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Greeks in works of antique mifograf: to a problem of origin of Greeks



UDK 397

GREEKS IN WORKS ANTIQUE MIFOGRAFOV: To the PROBLEM of ORIGIN of GREEKS

In this article the problem of origin of Greeks is considered. The author adduces arguments in favor of a hypothesis according to which the Greeks living in the Slang lead during the Mycenaean era were relic Indo-European ethnic group, to related praslavyana, prabalta, praskifa and prairanets.

The special place in a complex of problems of a paleobalkanistika, a mikenologiya and Indo-European studies is occupied by the questions connected with studying ethnocultural history of the Balkano-Egeysky region during an era which found reflection more in works of antique mifograf, than in works of historians, i.e. in the III-II millennium BC

Most of modern researchers (L.S. Klein, A. Bartonek, etc.), following the point of view which settled in the 19th century, believes that Greeks, along with achaeans, were one of the Greek tribes living in Argolida in Mycenaean epokhu1. However it is necessary to consider the problem of ethnocultural attribution of Greeks, in our opinion, in the context of the last achievements of Indo-European studies. It is also important to consider data of the Ancient Greek mythological tradition believing that Greeks were only distant relatives of Greeks.

The variety of ideas of myths as a form of archaic thinking, ideology of primitive society, emotionally charged judgment of phenomena of the world, etc. does not exhaust specifics of myths. Mythological traditions as the systems of myths of various ethnic groups represent sacral genealogy and reflect views of people of traditional societies on the world as space tribal community. The events described in myths can be localized not only in sacral, but also real space and time. The comparative analysis of mifooobraz of Indo-European mythological traditions indicates a concrete locus of an Indo-European oykumena with which they are connected. The Ancient Greek mythology which kept both praindoyevropeysky mythemes, and the memory of their place in a "space" genealogical system acts as a kernel of a research of Indo-European mifotradition while myths of other Indo-European people mainly represent features of mythological onomastics. Comparison of results of researches in the field of linguistic paleontology and archeology with results of studying Indo-European mifotradition on the basis of a comparative-historical method allows to define as an area of the Indo-European ancestral home of the earth in the basin of the Aegean Sea. It is possible with a sufficient share of confidence to claim that allocation of Indo-European parent language from a primitive language continuum should be connected with emergence of the center making hozyay1 Bartonek A. Zlatoobilnye Mikena. M, 1991. Page 8-21; Klein L.S. Danayskaya Illiad: To characteristic of sources and formations of the homeric epos//Messenger of ancient history (VDI). 1990. No. 1. Page 22-53; Losev A.F. Homer. M, 1960. Page 48-49, 267-270; G. Nadj. Greek mythology and poetics. M, 2002. Page 120-131.

A.G. CHEREDNICHENKO

Public Educational Institution of Higher Professional Training Belgorod State University

E-mail:

cherednichenko@bsu.edu.ru

stvo (neolitization center) in Egeide2. Praindoyevropeytsa began the resettlement on the oykumena with the South of the Balkan Peninsula and islands of the Aegean Sea. Thus, the pra-Indo-European ethnic group acts as the carrier of neolytic cultures of Peloponnese, Cyclades, Thessaly and Macedonia (VII-VI millennium BC). In the basin of the Aegean Sea throughout a long time the ethnic groups which were speaking relic Indo-European dialects and passed subsequently to Greek remained.

The purpose of this work is in that, being guided by the concept of interpretation of mi-fotradition as sacral genealogiya to offer way of solving the problem of ethnocultural attribution of Greeks in the context of achievements of Indo-European studies. Consideration of a question of origin of Greeks is based on the analysis of these narrative sources and linguistic paleontology.

The comparative analysis of the Indo-European mifotradition which were, in fact, sacral genealogiya allows to consider them as the important source of information allowing to investigate Indo-European "doistoriya" (prehistory). The Hellenic mythological tradition built a genealogy of Greeks to Deucalion while Greeks were considered as the remote descendants of Inakh, the son Okean and Tetis (Tefiya), by name which the river ’&Гуахо was called? in Argolida. Even the Ancient Greek historian Thucydides who was critically treating works of logographs and mifograf (5th century BC) did not call in question fidelity of the Hellenic ethnogenealogical legends (Thucydides. History. I, 2 - h). He believed that at the time of the Trojan war Hellas (& EXXa?, - Abo?) did not bear this name yet. Various tribes inhabiting it (pelasg, etc.) owing to close communication with each other after Homer's era began to be called Greeks. Actually C&EXXnvs Greeks?) Thucydides calls descendants of the Greek (& & EXXnv, - nvo?), the son Deucalion governing once in Ftiotida (F0yut1?, - gbo?, F01a, F01p). The Ancient Greek historian also paid attention that Homer does not designate all tribes of Hellas by one general name of Greeks anywhere and so calls nobody, except soldiers of team of Achilles from Ftiotida who were the first Greeks. Homer in the poems calls the others Greeks, argivyana or achaeans.

Really, Homer, for example, listing the people which soldiers arrived to besiege Troy-Ilium, calls Greeks and Greeks separately (Homer. Illiad. II, 527 - 535).

Mifograf the 2nd century BC Apollodorus in the work of "Genealogy" better known as "Mythological library", kept both a sacral genealogy of Greeks, and a genealogy of Greeks (Apollodorus. Mythological library. I, 7 - 9, II, 1 - 8, III, 1 - 4). Greeks were considered as descendants of the Greek, the son Deucalion and Pirra (Apollodorus. Mythological library. I, 7). From sons of the Greek Dora, Ksufa (father Akhey and Ion) and Eol occurred the Greek tribes of doriyets, achaeans, Ionians and eoliyets. Greeks were considered as descendants of Danaya who was a grandson of Libya, the daughter of Epaf, the son Zeus and Io, the great-grandson Inakh (Apollodorus. Mythological library. II, 1, 1 - 4). At Libya and Poseidon twin sons Agenor were born (’Ay^vop, - a shouting?) It is also white (В^Яо?). Agenor having been removed in Foy-nikiya, set in there, having become the ancestor of a great sort. It is white, having remained in Egypt, set in over Egypt and married Ankhinoye, Neil's daughter. And he gave birth to twin sons Aygyupt (Egipt, ’&Агуилто?) and Danay (Aavao?) and also Kefey (К^феи?,-¿Q?) and Finey (Fgugi?,-¿Q?). It is white lodged Danaya in Libya, Aygyupta - in Arabia. That, having won

2 I.M. Dyakonov. About the ancestral home of carriers of Indo-European dialects. 1 / / VDI. 1982. No. 3. Page 3-30; I.M. Dyakonov. About the ancestral home of carriers of Indo-European dialects. 2 / / VDI. 1982. No. 4. Page 11-25; V.I. Georgiev. Researches on comparative-historical linguistics: Related relations of Indo-European languages. M, 1958. Page 269-280; L.A. Lelekov. To the newest solution of an Indo-European problem//VDI. 1982. No. 3. Page 31-37; G.N. Lisitsyna, L.A. Filipovich. Paleo-etnobotanichesky finds on the Balkan Peninsula//Studia Praehistorica. 4. Sofia, 1980. Page 590; L.P. Marinovich. Studying Northern and Central Greece in 1962-1966//VDI. 1969. No. 3. Page 189-204; L.P. Marinovich. Studying Peloponnese in 1967-1970//VDI. 1973. No. 1. Page 160-174; L.P. Marinovich. Studying the Greek islands of the Aegean Sea and Crete in 1967 - 1970//VDI. 1973. No. 2. Page 121-144; Zh. Audrey. Indo-European language//New in foreign linguistics. Issue 21: New in modern Indo-European studies. M, 1988. Page 24-121, 532-533; N.N. Cheboksarov, Chebok-Sarov I.A. People. Races. Cultures. M, 1985. Page 48-77, 172-184; Renfrew C. The Origins of Indo-European Languages//Scientific American. 1989. No. 10. P. 82-90.

country of melampod (M¾khadloi?, - Lobo? "chernonogiya"), called it on the name Egypt. At Aygyupt fifty sons, and at Danaya - fifty daughters were born from numerous wives.

If to generalize the data which are contained in Apollodorus's work and also in works of Hesiod, Homer, Eskhil, Herodotus, Diodor Sitsiliysky, Strabo, Gigin and other antique authors, then the genealogy of Greeks is represented as follows (Herodotus. History. I, 1 - 2, 56, II, 41 - 42; Hesiod. Teogoniya. 950 - 955; Gigin. Myths. 19, 29-36, 63 - 64, 97, 157, 162, 168 - 170, 178; Homer. Illiad. II, 527 - 535, 653 - 680, III, 250-258; Diodor Sitsiliysky. Historical library. IV, 8 - 39, 57, V, 55 - 60; Strabo. Geography. VIII, 6, 9 - 10; Eskhil. Petitioners. 1 - 40, 540 - 594; Eskhil. Prometheus chained. 700 - 741).

From marriage of Libya (Lfts, Lfya) and Poseidon twins were born also Agenor Is white. Libya (Libyue) was a daughter of Epaf, the son Io (’1yu) both Zeus, and Memfida, Neil's daughter. On her name the lands west of the valley and the delta of Nile began to be called Libya.

Poseidon's son and Libya Is white set in in Memphis, married Ankhinoye, Neil's daughter from whom he generated twins of Egypt and Danaya is later than sons Kefey and Finey and also the daughter Damno, having become the ancestor of many great people (Persians, indoariyev). Aygyupt and Danay first lived in the valley of Nile, and in old age moved to Argolida together with children - egiptiadam (Egiptiadami, ’A_uilt¾yu? у^о?) and danaidam (Danaidami, Daua_&b є?).

Aygyupt, the son Béla reigning in Arabia won the earth of the chernonogy (melampod) wandering in swamps. He called it by the name, i.e. Egypt. From Isei, the daughter sister Damno and the uncle Agenor, and many other wives (Libyans, Arabs, a finikiyanok) it generated 50 sons of egiptiad and planned to marry them to the brother's daughters in reconciliation.

Danay reigning in Libya struggled with the brother for the power over the country of the chernonogy (melampod) wandering in swamps. Egiptiady began to covet his 50 daughters-danaid born from Meliya, the daughter his sister Damno, and other wives (naiads, gamadriad, princesses from Elefantida and Hemmis, Ethiopians).

The first constructed the fifty-oar ship on the advice of Athena Tritonida of fear of Egiptiadami Danay. Having put on it 50 daughters, Danay escaped, arrived to Rhodes Island where erected Athena Lindskaya's statue for council about the ship, and then came to Argos and received throne from Gelanor.

After a while to Argos the profits pursuing Danaid Egiptiady also demanded from Danaya to agree to marriage. Having achieved the, all of them except one Lin-keya fell the victims of the wives. But from Danaya and Danaid there were Greeks in Argolida, and later (through Greek Alkida-Gerakla) Scythians (Hkiva ї, - yu), praslavyane-agafirsa (’Auaviroo ї) and prabalty-gelona (G¾Hshuo і).

Kefey reigning in Hemmis married Kassiopey and lodged in Iopp Palestinskaya. Cassiopeia gave birth to it to the beautiful daughter Andromeda who since childhood was betrothed with Finey reigning in Ethiopia. However, saved by Greek Perseus (P¾ra¾i?,-¿ю?), she became his wife and gave birth to the son Perce (Shrap?, - oi), left on education to Kefey and Kassiopy. From this Perce the Persian tsars of Akhemeni-da conduct the sort. On Perce's grandfather his descendants bore an ancient name of a kefena (to Kpfp є?). This is the divine ancestor of all Iranians, turanets and Sarmatians.

Fasos with the satellites went to Olympia in the beginning, put the bronze statue devoted tirsky Herodotus there: the ten-meter giant was represented with a club and onions, and then went to the island Fasos where founded colony and began to develop rich gold mines. All this occurred for five generations before in Argolida Alkid-Gerakl nicknamed Heracles (’є і bp was born AHk?, - oi, & NrakHp?,-¿ои? "Glory of Hera"), son Amfitriona (Herodotus. History. II, 44; IV, 5 - 10, 47; Pavsany. Description of Hellas. V, 25, 6 - 7).

According to the Hellenic tradition, at the beginning of the 13th century BC, legendary campaigns Alkida-Gerakla Herodotus to Mauritania and Iberia (to Atlanta and to Hesperides), to Ireland (on the island of Erifiya for Gerion's bulls), to Rhône Valley, to Italy and Sicily took place. Perhaps, Herodotus disappears under a name of the Celtic mythical hero Mil ("soldier"). It is possible to assume that a plot about search of cows in the Foothills of Thrace and cohabitation to the foremother of Scythian tribes (Herodotus. History. IV, 8 - 10) is the original legend about early ethnogenesis of Scythians, Slavs and Balts, i.e. Eki0ag, ’Aua0iraog, G¾Hyuuo і, the being descendants of sons Heracles Skif, Agafirs and Gelon. The place of ethnogenesis of these tribes specified coast of Hellespont (= Bopua0évn?, Borisfen) and certain Giley, i.e. "The woody area", near Hellespont (Tekirdag?). Scythians moved also subsequently from Tiniya in Vifiniya (Bitiniya), from Thrace (Trakiya, "the Trojan possession") to Small Scythia, Great Scythia up to Tanais and Bospor Kimmeriysky. Here, apparently, why dicrusts of odris and Bospor Kimmeriysky's dicrusts bore identical names - Perisad, Spartok, Remetalk. All of them are descendants of a dynasty Paralatov (ParaLatsh) and Greeks (Aavaoí).

The Parian chronicle ("The Parian marble", 3rd century BC) represents rather exact chronology of the events happening in Egeida in the II-I millennium BC:

"6. After the Greek, Deucalion's son, set in in Ftiotida and being called before "Greeks" [Gragko!] received a name of Greeks and Pang's competitions [were founded]... and there was it during reign in Athens of Amfiktion, passed 1257 (1520/19).

7. After Kadm, the son Agenora, arrived in Thebes... also constructed to Kadmey, and there was it at the time of reign in Athens of Amfiktion, passed 1252 (1518/17)...
9. After the first fifty-oar ship constructed Danay came from Egypt to Hellas and "pentekonter" was called, and daughters Danaya of a .on, Gelika and Arkhedik, having separated from others, founded Athena Lindiya's sanctuary on the coast and made a sacrifice in. Lind in Rhodes, and there was it during reign in Athens to Erikhtoniya, passed 1242 (1510/14)...
18. After... Heracles... and there was it during reign in Athens of Egeus. (1307/06 - 1295/94)...
28. After the beginning of works of the poet Hesiod, and there was it during reign in Athens... 67 passed [h] year (9 [37/35] [?] BC).
29. After the beginning of works of the poet Homer, and there was it during an arkhontstvo in AfinahDioget, there passed 643 years (907/05 BC)" 3.

Danaida, Greeks (Perseus and Perseida, Heracles and Geraklida) have direct compliance in Old Indian epic mythological tradition. To Greeks there correspond descendants of the goddess to Dan of a danava. To Dan there is a daughter of the seventh son Brakhma Daksha, wise Kash-yapy Pradzhapati's wife, mother 40 or 100 danavov4.

As mister of danav was considered danavapat to Raakh (Rakh). To Raakh - Viprachitta and Sinkhiki's son, the thief of a part of an amrita of dev. His chopped-off head was uplifted on heaven where regularly swallows Surya and to Som, and his dragon tail the Siberian salmon became a comet. To Raakh - an embodiment of an ecliptic, eclipses and meteor showers. The leader of danav was called also a danavendra. (To a danavagur, the danavapugit) Shchukra, the manager of a star of Venus was a mentor of danav. Foes of danav - Shiva Danavavayrin, Indra Danavari.

The most probable comparison: Dánu, danavá-~ Aavaó?, Danaus "Danay", Aaván, Danae "Danaya", AavaíSs?, Danaides of Danaida, Aavaoí, Danai "Greeks".

Summing up some results, we will notice that the sacral genealogy of Greeks connects their origin with Inakh and Io's sort. Legends about Io's wanderings can be treated as the data on the most ancient migrations of "sa-temny" Indo-European ethnic groups which remained in the Hellenic mifotradition. Presence of Indo-European "satemny" ethnic groups in the Middle East in the II millennium BC is recorded in relic onomastics (cf. names of gods and Mitanni-Hanigalbat's tsars, names of kinglets of Syria and Palestine) 5. Let's bring some of them:

>- the name of the country Maitan(n)i, Mitan(n)i derivative with a hurritsky suffix - n[n]i from a proper name * Mait(t)a kept also in Black Sea onomasti3 The Parian chronicle//Diodor Sitsiliysky. Historical library: The Greek mythology / Lane with drevnegrech., article, comments and O.P. Tsybenko's index. M, 2000. Page 147-150.

4 V.G. Temkin E.N. Ehrman. Myths of ancient India. M, 1982. Page 15-22, 63-66.
5 Vilhelm G. Ancient people of a hurrita: Essays of history and culture. M, 1992. Page 42-75; Zh. Dyumezil. Supreme gods of Indo-Europeans. M, 1986. Page 17-29; T.Ya. Elizarenkova. Rigveda is the great beginning of the Indian literature and culture//Rigveda: Mandalas of I-IV. M, 1989. Page 429431; O.N. Trubachev Indoarica in Northern Black Sea Coast: Reconstruction of relics of language. Etymological dictionary. M, 1999. Page 15-41, 157-178; Meyer G.R. Das Archiv von Tell el-Amarna eine wichtige historische Quelle//Tutankhamun and his time. M, 1976. Page 96-106.

ke (an ethnonym of MaiQTai, Mairçxai, the name of the Sea of Azov of MaiœTiç, - i8oç, Mai^Tiç, - i8oç reflect an Indo-Aryan form * maya-vat-i "belonging to Maya");

>- the name of the capital of Mitangni Was (s) uk(k) an(n)i, Wasukanne, Ussukani also is hurritsky suffixal registration or other - Indus. vasu-khani 'mine of wealth, treasures and good', or other - Indus. proper name of Vasuki 'name of the tsar of serpentine demons'; the hurritsky suffix - n(n)e, - n(n)i indicates adaptation of an Indo-Aryan word or name in a hurritoyazychny environment;

>- by teony (Ilani) Mîtràsïl [*Mitra-sil] it is built to the Indo-Iranian name of god of Mitra, Mithra (Mixra); the name is issued by a hurritsky suffix - sil;

>- teony (Ilani) Urûanâsiel: Arunâssïl [*Urvana-si(e)l; * Aruna-sil], most likely, can be built to other - Indus a name of god of Varuna (less possibly - Aruna); the name is adapted in a hurritoyazychiya (suf. - sil);

>- teony (Ilu) Indar(a) it is comparable to other - Indus. name of god of Indra;

- teony (Ilani) Nasâtt ïânna [*Nasatya-nne] derivative from other - Indus a teonima of Nasatya, is adapted by means of a hurritsky suffix - n(n)e;

>- the name of the tsar Mitangni of the 16th century BC Kirta is comparable to other - Indus. kPa the 'Golden Age' or kit 'creating';

>- the name of tsars of Mitannya Artatama, Artadama I, II (the XV-XIV centuries BC) is correlated to other - Indus. ita-dama(n) ‘that, whose dwelling Righteousness’, cf. avistas. ar0a "righteousness";

- a name of the tsar Mitannya Artasumara (14th century BC) - cf. previous from ita-(arta-), etc. - Indus. su-mara;

- a name of the Syrian tsar of Artamanija (14th century BC) - cf. previous from ita-; arta-, man-ya;

>- name of the tsar of the South Phoenician city Januamna Biridaswa (14th century BC) soderVí )

zhit indoiran. asva basis horse, horse;

- the name of the Syrian tsar of the 14th century BC Birijamaza contains the Iranian basis of maza ‘great, mighty’;

- a name of the Syrian kinglet of Dasarti (other - egip. dsr.t, tjt dsr.t) cf. with other - Indus. Dasaratha proper name;

>- a name of the tsar of the city Cilantro Kadesh on the river Oront in Syria (14th century BC) Etagama is comparable to other - Indus. eta ‘spotty; species of a deer’ and gama ‘going; copulation, coition’;

>- a name of the kinglet of the city Guddasuna (14th century BC) Jamiuta is comparable to other - Indus. names Yama, Yami & #43; suf. - uta;

>- a name of the Palestinian kinglet (14th century BC) Indaruta is comparable to other - Indus. name Indrota (Indratuta);

>- a name of the Syrian kinglet of the 14th century BC Irimajassa cf. with other - Indus. irma 'hand' and suf. - yasa;

- the name of the tsar of the city Haz(z)i Majarzana (14th century BC) has the Indo-Iranian shape: maya 'sorcery, witchcraft, magic' and arjana 'acquisition': * maya-arjana 'acquired by means of sorcery';

>- a name of the kinglet of the city Ube (near Damascus) Namijawaza (14th century BC) is comparable to other - Indus. namya ‘pasturable, with pasture’ and vasa 'housing';

>- a name of the tsar Mitangni of the 14th century BC Par(r)at(t)arna cf. with other - Indus. prefixal formation of para-tarna-ka ‘other, later calf’ or ‘grass, stalk’;

- name of the tsar Mitaniya of the 15th century BC Parsadatara obvious composite * parsa ‘leopard; Persian (?)’ and datar ‘giver; donator’;

>- a name of the kinglet of the city Saruna (in Galilee) Rusmanja (14th century BC) is comparable to other - Indus. root rus-'kill, wound'; (in the feminine) rus ‘anger, rage’; cf. the name Artamanja, etc. - Indus. 'brahmanical' brahmanya;

- the name of the Syrian kinglet of the 14th century BC Satija is comparable to other - Indus. satya 'one hundred' or sati;

- the name of the tsar Mitaniya of the 14th century BC Sattiwaz (z) an is built to other - Indus. sati-vaja 'extracting trophies'; cf. vaja-sati 'production of trophies';

>- the name of tsars of Mitaniya the XIV-XIII century BC Satura (I, II) is comparable to other - Indus. 'hasty' satvara;

>- a name of the tsar Mitaniya of the 15th century BC Sausadatara, Saustatara a composite - * sausa ‘Saush, Susa (?)’ and datar 'bearer, donator';

>- a name of the tsar of the town Kelte near Jerusalem Suw(a)ardata (14th century BC) is comparable to other - Indus. svar-data 'gift of the Sun';

>- the name of the Syrian kinglet of the 14th century BC Subandu reminds a composite other - Indus. su-bandhu 'kind, good friend';

- the name of the Syrian kinglet of the 14th century BC Süta is comparable to other - Indus. suta 'juice som' or suta 'son';

>- a name of tsars of Mitaniya the XVI-XIV centuries BC Suttarna (I, II, III), a name of the tsar of the city Musihuna (14th century BC) Sutarna have Indo-Aryan shape: su-^rna 'kind grass, good stalk'; or su-tarnaka 'having a kind calf, a cub';

>- the proper name from the city of Alalakh (Northern Syria) dated 17th century BC, Tirgutawija on the one hand is comparable to a name of the queen TgruotaL in meotiysky areas of Northern Black Sea Coast, to another - with other - Indus. ^rgu-tava;

>- the name of the mitaniysky tsar of the 14th century BC Tuiseratta, Tusratta is comparable to other - Indus. tvesa-ratha ‘brilliant the chariot whose chariot impetuously moves’;

>- a name of the kinglet of the city Zilu near Lakisha (14th century BC) Turbazu is comparable to other - Iran. * tur 'tour, bull', bazu ‘great, big’;

>- the name of the mitanniysky tsar of the end XIV - the beginning of the 13th centuries BC of Vasasta, Vasasatta is comparable to other - Indus. name Vasistha;

>- the name of the leader of the city of Askalon in the 14th century BC of Widija is comparable to other - Indus. vidya 'wise man, witch doctor';

>- the name of the Syrian kinglet of the 14th century BC Zitrijara is comparable or to other - Indus. the name of month gaitra, or with other - Iran. gi0ra 'sign';

- the name of the kinglet of the city Akkon in the 14th century BC of Zurata, is possible, comparable to su-ratha ‘with the kind chariot’.

It is also possible to assume that, along with hamitoyazychny Egyptians (melam-poda), a certain contribution to creation of an Ancient Egyptian civilization was made also by Indo-European ethnic groups among which there were ancestors of Greeks. In any case, as Indo-Europeans by origin it is possible to recognize the giksos ruling Egypt in the XVIII-XVI centuries BC. Let's give some Indo-European and Ancient Egyptian onomastichesky and cultural and religious paralleli6:

>- other - egip. name of important god of the Egyptian pantheon Gore Hr.p.hrd [Harpokrates], Hr.s. ’st [Harsies], * Har(a), apparently, ascends to and. - e. * jor-: jer-'hot season, summer', cf. other - Greek & & Nra (Zeus's spouse), & & ßpai (Zeus's daughters, seasons), one of "forbidden" names of Zeus & & to Nr? (Heröi Perkönei);

>- other - egip. term k’ 'soul double' is comparable to other - Indus. ka ‘soul; body; time; sun; joy, fun; water; head; proper name of several gods’;

>- the name of the Nile River (other - Greek NsiXo?; lat. Nilus), most likely, goes back to other - Indus. to nila adjective ‘black, bluish-black, lilac’, corresponding other - egip. to the name of Egypt * Ta&Keme(t), keme 'black country'; color of silt deposits of Neil unlike ocherous tones (‘The red earth’) of the surrounding desert means;

>- other - egip. teony Gbb [*gab(b)] it is comparable to a basis of a name of the mythical ancestor of the Persian tsars К^фви?, Keph-eus (‘Kabh-&a occurring from *’), etc.

Thus, danaysky language can be carried to "East Indo-European" languages, i.e. to group of the Indo-European satem languages. The most noticeable phonetic line Indo-European (and. - e.) danaysky language it is necessary to consider distribution of a psiloza (transition and. - e. * s in * h in an anlauta and by the rule "hands"). This phonetic innovation mentioned pragrechesky, praslavyansky and prairansky Indo-European dialects (parent languages).

Origin of a praslavyansky phoneme * x as a result of a mutation and. - e. * s in * h in certain phonetic positions were in detail considered by many Indo-europeanists. The fidelity of a hypothesis of A. Meye and Ya. Otrembsky of change * s in * h through an intermediate stage * is improbable s, and here S. Bernstein's hypothesis of direct change * s in * h received additional arguments. Synthesis of data of areal Indo-European linguistics is represented to us very desirable (cf. course of similar phonetic mutations in an area of the illiro-Celtic languages of the Top Danube [*sal-& gt; hal-], in a Greek area [*sal-& gt; hal-], in an area of the Iranian languages [*sar-& gt; har-]). On a question of the articulation mechanism of this mutation several answers are given. In an area of the Baltic languages [*ur^sus & gt; virsüs] and in an area of the Indian languages [*-s-& gt; - s-] process muta-

6 Bomhard A.R. The Indo-European-Semitic Hypothesis Reexamined//The Journal of Indo-European Studies. Vol. 5. 1977. No. 1. P. 55-99.

tion primordial and. - e. * s by the rule "hands" proceeded some other way, and in an anlauta the mutation was not at all.

In this regard once again we will raise the question of process of occurrence of a phoneme * s in the system of a konsonantizm in terms of diachronic phonology. We incline to a conclusion that as in a question of mutations * s ^ * z, * s ^ * sw, in this case is about the allofonny nature of divergence * s ^ * s and * s ^ * h. These phonetic laws are related only to phonetics, to allofonny variation of phonemes depending on certain phonetic (position) conditions. And in this sense the phonetic laws are immutable during an era of the action. Process of a mutation of s & gt; h proceeded in praslavyansky language after the end of process of satemny palatalization, but until the end of process of a monoftongization of diphthongs and simplification of groups of concordants (bs & gt; s, ps & gt; s, ds & gt; s, ts & gt; s), destructions of a diphthongal combination * or. Let's especially note the provision that in a protoslavic dialect (in comparison with prakeltsky, pragrechesky and prairansky) transition process * s in * h was most aktivnym7.

Cf. praslav. * xodh and other - Greek & o8ó?, EDS. ’ouSó? ‘the road, a way’, 'transition' (from and. - e.

* sodos 'movement sitting astride or in the vehicle').

Several examples of the palatalized forms unusual for a pragrechesky phonetic system, remained in arcadian dialects. Examples on transition are especially indicative and. - e. * g’ & gt; z, and. - e. * g'w & gt; z:

’&а^а ‘heat, dust, a deposit’ - other - Indus. asa-‘dust, ashes’ 8;

& & а£оцш, & & а^втаг ‘reveres, esteems’ - other - Indus. yájati, avistas. yazate9;

Z¿pe0pov 'abyss' - other - Greek Pápa0pov, the EDS. - an ion. P¿pe0pov 'muzzle, abyss', praslav. * gm1o10;

Zn^o?, Zn^ÓQ, ZoXóq 'envy, jealousy' R. - and. - e. * gwel-‘to sting, prick; to torment’; Z "n, ion. Zón, Zqó R., Eol. Zoíti; Zqov; ZáQ, Znv ‘life; living being; to live’ - other - Greek Pío?, Pióq ‘life; to live’ 11;

EDS. fúZa 'flight' - other - Greek fiup, r. fyua12.

East Indo-European ("satemny") in Ancient Greek language it is presented by numerous integral isoglosses. Let's give several examples:

adstratny (EDS.) other - Greek 0atsro?, - in? ‘amazement, horror’, actually other - Greek tafo?, - in? (neuter) - as well other - Indus. in the masculine dambha-'deception', 'cunning', 'hypocrisy', dabha-'deceptive', dabh-'harm, hurt, wound', 'mislead, deceive';

adstratny tshchro.? ‘a sepulchral barrow, a grave’ and primordially other - Greek tafo? (masculine) ‘grave, barrow, crypt’;

adstratny kshchrp, kshchro?, Ku^píov 'vessel, bowl, cup' (actually other - Greek akyfo?, akyfvo? ‘a vessel, a bowl, a cup’), etc. - Indus. kumbhá-, avistas. xumba-'pot'.

A source of "satemny" language elements in "kentumny" languages of Egeida are ancient dialects of East Indo-European parent language, namely: a protoakhay-sky (Minoan) dialect of streams of Europe in Crete, a danaysky dialect of descendants of Danaya and Danaid in Argolida and Arkady, the protoalbanian (Cadmean) dialect of descendants of Kadm in Boeotia and Illyria, a fasossky dialect on Fasosa, the protothracian dialect of descendants of Kabeiro on Samofrakiya and Lemnos.

At the same time protoakhaysky (Minoan), protoalbanian (Cadmean) and fasossky dialects came from more extensive subgroup of dialects (together with the protoarmenian (hayk), protocilician and protoindo-Aryan). It are Agenor's descendants.

Danaysky and kabeyrsky dialects came from extensive subgroup of dialects (together with protoiranian). It are descendants Béla.

In Argolida and Danaid it is possible to connect distribution of cultivation of draft horses with migration of Danaya (cf. Ippodamiya, Ippodik, Ippomedus Danaida's names, Ippo-korist and Ippota Egiptiady, Ippota Pelasgov, Ippodamant Akheloyev). With emergence

7 V.A. Maslova. Sources of praslavyansky phonology. M, 2004. Page 207.
8 O.S. Shirokov. Greek history. M, 1983. Page 44.
9 In the same place.
10 V.A. Maslova. Sources of praslavyansky phonology. M, 2004. Page 249-251.
11 Shirokov O.S. Uk. soch. Page 44.
12 In the same place.

Greeks at the end of the 16th century BC can also be connected emergence of shakhtovy tombs of a circle And near Miken13.

So, language of Greeks - a link between the Iranian and Slavic language states within praindoyevropeysky ethnocultural community. Danaysky language is a source of a so-called psiloza (transition \\in \\). On the one hand, Greek Perseus - the ancestor of Persians (kefenov-akhemenid), on the other hand, Greek Alkid-Gerakl - the ancestor of Scythians, Slavs and Balts. Besides danaysky heritage in praslavyansky, prabaltsky, praskifsky, prairansky languages, it is possible to assume existence of considerable cultural, mythological, ideological heritage in the cultures of Slavs, Balts, Scythians, Iranians.

The provision on special communication of rannepraslavyansky community and prairansky community with language relics of satemny substrate of Central and Southern Greece can be reasoned at the phonetic, morphological, word-formation, syntactic and lexical levels. But it will be possible to identify Greeks with a certain complex of artifacts (archaeological culture) hardly as Greeks lived in the south of the Balkans cherespolosno with Greeks (graik), arkadets, driopa, etc.

The place of alleged rannepraslavyansky, ranneprabaltsky and rannepra-Scythian ethnogenesis (13th century BC) - coast of Hellespont (Dardanelles, the most ancient Bo-risfen), present Turkish Thrace.

DANAI IN TEXTS OF THE ANTIQUE MYTHOGRAPHS: TO THE PROBLEM OF ORIGIN OF THE DANAI

of CHEREDNICHENKO Ave

Belgorod State University E-mail:

cherednichenko@bsu.edu.ru

This article examines problem of origin of Danai. The Danai inhabited in Argolis in Mycenaean epoch. The author proves that the Danai were relict Indo-European ethnos related with the Proto-Slavs, Proto-Balts, Proto-Scythians and the Proto-Iranians.

13 Bartonek A. Uk. soch. Page 244-246.
Joseph Ortega
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