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Brigade commander Maslak: "I leave to Don with the offended banner"

18 Pokrovsk. Decree. soch. Page 185-187.

19 Lukomsky A.C. Decree. soch. Page 199-200; P.N. Wrangel. Notes. Part I//White business. Book V. Berlin, 1928. Page 212.
20 Azov region. 1919. 7 on Oct. (20)
21 I. Kalinin. Russian Vendee. M.; JL, 1926. Page 193-194.
22 D. Kean. Decree. soch. Page 196.
23 Genzel Items. Devaluation and problems of tax policy. Page 7.
24 In the same place.
25 Genzel Items. Devaluation and problems of tax policy. Page 7-8; It. About financial policy and a monetary reform. Simferopol, 1919. Page 7.
26 Azov region. 1919. On Aug. 21 (on Sep. 3); Genzel Items. Devaluation and problems of tax policy. Page 8.
27 HECTARE of the Russian Federation. T. 3426. Op. 1. 2. JI. 1ob.; "Absolutely personally and confidentially!": B.A. Bakhmetev - V.A. Maklakov. Correspondence, 1919-1951. T. 1. M.; Stanford, 2001. Page 137-138.
28 Genzel Items. Devaluation and problems of tax policy. Page 12-13; D. Kean. Decree. soch. Page 141.

Yu. Kalugin



The fate of this person concerns me more than a quarter of the century - from that day when I for the first time learned his name. But very long it was not necessary to count on an open conversation about it: too big loop, from the point of view of the Soviet power, sins tried to keep step with it.

My interest in this person arose when reading the copy of one document. In the letter of the former pervokonnik of Maxim Vasilyevich Dyat-luka sent addressed to Brezhnev in 1980 the reputation of a komkor of Dumenko already not for the first time was protected. And in the same letter a story of other person whose name rattled in the years of Civil war, and now if known, then the little was told.

Dyatluk wrote:

"... With the end of November, 1920 the acting the commander of the 4th kavdiviziya Grigory Semyonovich Maslakov received from the person faithful to it from special department news that he, at the request of Budenny, is going to be arrested.

Maslakov brought together commanders of regiments with staff for farewell lunch. During a lunch he asked for all attendees about -

a shcheniye for possible offenses, thanked for three years' war on the party of the Soviet power and began to cry.

On a question what it is wanted to be arrested for, answered so: "And for the fact that I abused Seman (so he called Budenny). That he paid back with meanness of Du-menko... I do not regret, tse our personal put. And want to arrest me from a name of the Soviet power and for what? The tsar was thrown off, and kinglets of a zasila also create shcho want". And then added: "I leave on Don with the offended banner..."

Who such Grigory Semyonovich Maslakov?

The nonresident peasant - the Ukrainian who grew up in the Salsk steppe. A natural surname - Maslak.

In huge archive FSB G.S. Maslak (Maslakov) is not across the Rostov region of investigative business. But it also cannot be: it was not succeeded to arrest him, so, there was neither investigation, nor the vessels. Also dealt shortly with him in a different way... However in many other affairs which are stored in FSB archives this surname in two options, Little Russian and great Russian, or a nickname under which he remained in memory national - "grandfather Maslak" will meet still more than once.

But it is possible to collect history of this person - according to scrappy data from unfair memoirs, from works of fiction, from the classified documents which are happily found in archives, from letters and from legends.

In the memoirs "The passable way" S.M. Budenny who slandered many with whom started "career" in revolution, repeatedly mentions Maslakov. Well, where from it to get to if that really was involved in many battles of a red cavalry - and played not the last role in them.

The few from readers of the well-known novel of Babel "Cavalry" know that Maslak described in the head by "Afonk Bid" - not the literary character, and really existing person. This work Budenny for realistic display pervo especially hated horsemen, strikingly differing from official embellishment.

Here is how, with peculiar to it a giperbolichnost, Babel describes Maslak:

"Ahead of a regiment, on a steppe raskoryachenny loshadenka, Maslak poured by drunk blood and decay of fat juice went kombirg. His stomach as a big cat, lay on onions, fettered by silver".

Even considering writer's exaggeration - not a really nice portrait.

And here data from the report of the secret agent of ChK on a performance Maslak before farmers in 1921, after leaving from the front:

"Maslak told

>, reminded citizens of the life that he in old time was a farm laborer, worked hard, was a horse trainer, it is a lot of vodka saws, spent on drink things and again it did not acquire and yet lived and were not as undressed as now".

Such Don Chelkash. As we know today, persons of this stamp in revolution appeared much. It is enough to remember at least the original facts from life Kotovsk or Parkhomenko, is worth erasing from them the luster caused in Soviet period.

And still why Maslak told about relationship with Budenny - "tse our personal put"?

It for this purpose had bases. When in February, 1918 to Dona the first krasnopartizansky groups began to be created, fate brought together them together - Dumenko, Budenny and Maslak. And several years they were at war side by side, rising with growth of the Red Army up an office ladder. But the regular army at Bolsheviks appeared, as a matter of fact, only by the end of Civil war. And until then both were at war, and lived in a guerrilla way.

Working in the Krasnogorsk archive of film documentary photographs, I paid attention to how red fighters in frames of the chronicle of times of Civil war looked. No uniform form then existed. Collected many a little, often taking away clothes from the population.

Shots on which it is visible remained, than Trotsky near Tsaritsyn awards the caused a stir fighters. He distributes packs of cigarettes from the taken warehouses. And in what red commanders were dressed in the majority? In the service jackets which are taken away from white - those with which they were supplied by the Entente.

And food went at the expense of local community. That at white that at red. The well-known phrase from the movie "Chapayev" ("White come - gra-bt, red come - grabt") - not art fiction, but exact statement of the real facts.

In such conditions the Trinity which is indissolubly interesting us till May, 1919 was also at war. Were gradually created from guerrilla groups of the shelf, crew, a division. Became the chief Dumenko, the first in the south of a cavalry division. His assistant - Budenny. And Maslak - the commander of crew.

Were involved in many battles, glories, awards achieved victories. One order were awarded with awards of the Red Banner. Perhaps, all this would proceed for a long time. But in May, 1919 under the farm Pletnev Dumenko was seriously injured. The place it was taken by Budenny. There came other times, the division became the case. And then and the 1st Cavalry. Near Budenny Voroshilov and Shchadenko appeared. And here already the place for Dumenko was not.

Dumenko after recovery created the new case - Konnosvodny, gained with it bright victories, in January, 1920 took Novocherkassk. But around there were already other people - and nobody with whom it began Civil war.

And Maslak and remained under Budenny's command. Was at war bravely, it is even reckless, became famous as the dashing swordsman, but remained the person capricious with which it was hard to cope. Dumenko it worked well: he was highly esteemed Maslak. And not one it. Budenny was other person, and, under many certificates, he is not enough

loved. And yet Maslak as a nachdiv visited. Even two times. But it is short. It is visible, circumstances compelled. And so, most likely, the crew was its "ceiling": both he is semiliterate, and is capricious, and guerrilla warfare sat in it ineradicably. And it was the most senior in this Trinity: already for 50. On representations of those years - the old man.

In September, 1919 Maslak participated in operation on capture of the Philip Kuzmich Mironov who self-willedally took away the case on fight against Denikin and outlawed by Trotsky. And though all this malopriglyadny hunting was made under Budenny's command, in the operational report of the headquarters of the 4th kavdiviziya on September 14, 1919 it was noted: "Special activity and courage in it was shown by the brigade commander 1st Maslakov". There will pass not a lot of time, and he on himself will have feelings of the person who is pursued by the.

Fate brought together their three again - in Rostov-on-Don, in April, 1920

But situation them was a miscellaneous. Mironov who endured expectation of execution after a sentence and then sudden pardon, worked in Donispolkom. Dumenko sat in the Rostov prison, expecting court, and his former assistant - the commander Budenny - conducted now the 1st Cavalry through Rostov on the Polish front. In honor of this event on the Rostov hippodrome the meeting took place.

Here is how Dyatluk described what occurred on a meeting:

"During the meeting when Budenny acted, one drunk fighter standing near a tribune told: "You, Senya, gray mistress, shchob our favourite dear companion Dumenko buv infections z us". "Who told - to release Dumenko? I will shoot him now, I will shoot own hand!" - Budenny flared up. After that a terrible echo rushed on all hippodrome: "Down with from a tribune!" And Budenny was forced to descend as despised. Only by the end for the acted commander of the 4th kavdiviziya Oka Gorodovikov made the proposal to choose from each platoon on one representative on court Dumenko which will make sure that Dumenko will be judged honestly and correctly. The ego calmed fighters".

From where to them was to know that the testimony which supported the charges brought to Dumenko and the predetermined sentence of tribunal is already given?

Here fragments from the indications written with own hand on March 29, 1920

Commander of the 1st Cavalry S.M. Budenny:

"Working from June 25, 1918 to December 23 the same year, I had to observe in parts that from Dumenko there were some discontent to political workers. For the last period I was reached by rumors that it also worked as it was earlier, belonged to work of political character in a negative form".

Member of RVS of the 1st Cavalry E.L. Shchadenko:

"Dumenko sometimes reached that on telegraph allowed abuse to the address of Revolutionary Military Council and Soviet power. These roughnesses it was necessary

to smooth Dumenko's rewardings, anyway, to moderate his counterrevolutionary spirit".

The member of PB C1 - y Cavalry K.E. Voroshilov:

"I know the accused Dumenko since July, 1918. I consider that Dumenko was a toy in hands of dexterous agents of Denikin. And at best impudent adventurer. It - pettiness".

Among these indications, it is more similar to denunciations, the meanness nevertheless selects Budenny's certificate. Well, for Voroshilov and Dumenko's Shchaden-co was a stranger, and nothing prevented to bring it under execution by it. But Dumenko and Budenny were on friendly terms, one may say, fir-trees from one kettle; their wives were close girlfriends. Dumenko and in last days continued to hope for Budenny's help.

Well and how Maslak behaved after that conflict on a hippodrome?

From the story by his orderly which is provided in the letter by Dyatluk:

"Maslakov at a meeting with Budenny after the incident on a hippodrome strong abused Budenny for his mean act to Dumenko. It was not pleasant to Budenny, and he decided to get rid of Maslakov. When went on the Polish front, in one settlement the house where Maslakov stopped, at dawn it was surrounded kavdiviziony of the arrived replenishment. Maslakov was tried to be arrested. But he with one orderly showed resistance before arrival on protection of its squadrons of the 19th kavpolk". it is difficult for p to understand

Today how they could pass together both the Polish campaign, and fights in the Crimea, and hunting for Makhno. This abnormal situation led to a tragic outcome in November, 1920 when Maslak took away on Don 300 fighters from the 19th and 20th kavpolok.

On Don Maslak left without any obstacles through Rostov where nobody tried to stop him. And it was difficult to prevent well armed horsemen when around revolts against Bolsheviks with might and main stormed. In the reference prepared in the winter of 1921 by the chairman of the Don ChK Boring data on activity are provided in the Don districts more than 30 "gangs". Not dozens, but hundreds of people participated in them. So Maslak got to the boiling copper.

Perhaps, I would never learn about the last months life Maslak if not one, from my point of view, natural accident.

Working in 1991 in the Rostov partarkhiv, received from storage at all not that folder which ordered. Having glanced in it out of curiosity, I suddenly found: it is the confidential report prepared by the Don ChK for party bodies. Reviews of reports of secret agents were attached to such confidential reports which were formed for the management about situation in the Don region. Here so, in more than 70 years, I unexpectedly learned about Maslak's actions to Dona.

Upon return on the home ground Maslak's group united with "gang of the father Brova". Operated generally on Manyche - possibly because it native places of Maslak where he was known and from where it began the krasnopartizansky way.

Here several fragments from these reviews:

"March, 1921. About Maslak's work.

About propaganda:. Maslakov spoke, I go into battle for the people. Fighters complained to me at the front that their parents in the village starve, on places plunder, take away bread to grain, and asked to go on the help to bring order where I also came. Having come to the area, we saw more horrors, than with breathed at the front.

Make an allotment of bread, dogs and sparrows which citizens will be obliged by hands to catch and remove from trees. Sparrows on some poods on each farm. The Soviet power suits week of love during which all have to go with the pinned bows and if on the woman within a week there is no boyfriend, then the Soviet power takes from it in a type of tax several thousands. Upon termination of the speech draws a conclusion that the Soviet power with the workers scoffs at the people... Allegedly Soviet power knows that peasants have no bread, but such put to basements, and poor people Grand-ducal dammed 47 basements where I, Maslak, and will go to release, and those in three days will be free".

In Martynovke Maslak met, according to other agent, by bell-ringing, with bread and salt, and one of citizens addressed it: "We welcome you as dear deliverers from communistic robbers".

In the well-known Soviet movie Kotovsk plundered estates of landowners and distributed bread to peasants. But it was before revolution. After the revolution Maslak was engaged in the same. And he selected bread at prodotryadovets.

So, on the understanding, Grigory Semyonovich Maslak, still quite recently - the red commander, and now - "bandit", the enemy of the Soviet power defended justice. That power for which fought three years. It could not overcome this terrible contradiction any more.

The spring came nearer. Pulled fighters to families, and they began to part on houses. But before destroyed Brova's gang, the father was cut by Maslak. And what the general could be at maslakovets with this gang which main objective was an ordinary robbery?

Maslak terribly worried that it appeared with illegal status, became "bandit". He was going to go from guilty to Lenin, considering only his "correct" person. The group became less and less, parts of internal troops hunted for it and, after all, somewhere in the Salsk steppe Maslak was killed.

How exactly he died - precisely, documentary it is not found out.

The strange story was told me by Vladimir Karpenko during shooting of the television movie of Dumenko.

There was it to year in the 1965th when the writer only began to collect materials for a historical dilogy "Komkor Dumenko": went to Moscow, to the Main Military Procuracy, worked in archives, it was written off with vetera-us-horsemen. Once to it home - he lived then in Astrakhan -

the person elderly already was. It was presented by the general of KGB. Gray-haired, it is dressed in civilian, a martial bearing, bossy manners. The guest was laconic: he ordered group which Maslako-va pursued "gang", overtook it under Zimovnikami, surrounded... And it personally hit a horse of Maslakov who tried to escape from an environment. And then shot also the most rebellious brigade commander still lying on the earth: to take the old skilled swordsman live was business hopeless and dangerous.

What for the sake of the security officer veteran who killed the brigade commander Maslak nezvano came to the young writer, it became clear at the end. Saying goodbye, not ordered, not asked: "You badly do not write about it".

Abigail Barbara
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