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John Paul II and USSR: the strategy of interaction with communist regime



I.A. Hikhlya

List of sources and literature

1. Beer S. H. Modern British politics. A study of parties and pressure groups. L., 1989.
2. Foote G. The Labour party’s political thought: history. L., 1985.
3. Newfabian essays/R. H. S. Crossman. L., 1952.
4. Crossman R. H. S. Towards a philosophy of socialism//New fabian essays. L., 1952.
5. Strachey J. Tasks and achievement of British labor//Ibid. L., 1952.
6. Crosland C. A. R. The transition from capitalism//Ibid. L., 1952.
7. DelE. A strange eventful history: democratic socialism in Britain. L., 1999.

About the author

I.A. Hikhlya — asp., RGU to them I. Kant.

UDC 940.55 (456.31)

Yu.A. Vinogradova

JOHN PAUL II And USSR:

The STRATEGY of INTERACTION WITH COMMUNIST REGIME

Change of strategy of interaction of Vatican with communist regime in 1970 — the 80th on the example of the USSR is considered.

The publication is devoted to a change of Vatican strategy regarding communist regimes: case of the USSR in 1970-1980.

Since Pius XI (1922 — 1939) pontificate the active position in fight against communism was characteristic of Popes. Under the threat of excommunication to Catholics it was forbidden to cooperate with communists in any form. Even the idea of "an anti-Communist crusade" was proclaimed [1; 21, page 223 — 224]. The situation changed in the period of John XXIII's pontificate (1958 — 1963) a little. It was known for more tolerance of the USSR that found reflection in its encyclics and also in documents II of the Vatican cathedral (1962 — 1965) and the constitution adopted by it [2 — 4]. Among other, John XXIII in the encyclic of "Pasem in terris" allowed Catholics to cooperate with communists in questions of fight for peace, on problems of social and economic development and the public relations.

John Paul II continued the business begun by his predecessor. In 1981 there was its encyclic of "Laborem exercens" in which almost Marxist thesis about a reformative role of work and need to change position of working class in the world to the best that with caution was apprehended in the Soviet Union because of growing at popularity of the new dad [9 was stated; 17, p. 3; 21, page 226; 22, page 198 — 201].

Respect for the Russian people, its traditions and culture, recognition of its role in a victory in World War II was combined

at John Paul II with unconditional condemnation of the system dominating in the USSR [10, s. 131; 12]. Dad opposed communist regime to the people as something to it alien, at the same time the attitude towards human rights was the main motive of criticism. At the same time dad urged to soften criticism of militarization of the Soviet Union as considered that the countries which underwent aggression have the right to care for the defense [5; 16, s. 40; 7]. Dad rejected any extreme economic and political models — both "real socialism", and "wild capitalism". He opposed them to socially oriented democracy, only the fair, in his opinion, form of government [18].

Dad's attitude towards the Soviet Union and the Soviet people was ambiguous also in view of that part which was assigned by the West to Poles in fight against communism. Understanding that such mission can bring deprivations to its people, belonging to which he always emphasized, the pontiff avoided opposition of the West to the East. It found reflection in the concept of the special mission of Slavs which arose in the 19th century revived by it [6; 11; 19]. On the other hand, "Slavorum apostolic" of the idea stated in the encyclic did not promote reconciliation of two largest Christian churches as assumed a possibility of their connection on a model of creation of Greco-catholic church.

Showing desire to come into personal contacts with the Soviet heads and to pay to Moscow an official visit, dad sought to sweetheart Moscow. He appointed the state secretary Agostino Casaroli, the creator of "east policy" of Vatican supporting rapprochement with the USSR. Casaroli was that person thanks to whom Vatican in 1975 joined the Final act of the Helsinki agreements fixing post-war borders [23, page 458 — 460].

Illusions of the Soviet heads concerning a possibility of influence and even pressure upon dad soon vanished. And he got considerable concessions for Catholic church in the USSR. Howled inclusion in seminaries is increased, to bishops allowed to go to Rome, vacancies of the highest clergy were filled and for the first time for lifetime of the USSR the cardinal was appointed. Since 1982 the criticism of dad in the Soviet mass media stopped. John Paul II thereby managed to reach what his predecessors could not make.

The plot about contacts of the pontiff with the academician A.D. Sakharov to whom dad repeatedly gave moral support is interesting, and achieved the exit visa abroad [13 — 15] later.

In 1988 in the USSR the millennium of Christianity in Russia was noted. The soviet leadership decided to reduce celebration to several formal celebrations, and that anniversary after all caused a wide international resonance, the considerable role was played by messages, sermons, addresses of the pontiff [8]. Despite obvious desire of John Paul II to participate personally in anniversary celebrations in Moscow, it to it it was refused as at the taking place negotiations on a visit Vatican insisted on inclusion in the program of a meeting with representatives of Catholics and uniats that was unacceptable [23, page 462].

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Yu.A. Vinogradova

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The official delegation of Vatican in Moscow as a result was headed by Kasa-roli.

In the mid-eighties in the USSR the reorganization which the pontiff estimated as a half measure began

>. Nevertheless changes in the USSR allowed during John Paul II and M.S. Gorbachev's meeting in Vatican on December 1, 1989 to establish diplomatic relations between two countries. Then the president of the USSR invited dad to make a return visit to the Soviet Union which, however, till today did not take place [20; 24].

A multilayered diplomatic game allowed dad to avoid open collisions with communists in the USSR, keeping the beliefs and course of action of the anticommunist, at the same time to pursue policy of Vatican in fight for peace where its interests had something in common with the interests of the Soviet Union, and, gradually destroying the Soviet system, to protect independence and religious freedoms of Catholics of Eastern and Central Europe.

List of sources and literature

1. Pius XI. Divini Redemptoris, 1930 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
2. Joannes XXIII. Mater et Magistra [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
3. Joannes XXIII. Pacem in terris, 1963 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
4. Jan XXIII. Przemowlenie na otwarcie II Powszechnego Soboru Watykanskiego II — 11.X.1962 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://forms.opoka.org.pl/angellina
5. Paulus PP. II. Dives in misericordia. O Bozym Milosierdziu. 1980 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
6. Ioannes Paulus II. Slavorum apostolic, 1985 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
7. Message du Pape Jean-Paul II A Monsenior Javier Perez de Cuellar, secretaire general des Nations Unies, 1985 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
8. Joannes Paulus II. Euntes in Mundum Universum, 1988 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://www.newadvent.org/library/index.htmlfdocs
9. Ioannes Paulus II. Laborem exercens. 1981 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
10. Dokumenty z wizyty Papieza Jana Pawla II w Polsce w dniu 2 — 10 czerwca 1979. Warszawa, 1979.
11. Pellegrinaggio apostolico in Polonia, 1979 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: www.vatican.va
12. Wywiad z nuncjuszem apostolskim w Polsce [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://papiez.pap.com.pl/cgi-bin/index.pl
13. Minutes of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU of August 29, 1985. Working record [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://www.2nt1.com/archive
14. The report of the chairman of KGB V. Chebrikov in the Central Committee of the CPSU concerning Sakharov and Electronic resource. Mode of access: http://www.2nt1.com/archive
15. KGB of the USSR about Bonnaire's trip to Italy [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://www.2nt1.com/archive
16. Piwowarski W. Prawa czloweka w nauczanii Jana Pawla II//Wi^z. 1984.
17. Luxmoore J. Wojtyla lectures reveal he saw communism as based in misunderstanding//National Catholic Reporter. 1999. 5 Nov.
18. Boktazec J. Jan Pawel II i demokracja [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://www.liberator.lbl.pl
19. Ornatowski C. A Christian Athens: The Rhetoric Of Pope John Paul II And The Political Transformation In Poland, 1979 — 1989 [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/dept/drwswebb/lore/contents.html
20. Haberman C. Gorbachev Visits Pope at Vatican [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://www.nytimes.com/1989/12/02/international/europe/02P0PE.html
21. T.M. Yaroshevskiya. The social doctrine of Catholicism and a problem of cooperation of Marxists and believers in the Party of Russian Taxpayers//Questions of scientific atheism. 1987. No. 36.
22. E. Lebek. Secret history of diplomacy of Vatican. M, 2004.
23. Veigeldzh. John Paul II. M, 2001.
24. Eggert K. An epilog to John Paul II's [Electronic resource] life. Mode of access: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/russian/news/newsid_4229000/4229873.shtm

About the author

Yu.A. Vinogradova — asp., RGU of I. Kant, mkoroleva@bk.ru.

75

of UDC 940.55 (44)

A.V. Barsukova

EUROPEAN INSTITUTIONAL POLICY

VALÉRY GISCARD D' ЭСТЭНА: GENERAL ANALYSIS

The European institutional policy of the famous French political figure of Valerie Giscard D'Estaing is analyzed. Article is based on the author's interview with mister Giscar d ’by Estaing.

The article analyses the European institutional policy of the famous French politician Valery Giscard d’Estaing. The research is based on the data collected during the interview with Mr. Giscard d’Estaing.

Valéry Giscard D'Estaing belongs to number of the French political figures who played and continue to play an important role in the course of the European integration. Its main contribution belongs to two areas: currency and institutional, however the last, according to him, is "only a difficult thing" [1, p. 245] in construction of Europe.

Being "in fact a federalist" [2], but forced to maneuvre between the gollistsky idea of "Europe of otechestvo" and the idea of followers of R. Schuman about creation of "federal Europe", Giscard D'Estaing in the 1960th offered a formula of "soft confederation" (confederation souple) which, in fact, represented the system of federal structure and later was described in the program of its party [3].

Dawn Houston
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