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Church land tenure in the Vyborsky County in the middle of the 18th century



v. G. Zirbuyeva

CHURCH LAND TENURE IN the VYBORSKY COUNTY IN the MIDDLE

HUS VEKA

Work is presented by department of national history and museology

Pskov state pedagogical university of S.M. Kirov.

The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor V.A. Arakcheev

In article data of the Russian state archive of ancient acts are used. It was made by N the card reflecting structure of land economy of the largest monasteries of the Pskov province is analyzed. The bulk of settlements was at small distance from each other that allowed to allocate complexes of monastic land tenure. The conclusion is drawn on continuity of structure of land tenure of the Snetogorsky monastery in the territory of the county of the 16-17th and 18th centuries

The data of the Russian State Archives of the Ancient Acts are used in the article. The map reflecting the structure of lands of the biggest monasteries in the Pskov province has been drafted and analysed. The bulk of the settlements were in a small distance from each other, which has made it possible to single out

the complexes of monastery land ownership. The author comes to a conclusion about succession of land ownership structures over the territory of the Vyborg uyezd in the 16 — 18 centuries.

When studying the problems connected with the history of church land tenure of the 18th century, bigger attention of researchers was paid to a research of the sizes of the spiritual ancestral lands, their specific weight in structure of feudal land tenure. A large amount of works was devoted to studying the monastic peasantry and country duties. Today there is unexplored a structure of the concrete monastery ancestral lands, topography of abbey-steads. The task of article is to reveal and plot possession spiritual corporations in the territory of the Vyborsky County, to analyze structure of patrimonial possession.

One of the main sources on a problem of church land tenure of the middle of the 18th century are so-called "officer inventories" [1]. In historical literature such name of this type of sources was approved because army officers took part in the description of manors of the spiritual ancestral lands in the 60th of the 18th century. Inventories contain information on land possession of the owner and also on quantity of male souls in the ancestral lands. Data of General land surveying of Ostrovsky of the county were the basis for cartographic materials [2]. On the basis of these sources the cards reflecting structure of patrimonial monastic economy (appendix 1) were made.

Lands of the Vyborsky County were located in the territory of modern New Rzhev district of the Pskov region. Its center was the churchyard the Choice standing on the small river the Sample falling into the Milye River. The territory of this county in the 18th century was divided into 5 lips: Kotelinsky, Bogoroditsky, Diyats-ky, Kuzmodemyansky and Krekshinsky. The Vyborsky County bordered in the West on Vrevsky, in the east on Dubkovsky and in the north

with Volodimeretsky counties of the Pskov province. At the southern boundary the border passed with the Novgorod lands, namely with the Pustorozhevsky earth. As V.L. Yanin notes in the book, annalistic data on the basis of the Choice specified its location as a part of one of administrative units of the Pustorzhevsky earth of Novgorod [6, page 129].

In the territory of the Vyborsky County there were most extensive possession of the Snetogorsky monastery - one of the largest monasteries of the Pskov province. So, N.S. Suvorov included Nativity Snetogorsky Monastery in the three of the largest monasteries by the number of the country yards in the territory of the Pskov County [5, page 46]. The total number of the pashenny earth which was owned by the monastery in the middle of the 18th century made 4729 quarters (2364.5 tithes) and also about 2000 tithes of forest lands [3, page 104]. Everything, according to "the officer inventory", in the territory of the county in 4 lips the monastery owned 64 villages [3, page 82-92].

According to N.S. Suvorov, possession of the Snetogorsky monastery of the 16-17th centuries in the Vyborsky County represented the following structure. The monastic property was located in the territory of three lips - Bogoroditskoy, Dyatskoy and Kotelinskoy [5, page 392]. The bulk of possession is 15 villages,

3 settlements and 57 heathlands - was on lands of the Bogoroditsky lip. Monastic property in the Kotelinsky lip were 12 villages and 20 heathlands. In the Dyatsky lip in an abbey-stead was
4 villages and 23 heathlands.

Using data of "the officer inventory", it is possible to present the same structure of monastic land tenure in the middle of the 18th century. As well as during the previous period, fixed assets of church lands in a bridle was located in the territory of three above-mentioned lips -

Bogoroditsky, Dyatsky and Kotelinsky. However during this period small possession of the Snetogorsky monastery (2 villages) on lands of the Kuzmodemyansky bay of the Vyborsky County appear. It should be noted that for last period the monastery considerably expanded the amount of possession that quite corresponds to opinion of researchers on the continuing growth of the large monastery ancestral lands in the first half of the 18th century. So on lands of the Bogoroditsky lip the monastery had still the largest land complex in the county of-39 villages. 12 villages remained property in the Kotelinsky lip. In the Dyatsky lip the number of monastery villages increased to 11. Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion on continuity of structure of this monastic land tenure in the territory of the Vyborsky County.

To the east of the Choice were located the earth of the Bogoroditsky lip. In its territory there was a set of small lakes, such as Milye, Dolostso, Basinets. The center of the Bogoroditsky lip was the Choice, and the church of the Dormition of the Theotokos existing here gave the name to an administrative unit of the county [6, page 129].

From 39 villages belonging to the Sneto-gorsky monastery in the territory of the Bogoroditsky bay of the Vyborsky County we managed to localize 20 settlements (appendix 1) on Katya. Their most part was located on coast of the rivers and lakes of a lip. The bulk of monastery settlements was located nearby from each other that allows to allocate complexes of monastic land tenure. Here it is possible to allocate a number of the largest villages. It is the village of Sharygino where lived 26 okladny souls and in which possession there were 41.5 tithes of the pashenny earth and 14 tithes of the wood [3, page 82]. The village the Ash-tree with 21 male inhabitants, 33.5 tithe of an arable land and 19 tithes of the wood. The village of Kre-nevo at the lake Milye of-16 male souls, 25.5 tithes of an arable land and 14 tithes of the wood in

order [3, page 84]. In total 251 men's souls, 338 tithes of an arable land and 219 tithes of the wood were registered for a complex of villages of the Bogoroditsky lip.

Three villages of the Snetogorsky monastery of Gilevo, Felabov and Lipovitsa, according to "the officer inventory", were located in the territory of the Bogoroditsky lip [3, page 84-85.88]. All of them settled down nearby from each other as the distance specified in the inventory to Snetogorsky monastery-100.101 and 102 of verst. However by drawing up the card three nearby villages with similar names were found in the neighboring Dyatsky bay.

The property of the Snetogorsky monastery in the territory of the Bogoroditsky lip were not only allotments, but also a considerable part fish lovel at the majority of such reservoirs as the lakes Milye, Big and Small Dolostso, Basinets, the rivers Sample, Verkhnitsa [3, page 52].

To the north of the Bogoroditsky lip there was a Diyatsky lip. According to V.L. Yanina, the center of a lip was seltso Ivanovskoye in 5 kilometers to the northeast from the Choice [6, page 129]. 3 villages are plotted. The village of Filimonovo with 25 okladny souls, 26 tithes of the pashenny earth and 20 tithes of the wood [3, page 89]. The village of Krolino with 32 male souls, 10 tithes of an arable land and 20 tithes of the wood. The village of Pesvyakovo with 6 male inhabitants, 6 tithes of the earth and

20 wood tithes.

West of the Choice there was a Kuz-modemyansky lip. Concerning location of the center of this lip there is an opinion V.L. Yanina that her center as well as in a case with the Bogoroditsky lip, was in the Choice where the existing Kuzmodemyansky posad gave a lip the name [6, page 129].

From 2 settlements which are the property of spiritual corporation 1 it was plotted. It is the village of Taraskovo. In this settlement 4 inhabitants muzhsko-were registered

go floor and also 26.5 tithes of pashenny grounds and 10 tithes of the wood [3, page 90].

Were in a northern part of the Vyborsky County the earth of the Kotelinsky lip. Kotelno's churchyard in 11 kilometers from the Choice [6, page 129] was her center. The complex from is plotted

4 settlements - Shiryaevo, Konoshkovo, Naumovo and Povareshkina. Among other the village of Shiryaevo with 11 okladny souls, 13 tithes of an arable land and 31 tithes of the wood was rather large here [3, page 92]. In total in the territory of these villages was registered:
21 okladny soul, in use of 37 tithes of an arable land and 85 tithes of the wood.

In the territory of the Vyborsky County also the small part of lands of the largest spiritual corporation of the Pskov province of the 18th century - Pskov-Caves Monastery was located. In the 16-17th centuries the abbey-steads did not go out of the Pskov, Izborsky and Kobylsky Counties [5, page 397-396]. In the middle of the 18th century in the Kotelinsky bay of the Vyborsky County the village of the Leningrad Region-patino (appendix 1) was owned by the monastery. According to "the officer inventory", in the village 38 souls of a male, 26 tithes of the pashenny earth and 35 tithes of forest lands were registered [4, page 89].

Appendix 1

The card of church land tenure in the Vyborsky County in the middle of the 18th century, is made on the basis of materials of General land surveying, "officer inventories"

Thus, on the basis of the comparative analysis of data of N.S. Suvorov and "the officer inventory" of the Snetogorsky monastery it is possible to draw a conclusion on continuity of structure of this monastic land tenure in the territory of the Vyborsky County of XVI-XVII and XVTII of centuries. Were revealed and plotted by us in the territory of the Vyborsky County of the settlement, being Snetogorsky's property monas-

pinching and also one village of Pskov-Caves Monastery. The bulk of settlements was at small distance from each other that allows to allocate complexes of monastic land tenure. Lands with the most advantageous geographical location were a part of the ancestral lands of one of the largest spiritual corporations of the Pskov province - on coast of the rivers, lakes, near the administrative centers of the county.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. The Russian state archive of ancient acts (further - RGADA) F. 280. Op. 3.
2. RGADA-F-of 1356. On. 1. 468.
3. RGADA-F-280. Op. 3. 509.
4. RGADA. T. 280. Op. 3. 431.
5. N.S. Suvorov. The Pskov church land tenure in the 16th and 17th centuries, b.
6. V.L. Yanin Novgorod and Lithuania. Boundary situations of XSh-XV of centuries. MSU. M, 1998.
Christine Brown
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