathian Russia. It is possible to call the identity of the archpriest of the island of Vsevoloda (Kolomatsky) safely legendary. During World War I he was an officer, was at war in the Carpathians. After war, being already in emigration, became the priest in Mukachevshchina. Having abilities arkhitek - Torah-builder, in 1926 erected graceful orthodox Church of the Intercession in the village. Russian (nowadays the village merged from the village of Rakoshino). Now on the basis of this church the monastery which is very esteemed by believers grew.

Having estimated abilities of the island of Vsevoloda, the Russian emigrants of Uzhhorod appealed to it to build the new temple in the regional center and to devote it "to memory to the Russian soldiers murdered in Great war" as then called World War I. The father Vsevolod coped with a task brilliantly. In 1930 on the river embankment the beautiful temple in the Moscow architectural style, red-white with a gilded dome grew. Vsevolod not only directed building, but also itself with the axe in hands worked at the most important sectors. Perfectly simulated temple dome - work of the island of Vsevoloda. Money for construction spent much less estimate. Newspapers of that time wrote that Kolomatsky for incomplete year "made a miracle". Not without reason this church was included in the register of monuments of architecture now. Now it is better known as Church of the Intercession. That it is not the ordinary temple, but the memorial temple to the Russian soldiers who died in World War I, only the commemorative plaque established in 1994 reminds. Transcarpathian society "Russian House". It is appropriate to specify that on open spaces of the former USSR of other orthodox monument devoted to soldiers of World War I, anywhere not. Already it the Uzhhorod temple is unique.

In the late thirties the island of Vsevolod left the Subcarpathian Russia. He continued the activity in the Czech Republic, Moravia and Slovakia. There he accepted tonsured, became Andrey. For the life managed to build dozens of church constructions! The archimandrite Andrey in Slovakia where he is buried died. The joint Czech and Slovak orthodox church in 1996 celebrated the 100 anniversary since the birth of this devotee of belief. Repeatedly wrote the Prague magazine "Ì^ Pravoslavn" 4'5 about it.

Continuing Orthodoxy subject, it is possible to call still the archimandrite Vasily (in the world - Vladimir), the descendant of the ancient Russian noble sort Proninykh. He left Russia together with parents during civil war at 3-year age, spent years of study in Yugoslavia and only at the age of 25 years, in 1939, got to the Subcarpathian Russia. In the Soviet years was a prior Mukachevskogo women's mo-

nastyrya. This erudite confessor enriched also secular sciences, for example, arkheologiyu6.

We will pass from church affairs to scientific. In 1926 in Uzhhorod there was a book by the Russian emigrant Vadim Dmitrievich Vladykov "Fishes of the Subcarpathian Russia and ways of their catching". The author devoted the book to karpatorussky youth. V.D. Vladykov in a year of the edition of the book was only 28 years old. Nevertheless, on the scientific level it costs very highly. In 1931, work was transferred to French and received a gold medal in Paris. Till today the monograph by V. Vladykov remains the best scientific work on fishes of the Subcarpathian region. It is interesting not only to ichthyologists, but also ethnographers, philologists because in it are perfectly described local (Carpatho-Russian, Hungarian) ways and tools of fishery, national names of fishes - names by each look are listed till 6-10. In the late twenties the last century V.D. Vladykov left the Subcarpathian Russia, moved at first to France, then to Canada where he became the ichthyologist of a world class. But the scientific start began in the Carpathians. We already wrote about life and V.D. Vladykov's activity ranee7.

Agriculture of the Subcarpathian Russia, especially livestock production, at the beginning of the 20th century was conducted by primitive methods. Breeding business, except for separate large-scale enterprises of magnates, was in embryo. Ordinary peasants were not acquainted with those advanced technologies of housekeeping which were already applied in economically developed countries. The significant role in overcoming such imbalance was played by emigrants, members of the Union of the Russian agronomists in Czechoslovakia. In the territory of the Subcarpathian Russia such experts there was the whole group. Surnames of V. Chernyshenko, Lukinov and, naturally, the father of one of authors - Evgeny Vladimirovich Lugovoi-Fedoseyev, the native of Krasnodar Krai are remembered. In 1926 it published the book "Livestock production" nearly 300 pages in Uzhhorod. The book is written in the Carpatho-Russian language clear simple to "gazda" (owner peasant). In the book data on anatomy, physiology of farm animals are well submitted; about breeds of the cattle; recommendations about leaving, feeding of cattle (marzhina), horses, sheep, goats, to prevention of diseases of farm animals are made. Also rabbit breeding, a prudovodstvo, beekeeping were not forgotten. The book comes to an end with the description of "molocharstvo" and "syrovarstvo" technology. This book was followed by others - "Grassland culture", "Pig-breeding", etc. Evgeny Vladimirovich was also an editor of a large grant (250 p.) for peasants "A veterinary poradnik" (Uzhhorod, 1929).

E.V. Lugovoi-Fedoseyev organized in settlements of edge (Perechin, Seredney, Onovoktsa, Iza, V. Bychkov, Century. Onions, etc.) the courses for peasants including 13 disciplines. In 2003 the Uzhhorod veterinarian Stanislav of Chuma8 wrote: "Oh, as such courses are not enough now!".

E.V. Lugovoi (the second part of a surname - Fedoseyev "was lost" over time) made business trips to Poland, Austria, France for purchase of the breeding cattle for the purpose of improvement of pedigree list of farm animals in the Karpatorussky region.

E.V. Lugovoi continued the educational and organizing role also in post-war time. And not only in the territory of Transcarpathia. He gave the course "Livestock production" in the Uzhhorod State University, and at the age of 68 years went to Eastern Siberia where he organized and headed department of livestock production in Yakutsk State University.

The story about the Mukachevsky Russian gymnasium of times of the Czechoslovak republic (nowadays high school No. 1 of A.S. Pushkin) at which eminent persons of edge many subsequently studied demands special chapter. About this glorified gymnasium the person who seriously worked in archives has to write or one of nowadays still the living her pupils, or. We did not make it yet therefore we will be limited only to a mention that the frame of pedagogical collective of a gymnasium was made by intellectuals - emigrants of Russia who brought up and trained the pets in the spirit of love and respect for Russian, culture, history. Therefore you should not be surprised to the fact that graduates of the Mukachevsky gymnasium became Russophiles. It is enough to mention a name of the poet anti-fascist Dmitry Vakarov, famous in edge, to see what ideological feed this educational institution gave. Graduates of the Mukachevsky gymnasium (however, as well as Uzhhorod, Hustsky) continued then study at the Prague Karlovy university and also in Bratislava, forming the Russian student's communities there.

As children of needy parents from distant villages became grammar-school boys often, there were two boarding schools (men's and women's) under the auspices of public organization "School Help". Activity of these boarding schools should be studied thoroughly according to archive materials too. The emigrant, "the grandmother of the Russian revolution", the leader of the Russian Social Revolutionaries E.K. Breshko-Breshkovskaya was the organizer of boarding schools. She spent many years in royal prisons and references, but with Bolsheviks did not find a common language and emigrated. Since 1920 she lived in Uzhhorod, later moved to Prague from where she continued to monitor activity of the above-mentioned boarding schools actively. They were not just residence of school students (p-

a taniye, a lodging for the night), but performed also important educational functions: there balls were organized, drama studios, etc. worked. Thus, the children who arrived to a gymnasium from remote villages received not only a big charge of educational, but also moral knowledge. Children were raised in intellectual spirit, acquainted with culture.

And if to turn the look on civil engineers? The emigrant Pankratov participated in construction of the main office building of Uzhhorod called now National glad, Bely by the House. Engineers Losiyevsky and Barenblat built the Nevitsky-Uzhhorod canal, the Uzhhorod power plant, the bridge in V. Bychkov and other constructions in different corners of Transcarpathia.

of Doctors in the Subcarpathian Russia in pre-war years, and this niche was partially filled by physicians - the Russian emigrants. We do not know their number, will call only surnames of those who were remembered. This is the venereologist Sinitsyn who worked in Uzhhorod and after war, in Soviet period. These are otolaryngologists Frost in Uzhhorod and Kaklyugin in Mukachev. In the Red Cross Silakovsky actively worked... Undoubtedly, the list of the physicians emigrants practicing in the Subcarpathian Russia is not limited to these surnames.

Still we told only about those Russian people of the pre-war period who lodged in the Subcarpathian Russia. It is necessary to address also those which here only from time to time visited, and even lived beyond its limits, but made a lot of things for development of Carpatho-Russian edge.

The Moscow scientist Fedor Fedorovich Aristov in 1916 wrote the work "Karpatorussky Writers", later published the book "Literary Development of the Subcarpathian (Ugrian) Russia". During 1907-1917 collected and systematized materials for the unique "Karpatorus-sky museum" in which there were about 100 thousand exhibits. As specifies V. Razgulov9, the museum contained five departments: hand-written (about five thousand letters, biographies, memoirs, diaries); a book-depository (practically all published literature on the Carpathian Russia); art and iconographic (drawings, engravings, portraits); scientific and help (a card file with the reading room); offices of karpatorussky writers. Alas, the exposition of the museum was gone in days of revolution and civil war. Living in Moscow, for the rest of the natural (it died in 1932) F.F. Aristov corresponded with the management of Society of A. Dukhnovich in Uzhhorod, was published in its editions, advised uzhgorodets on a number of literary questions.

The name St. Petersburg, and subsequently the Prague professor of Slavic studies Alexey Leonidovich Petrov is not less well-known. It neo -

dnokratno visited Ugrian Russia. For the first time he visited here in 1885. Having come to be in emigration, since 1922 subsequently, Petrov came to the Subcarpathian Russia annually. Its scientific activity was devoted to studying history of the subcarpathian Russinians. As the historian I.I. Pop writes, A.L. Petrov "published a series from nine monographs (Materials for the history of Ugrian-Transcarpathian Russia). For the first six releases got three Russian academic awards". It is undoubted that the scientific heritage of A.L. Petrov plays a huge role in development of a karpatorossika.

Other graduate of the St. Petersburg university, in emigration - the research associate of the Prague Russian public university Vsevolod Vasilyevich Sakhaneev organized numerous and long expeditions to the Subcarpathian Russia where he thoroughly studied wooden temples, gave their scientific klassifikatsiyu10. Many of the churches described by it did not remain today. Vsevolod Vasilyevich's drawings, written descriptions are important ethnographic material. Its scientific interests were very wide what names of publications confirm: "A national suit at carat-patorossov", "Woodcarving in the Carpathian Russia", "the Karpatorussky iconography", "From the history of the union of the Carpathian Russia", etc. Some articles were published in the German and Czech languages.

Especially it is necessary to mention Pyotr Grigoryevich Bogatyrev who, without being an emigrant, in pre-war years visited the Subcarpathian Russia and devoted to this edge many publications. The graduate of the Moscow university and the employee of the Moscow historical museum, he in 1921 was appointed the translator of diplomatic mission of the Soviet Russia in Prague where remained until the end of the 30th years. The Soviet diplomat, the specialist Slavist by training, he began to be interested in ethnography of Russinians and Slovaks. As specifies Pop1 which was already mentioned by I.I., P.G. Bogatyrev, since 1923, repeatedly came to the Subcarpathian Russia, the materials collected by it are stored in archives of Moscow. P.G. Bogatyrev was printed in Prague, Bratislava, Paris. It is a series of articles devoted to ceremonies, national superstitions, signs, interpretation of dreams at Russinians. Its large work concerning magic actions and beliefs in Transcarpathia was published in French in Paris (1929), then in Russian in Moscow (1971) and on Japanese in Tokyo (1988). So the whole world learned a lot of new about folklore and customs of the subcarpathian Russinians.

From everything told it is visible that close ties between Russia, the Russian people and the Subcarpathian Russia were very active long before entry of the Transcarpathian region into structure of the USSR. It is natural that subsequently, with opening in Uzhhorod of the university, with inclusion

edges in a nation-wide system these communications repeatedly amplified. To Soviet period it is difficult to write about communications of Russia with Transcarpathia to one author because it is a subject it is too extensive.

Nevertheless, at least several words should be told about the scientists-language and literature teachers of the Uzhhorod national university who made a big contribution to development of the Russian culture to Transcarpathia. The philological faculty of UzhNU was open on October 18, 1945. The department of the Russian literature was headed by the wonderful expert in the field of classical, antique and foreign literature, Candidate of Philology, associate professor Nikolay Sergeyevich Voskresensky. About him remember as the person of big erudition, high intelligence and intelligence.

P.V. Lintur who possesses more than 90 scientific works in the field of folklore studies was engaged in studying literary process. The monograph "Historicism of the Russian Bylinas" was written by Plisetsky. T.M. Chumak defended the master's thesis "Works of the Transcarpathian writers of the middle of the 19th century and literature of the Czech and Slovak revival" at Institute of Slavic studies of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Moscow). The big contribution to literary criticism was made by N.P. Kozlov, E.P. Tolstov, associate professors V.I. Aripovsky, A.I. Dudenkova, the head of the department associate professor G.I. Ponomarev dealing with problems of an esthetics of L.N. Tolstoy nowadays known as the author of several books of the Russian prose. Associate professor S.N. Shoshura defended the dissertation about tragic in M.A. Sholokhov's creativity, and nowadays teaches at the Nikolaev university. Today the head of the department associate professor I.M. Senko continues to study literary process of Transcarpathia (the author more than 100 scientific articles in the field of folklore). Associate professors N.P. Bedzir, L.P. Borodina, L.V. Limonova studied in a postgraduate study of Lomonosov Moscow State University and defended master's theses in Moscow and Kiev. The department of Russian was originally headed by professor I.G. Cherednichenko. In the next years, associate professors Antoshin, G.A. Shelyuto, M.A. Chernyshenko, M.V. Simulik, S.S. Panko, L.M. Ustyugova, professor V.V. Volkov directed department, and nowadays it is headed by associate professor T.I. Suran.

Graduates of the Russian office of faculty of philology successfully continue scientific and pedagogical activity and beyond its limits. Professor S.N. Pakhomova manages department of the general and Slavic linguistics; associate professor Yu.M. Bidzilya who defended the dissertation about I. Silvaya's creativity manages department of journalism; M.M. Roshko heads department of foreign literature at faculty of the romano-German philology. The famous publisher V.I Padyak who is successfully combining scientific and writer's work also the graduate of the Russian office of faculty of philology. Professor T.S. Volkova working in Ternopil

the state pedagogical university, at the same time is professor of Institute of Slavic philology in Kielce (Poland) and the author of a number of monographs. The poetess L. Kudryavskaya graduated from faculty of philology of the Uzhhorod university and the High literary courses at Literary institute of M. Gorky. She is an author more than 20 books of verses and prose, the member of the National Writers' Union of Ukraine.

In conclusion there is a wish to emphasize the following: though the Transcarpathian region in the administrative-territorial plan also belongs to the Western Ukraine, the attitude of local community towards Russians, Russia considerably differs from that at galichan, the Carpathians living on other side. Both in the first, and in the second world wars the Transcarpathian Russinians did not form the military connections operating against Russia (like notorious Sichevy Sagittariuses and divisions CC Nakhtigal and Galichina). Was not to Transcarpathia and the ban-derovshchiny. On the contrary, local Russinians in days of Patriotic war passed the front line and made in the USSR frame of the 1st Czechoslovak army case under L. Svoboda's command, fought together with the Red Army against fascism. Respect for Russia, its culture and people was brought up in zakarpatets by buditel of Russinians (A. Dukhnovich, A. Dobryansky, A. Mitrak, I. Silvay, etc.) and also the Russian emigrants who appeared in the Subcarpathian Russia after civil war. About some of them our story was higher.

LITERATURE

1. I.I. Pop. Encyclopedia of the Subcarpathian Russia, Uzhhorod, prod. V. Padyaka, 2001, - 431 pages
2. Shargang., Zakrividoroga E. Konstantin Matezonsky//Russians in life of Transcarpathia: history and present. Uzhhorod, 2003. Page 12-14.
3. Lugovoi A. Pyotr Petrovich Miloslavsky//In the same place. Page 14 - 16. 4. Lugovoj A.Pamatce stavitele sygaty otce Andreje VIII.//Hlas Pravoslav^ with. 6, 1966. S. 237-240
5. DrdaA. 25.vyroa zesnuti o archimandrity Andreje (Kolomackeho)//Hlas Pravoslav^ with. 2, 2005. S. 3-8
6. Lugovoi A. Arkhimandrit Vasily (Pronin)//Russians in life of Transcarpathia: history and present. Uzhhorod, 2003. Page 8-9.
7. Lugovoi A. Vadim Dmitrievich Vladykov//Russians in life of Transcarpathia: history and present. Uzhhorod, 2003. Page 29-30.
8. Plague S., Evgeny Vladimirovich Lugovoi (Fedoseyev)//Russians in life of Transcarpathia: history and present. Uzhhorod, 2003. Page 65-67.
9. Razgulov V.F.F. Aristov and Karpatorossiya. Beregovo, 2001. Page 99.
10. Across Razgulov V. Vsevolod Vasilyevich Sakhaneev//Russians in life of Transcarpathia: history and present. Uzhhorod, 2003. Page 26 - 27.
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