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Orthodoxy and Islam in Western Siberia (the end the XVII middle of the 18th century): interaction problems

pravoslavy and Islam in Western Siberia (the end of XVII — the middle of the 18th century):

interaction problems!

V.P. Klyueva

The article deals with questions of inter-confessional contacts and ethnoconfessional self-identification of West Siberian population in the XVIIth-XVIIIth cc. The paper reveals different communication levels in the relations between members of the Orhtodox Church and Moslems, namely, administrative, confessional, social-and-economic, and domestic ones. The author concludes on inter-personal tolerance among different confessions on West Siberian territory. As far as the administrative level is concerned, ethnoconfessional segregation was insignificant. At the same time, xenophobic reaction was marked on the part of the Orthodox and Moslem clergy.

For the Russian state, especially during the XVII—XVIII centuries, the religion was more important marker of belonging to a certain community or a stratum, than nationality of the particular person. So, with religion change (in this case it is about adoption of Orthodoxy) the place of the person in social hierarchy completely changed. Having received a new (Christian) name, he moved to other settlement where there lived Orthodox Christians, and turned into other class category. Such phenomena cause problems both at interfaith communication, and at ethnic self-identification of proselytes. These problems concern first of all a ratio of concepts of ethnic and confessional identification.

It is necessary to tell that mixture of confessional and ethnic origin of the person is characteristic of this period. This thesis can be confirmed with the fact that the religion of the individual less often — the place of his former residence was often specified in sources, the nationality was not specified absolutely. Such ethnonyms as "Pole", "Swede", "немчин", "бухаретин", etc., were understood first of all as citizenship of the person though subsequently (at interpretation of archive materials) this instruction allows to draw conclusions about ethnic origin. And the term "Lithuania" characterized the certain category in category of sluzhily people including foreign citizens, natives of Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belarus. The most widespread ethnic marker was language accessory: what language, such is and nationality. However the bilingualism was characteristic of the most part of the population of Siberia 17th century and later time. And the ethnic consciousness was more connected with awareness of the state and religious affiliation [Lyutsidarskaya, 1992. Page 79].

The population of Siberia represented alloy different ethnosocial (radical and alien) the groups adhering to various religions. Here various directions of Christianity (Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Lutheranism), Moslem, paganism and, slightly, Judaism were presented. Inflow of immigrants was big, most easily adaptation of the person who arrived to Siberia took place in case it adjoined tribespeople and brothers in faith. This fact can be confirmed on the example of resettlement of the Siberian bukharets who after adoption of the Russian citizenship tried to choose for permanent residence of the city with the developed Bukhara community. Bukharets lodged in other cases at brothers in faith, i.e. at Muslim Tatars. Besides, presence of brothers in faith allowed to conclude international marriages, expanding a circle of marriage partners that was important in the conditions of communities, small on number. Thus, Western Siberia as well as other suburban territories attached in the XVII—XVIII centuries acts as peculiar "frontier", one of signs of which is coexistence of various faiths. Orthodoxy and Islam were the largest faiths here that allows to speak rather about a bikonfessionalnost, than about a territory polikonfessionalnost.

In the Russian Empire several bikonfessionalny territories are allocated: Volga region, Siberia, Central Asia and Caucasus. The Bikonfessionalnost or a polikonfessionalnost was inherent in suburban territories, at the same time the Christianity in most cases came to the territory which is already occupied by the people practising Islam. For example, the first Muslim preachers from Bukhara and Urgench appear in Siberia in the 15th century. Especially actively their activity is developed in the 16th century at Kuchum. According to the legend, one of missionaries, Dean-Ali-Hodge, was married to Kuchum's daughter. In the 18th century their descendants lived in Sabanakovy and Tadzymovy yurtas (see in more detail: [Bakhrushin, 1959; Ziyaev, 1964; Tamils, 1994; Belich, 1997]).

Muslim society was homogeneous community with the developed attitude and special ethnoconfessional structure. Change of a religious paradigm caused the necessity of elaboration of individual and group strategy of behavior in polyconfessional society and also foldings of the certain stereotypes of communication allowing to adjust relationship. In such situation there are problems connected with ethnoconfessional self-determination.

We can assume that the level of perception depended on degree of readiness for contacts, degree of openness of ethnoconfessional group and level of knowledge of this group. Than less it is known of community, especially manifestation of xenophobia in relation to it is characteristic. At the same time charges to "gentiles" had rather stereotypic feature set. For example, in the Siberian church sources of the 18th century the Muslims were accused "of all sins": in sorcery and sorcery; in mockery over bodies of Orthodox Christians; in deceptive seduction in a magometanstvo,

violation of icons, etc. Islam in donosheniye of priests often was called "Mohammedan zloveriy" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 3. 2092. L. 3] or "godless Mohammedan zloverny ungodliness" [In the same place. L. 2ob.]. In the petition of residents of Tomsk (middle of the 17th century), among a set of "excesses" of the voivode Pyotr Pronsky it is indicated also that he in a jail placed the Tatar yurtas and country houses together. "And here tatorovya scoop from the Cossack wells and washed a kobylyatina in those wells also Tatar ware in the Russian wells of an omakala and the Russian people profaned those (it is allocated by me. — V.K.)" (tsit. on: [Lyutsidarskaya, 1992. Page 73]). But according to A.A. Lyutsidarskaya, indignation of chelobitchik was directed to a lesser extent to Tatar neighbors, and in bigger — to the Tomsk voivode and the unpopular events held by it.

Similar charges, but in other parts of the Russian Empire (in particular, in the western provinces), were shown to Jews and Roma (see, for example: [Belovo, 2002. Page 71-85]). Thus, we can speak about the forming of "an image of the enemy" allowing to take concerning it drastic measures. Opposition at the level the is frequent (Orthodox Christians, Christians) and Foreign (Muslims) was expressed in the name of "adverse party" idolaters, demonopoklonnik, dirty, nasty, etc. (see, for example: [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 772. L. 45ob.; Sokolovsky, 2001. Page 57]). According to the theory of conflictology, Strangers initially are considered as the hostile force which is potentially menacing to wellbeing of own group (in our case — confessional group). The fear of discrimination or destruction quite often induced to anticipatory actions (in this situation — to vigorous missionary activity). And won against the strongest similar opposition [The Russian multinational civilization, 2003. Page 221].

The Bikonfessionalnost led to marginalization of a part of the Islamic population. The Muslims who were often communicating with Christians quite often accepted Orthodoxy. In receipts on voluntariness of transition it was written: "... at will to my of the will and because of any coercion accepted belief of the Greek confession" [GUGATO. T. 47. Op. 1. 2222. L. 1]. Generally sluzhily Tatars created in special ethnosocial group in the category of the Siberian sluzhily people accepted Orthodoxy. And (for example, the Siberian bukharets) adoption of Orthodoxy was less characteristic of other ethnosocial groups, in the majority they remained Muslims. We can confirm this thesis with petitions of the Siberian Tatars and bukharets in which, in particular, it is said: ". and in the years which passed Feodor who was in Tobolsk and in Tyumen preosvyashchenny skhimona (the metropolitan Filofey Leshchinsky. — V.K.) .krestit .zhelayushchy of Tatars and bukharets, and in their mosques as to churches and the law Christian what protivnost did not see..." [1 PSZ RI. T. 12. No. 9446]. Besides, "to a .mitropolit to Anthony Stakhovsky in a baptism of gentiles in the same way to arrive, as well as vysherechenny preosvyashchenny skhimona Feodor in the appeal to piety diligent had care" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 772. L. 50 about.].

Not only sincere beliefs, but also circumstances of everyday life could be the cause of change of religion. It is known that upon transition to Orthodoxy of people received certain privileges, including personal liberty (if it was the prisoner or the serf), tax exemption for three years, a possibility of revenues to service, the choice of a social stratum, etc. Rather often the similar formulation occurs in decrees of a spiritual consistory: "... at perception (Orthodoxy. — V.K.) to give rewarding and in payment of a yasak and protchy a decree privilege. And moreover it to protect from offenses" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1.

2891. L. 5-6]. And proselytes submitted applications in which reminded of the put reward: "... For the sake of obediently I ask that. on my shortcoming dresses and the salary poveleno was to give out if is subject. And also and for my food on the first a case to welcome bread, torments, a croup and to malt colic from the Your Eminence it will be ordered" [In the same place. L. 3-3 about.].

Besides, in certain cases the nationality and religious affiliation (as one of factors of national self-identification) acted as an obstacle for achievement of the desirable social status, and transition to Orthodoxy allowed to bypass the bans. S.V. Sokolovsky, using a sociological metaphor, noticed: "Transition to Orthodoxy and a baptism worked as the social elevator offering to "novokreshchenny gentiles" prospects for economic and social growth" [Sokolovsky, 2001. Page 56].

It should be noted that the bukharets and Kalmyks escaping from Kyrgyz-kaysatsky prisoner-of-war camp often passed into Orthodoxy. In 1757 in Saint Peter's fortress 6 people (Kalmyks and kashkarets) were christened (i.e. inhabitants Bol. Bukhara. — V.K.) about what the corresponding official report of the priest of the Olonets regiment is submitted [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 2368. L. 1-2]. For refugees the transition to Orthodoxy was attempt to receive protection and some monetary assistance against orthodox church.

The situation when the individual chose for himself other confessional accessory, created a problem of perception of the persons which changed to "belief of fathers". According to common law of Muslims if the Tatar was convicted of abuse of Islam and its ceremonies or changed religious affiliation, then such person was subject to three-day arrest and admonition from the mullah [Bakiyeva, 2003. Page 148]. Relationship between the Muslims and the former brothers in faith who accepted Orthodoxy was difficult, up to rejection. Except moral condemnation, examples of application of administrative sanctions from a Muslim top meet, cases of beating of novokreshchen are rather frequent. So, the Tyumen Tatar of Begimet Kurmachikov together with the Tyumen Tatar Shaboyu, "having attacked hitroumyshlenny intrigue Vasily Ignatov, novokreshchenny from Tatars, brought it to civil a whip to search allegedly on theft. They, boasting put to it with animosity, spoke then: know us, Tatars, and do not leave alone the belief and be not christened". Or other example: ". the Tobolsk Tatar the mullah Mamet Muslimov of the Russian person forced with a beating to nasty Makhomet on behavior to their Tatar, having taken off a cap from the head, to salute. also beat

his, Russian person, birches so cruelly and brutally that he from that beating lay considerable time in a disease" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 772. L. 66ob., 67ob.]. It is possible to give one more example: the Tyumen bukharets Abu Mametev, having beaten the domestic — Ilbigu's zhenka with children, locked and did not let to the Tyumen custom spiritual board. In this case the voyevodsky office interfered, and Ilbiga was brought, contrary to will of the owner, to spiritual board where showed desire to host a baptism [GUGATO. T. 47. Op. 1. 4370. L. 32ob.]. However further it became clear that Mametev accused them of theft of the things and therefore did not release from the yard.

In turn the state and orthodox church tried to protect novokreshchen from influence of Muslims. Passed into Christianity had to live together with the Russian population and separately from non-Christian. It spoke as need of strengthening of new converts for orthodox belief, and fears of their address to "magometanstvo" again. In the decree of 1722 about Kazan novokreshchenny it is said that non-Christian for baptized "three years of any taxes" have to pay and that "baptized with non-Christian in one yard not to live" (it is allocated by me. — V.K.) [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 772. L. 44]. Besides, if novokreshchenny was going to leave the place of permanent residence, it was given a written view of the road (so-called roadside. — V.K.) where, besides signs driving off, it was specified "to .soderzhat itself in orthodox Christian belief firmly and unshakably. And with non-Christian gentiles any to it the commonwealth and manner neither secretly, nor obviously not to have under a decree penalty at all" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 2361. L. 3-3ob.].

It was originally supposed to settle out non-Christian Tobolsk Tatars for city boundaries on Panin a hillock, but after numerous petitions this decision was cancelled. The real reason of cancellation was in that "not to harden" gentiles, i.e. not to pile on the conflict agony in the city: ".a, which foreigners (in this case, Muslim Tatars. — V.K.) live under the mountain in Tobolsk and in other places between the Russian people: that foreigner. to live in the same places. and on Panin them not to translate a hillock that it from that excess weight and ruin was not." [In the same place].

Attempts of a segregation of the orthodox and not orthodox population in Tobolsk and other cities of Western Siberia continued throughout all century. So, in 1763 (after heavy fire in Tobolsk) the next effort to resettlement of Muslims from Tobolsk was made: "1. Become populated in Tobolsk on the lower posad between Sacred churches and the Russian residence, and with Christians a wall about a wall constructed, and from the Tatar parched places where nowadays to be under construction to them... it is forbidden, from the city of Tobolsk to drive and the house to analyze them or to order them, Tatars, those. to sell yurtas to hunters from orthodox Christians that from them, Mohammedans, to orthodox Christians of temptation did not occur. 2. And to move them, Tatars, on taken away of beside Chyuvazhsky (Chuvash. — V.K.) the cape... place" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op.

2. 570. L. 14-15]. In total by this time in Tobolsk on the posad lived (according to data for April, 1763) in 29 yards of 100 souls of both sexes [In the same place. L. 8ob.].

However, despite order of the metropolitan Tobolsk and Siberian Pavel, eviction did not take place. In November, 1764 the archpriest of the Sofia yard informed that non-Christian Tatars and bukharets continue to live as the houses, and on apartments with the Russian (orthodox) citizens in many Tobolsk arrivals. "Moreover and again pribyly are available." [In the same place. L. 54]. In 1766. The Tobolsk spiritual consistory collects the information about the non-Christian Tatars and bukharets living in arrivals of Tobolsk again. According to the submitted lists, Muslims lived as the houses, and on farmsteads at Orthodox Christians, and the distance from their houses to orthodox churches made from 10 to 250 sazhens [In the same place. 1368. L. 16]. In 1771 in the Tobolsk spiritual consistory the next register about city Tobolsk baptized and non-Christian Tatars was made. According to it, non-Christian was registered 61 persons (from them bukharets 32 people), and baptized — 34 [In the same place. 2756. L. 8-10].

The metropolitan Pavel, trying to move non-Christian for city boundaries, addressed for support the governor D.I. Chicherin. But the governor refused to help, having explained that "according to this letter he cannot make in any way then that about them Tatars it has an imyanny command. And if its excellency (metropolitan. — V.K.) hoshcht those Tatars to zzhit from the place, from himself would write to Eya to imperial majesty" [In the same place. 1368. L. 25]. The Tobolsk provincial magistrate also received the instruction from a spiritual consistory to influence Orthodox Christians with which on farmsteads there live non-Christian Tatars: ".vsy to the inhabitants subordinated local magistrate in houses at Tatars non-Christian. in suppression of temptations from them to dopushchat firmly to forbid. And from houses to send them. And from now on those foreigners not of sense for life, but also on a korotkiya a lodging for the night in doma to themselves were not pushchat. And messages with them had no, and moved away from that" [In the same place. L. 27-28]. But, despite the selected subscriptions that Tatars are already sent from houses, "a narusha the subscriptions, Tatars they (orthodox residents of Tobolsk. — V.K.) a pack ice holds and nowadays" [In the same place].

It is necessary to tell that novokreshchena also sought to move to Orthodox Christians to avoid censure from tribespeople. For example, in the petition of the novokreshchen (1762) asking to exclude them from maintaining the Tatar-Bukhara administration it is said: ". Vospriyali we, the lower, orthodox Christian belief. And a ponezha on us after perception of a sacred baptism on intrigue and the Tatar Azbakey Sabanakov's harassment of the head and yes the Bukhara foreman Mullah Alimov it is put unlimited yasak. Namely on 2 rubles a year. Which they. from us also ask with considerable severity. threaten to keep under guard." [In the same place. 265. L. 3-3 about.]. Authors of the petition (Pavel Krupenin and other novokreshchena) passed into Orthodoxy in 1755, during work of Commission of inquiry about Tatars and bukharets. In the same petition it is said: ".pr than they, Sabanakov and Alimov, say also such even to desecration of Christian belief of the speech that though we also were christened, and is-under their authorities did not leave and that want, with us novokreshchenny, they also do, and from now on will do" [In the same place].

Except division of Orthodox Christians and Muslims the state actively draws a line on office of Orthodox Christians

churches from mosques. Under the decree of 1703 of the mosque had to be constructed in "distant places" from orthodox churches. A bit later even the exact distance — not less than 500 sazhens makes a reservation [1 PSZ RI. T. 4. No. 1946].

In 1744 there is a new instruction according to which it is possible to leave mosques only in those settlements where some Muslims live: "in which there is no residence Russian and new baptized". And other mosques "everything are told to be broken without the rest" [In the same place]. As a result in Tobolsk 2 mosques (which were located on the lower posad) were broken, and all Tobolsk Tatars and bukharets (290 souls) are attributed to the mosque of Medyansky yurtas in 6 versts from Tobolsk. In total 23 mosques are left in the Tobolsk County, and 66 are broken; in the Tyumen County — 13 and 19 respectively [1 PSZ RI. T. 12. No. 9446; GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 1800. L. 51-54 about.].

In the middle of the 18th century the new decision is made: "On force, decrees it is necessary to make definition not tokmo about one what a tatarskiya of the mosque to break... but their Tatars from all such places where Russian and new baptized have residence to send in their inovercheskiya the dwelling tatarskiya." [1 PSZ RI. T. 12. No. 9446]. In 1756 the order about permission to build mosques in villages where only non-Christian Tatars live [1 PSZ RI is published. T. 13. No. 10497]. Since 1769 the question of construction of mosques is in competence of the governor, at the same time the problems connected with construction had to be regulated by the decree of 1685 [1 PSZ RI. T. 16. No. 13336].

Confessional differences were shown also in the household sphere. Representatives of various directions of Christianity (Catholics, Lutherans, Protestants) in Siberia had small number and, respectively, could not form any considerable closed community. Therefore at them quickly enough there took place process of integration with the orthodox majority that led to cultural, language and marriage assimilation already in the second or third generation. Whereas between Orthodox Christians and Muslims strong distinctions were found. It was reflected in arrangement of the places of residence (division into the Tatar yurtas and orthodox villages), the ethnic specifics remained in clothes and food.

at the same time confessional differences did not play a large role in interaction in the social and economic sphere. At trade with Central Asia the Russian (orthodox) merchants preferred to invite as salesmen of Muslims: Tatars and bukharets as it to them allowed to avoid payment of big duties in the Muslim states. In turn, the Bukhara dealers had salesmen from Orthodox Christians. So, the Tyumen bukharets of Shaby Ashmenev had a salesman Osip Shishkin. We cannot speak about Shishkin's nationality, but, judging by a name, he was an Orthodox Christian. O. Shishkin and Sh. Ashmenev's trade union proceeded from 1727 to 1733. At the same time, if originally O. Shishkin in customs books is written down as the salesman Sh. Ashmeneva, then later he appears as the Tyumen posadsky person sending with A. Margalin's goods (nephew Sh. Ashmenev) [GUGATO. T. 29. Op. 1. 131.

L. 12, 17; 134. L. 10ob., 11 about.]. It is known also that bukharets and Tatars, along with posadsky people, got out to positions of the customs heads and tselovalniks.

The communities belonging to various faiths (except for Orthodoxy) and forced to communicate at the administrative or social and economic level, were rather closed in everyday life. So, Muslims and Orthodox Christians lived in Tobolsk in close proximity from each other. And judging by documents, such neighbourhood was habitual and confused nobody. However, in attempt of drawing up the personalized list of the living non-Christian bukharets, orthodox priests faced a problem of impossibility of establishment of exact number of women and children as Muslims did not allow to interfere in private life to officials of orthodox religion: "At it bukhar imeyutets of the wife of taka and children and who have how many people of both sexes of children, and other family and as on-inovercheski an imyan, they do not announce that" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 2. 1368. L. 4].

Despite isolation of the religious communities, for them attraction of proselytes was relevant. However in the Russian state any missionary activity, except distribution of Orthodoxy, was forbidden at the legislative level. For example, in an order it is said to governors and voivodes (1728): "If Mohammedans or other gentiles who secretly or obviously which of the Russian people will turn into the belief and will cut off, such to take and search and on search to repair the decree after code 22 of Chapter 24 of article, namely: to execute death, to burn down without any mercy" [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1. 772. L. 44ob.-45]. Therefore in the 17-18th centuries data on the facts of "seduction in a magometanstvo" extremely seldom meet. We know only two cases of adoption of Moslem. Newly converted captured kirgizets Andrey Ivanov "was seduced in the first disbelief the zloverny ungodliness". Possibly, having received personal liberty after adoption of Orthodoxy, he addressed Islam again. At the same time Ivanov together with other kirgizets otkochevat to the steppe and "does not wish to address in Orthodoxy, and on the persistence remains in that zloverny makhometovy delusion" [to GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 3. 2092. L. 2-2 about.]. The orthodox ensign Sukolenov, the participant Russko - the Turkish campaign of 1774 passed into Moslem. The address happened in Rushchuk, but after a while Sukolenov returned to Russia. As punishment it was banished to Siberia by the private to the Siberian building. Besides, it was subjected to church repentance [In the same place. 2241. L. 3-3 about.]. Transition cases from Orthodoxy in Moslem or other religion become characteristic only to start the 20th century when the decree of 1905 on toleration in which it is said that "the persons which are registered as Orthodox Christians, but in fact practising that non-Christian religion to which they belonged before accession to Orthodoxy or their ancestors are subject at will to an exception of Orthodoxy" was adopted. Possibly, change of religious affiliation not always involved assimilation. At the end of the 19th century there is growth of consciousness of the Siberian Tatars and deepening of association of to the defined ethnic and confessional groups. Therefore the decree on freedom of religion also caused considerable number of cases of return to Moslem.

In turn missionary activity of orthodox church on Muslims did not differ in special activity. Though in the 17th century at the legislative level ways of attraction in Orthodoxy were developed. The decree of 1681 demonstrates to it. "About the formal reply at Murz and Tatars of estates and fiefdoms, and about benefits, the kakiya accepted Christian belief is provided". Besides release from taxes for six years, newly converted Christians earned a salary (lump sum) [1 PSZ RI. T. 2. No. 687]. Though in this decree it is also told about murza and Tatars of the Local cities (i.e. the cities of the Volga region), but in the decree of the tsarevna Sofya of 1685. "About a baptism of gentiles." we see sending on it: ".protiv prezhnyago to the decree

(i.e. the decree of 1681 — V.K.). Great Sovereign Fedor Alekseyevich" [1 PSZ RI. T. 2.

No. 1117]. The decree of 1685 is already specifically addressed to the metropolitan Siberian and Tobolsk Pavel and, respectively, extends the jurisdiction to the territory of the Tobolsk diocese.

It should be noted that this decree reflects the main directions of policy of Christianization for the Siberian Tatars and bukharets. First of all, "awaking which foreigners pokhotit to be christened in orthodox Christian belief by the will, and them to order to accept and christen, and bondage to christen any foreigners not to order.". Further, if novokreshchena were in dependence at Tatars and bukharets, then after adoption of Orthodoxy freedom relied them. But actually, in disputes between Muslim owners and workers who ran away from them accepted Orthodoxy it was necessary to be guided by such reason: "for the fact that Siberia the state distant also consists between busurmansky and other beliefs of many lands that that not to harden the Tobolsk Tatars and bukharts and other lands of visitors of foreigners, and from Gosudarsky favor not to drive away them and to what Siberian state of damage not to make." [In the same place].

The analysis of acts and archival documents shows that till 40th of the XVIII century the interaction between orthodox church and the Siberian Muslims was minimum. However at the metropolitan Anthony Narozhnitsky the vigorous missionary activity turned not only on the people living on Severo - the West of Siberia, but also on Tatars and bukharets begins. Points from the Synod demonstrate to it: "Spiritual persons are told to come to the Tatar dwellings for preaching of the word God's, and to them, Tatars, those preachers of any animosity and are not allowed to make difficulties." [GUTOGAT. T. 156. Op. 1.

772. L. 51]. But actions of the metropolitan and missionaries caused active counteraction of Muslims. At the beginning of the 1750th the Tyumen and Tobolsk Tatars submit petitions about a violent baptism. At the same time chelobitchik made poruchny records in which it was told how many it is destroyed mosques. For the solution of this problem they were going "to go to Tobolsk and to Moscow to go".

In connection with the mass complaints in the highest authorities to the violent address to Orthodoxy the commission (middle of the 50th of the 18th century), Investigative about Tatars and bukharets, is created. The main task of Commission of inquiry is to monitor relationship of Muslims and Orthodox Christians. In the decree on creation of the commission it is written down: ". about coming from them, Tatars, on orthodox Christian belief desecrations and other prederzost, and then on protchy to investigate watching thus on the position and on real justice firmly" [GUTOGAT.

T. 156. Op. 1. 1800. L. 18]. In the commission all cases coming to the Siberian provincial office and the Tobolsk spiritual consistory concerning religious questions had to be considered.

Judging by the laid materials, not all arrived reports understood Commission of inquiry. Complaints and denunciations of a tarsky abyz of Kushluk Tanchyurayev about new baptized knyazets to Kumuka with companions remained, "that they before a baptism of the Mohammedan law did not hold" to whom the criticism of the mechanism of investigation and the complaint to illegal actions of the secretary of Matchin and the bureaucrat Fomin is carried out [In the same place. L. 28-33 about.]. Date of abolition of Commission of inquiry is not known, but in the middle of the 1760th the affairs relating to maintaining the commission understood both the Spiritual consistory, and the Siberian provincial office.

Thus, we can say that at the end of the XVII—XVIII century in interaction of Orthodox Christians and Muslims there were several levels of communication: administrative, confessional, social and economic, household.

The policy of orthodox church in relation to Muslims was ambiguous. On the one hand, under the state laws the Muslims had an opportunity to perform religious rites though mosques were under construction only in settlements where only non-Christian lived. On the other hand, the orthodox church strove for the address of Muslims to Christianity, but at the same time limited communication of Muslims and Orthodox Christians. Perhaps, the problem of the dual relation was that the orthodox church did not feel assured in the territory where lived both pagans, and Tatars (who accepted Islam in the 15th century). With strengthening of a position of the Russian state in Siberia, positions and churches as Orthodoxy was the state religion became stronger, and laws were directed to a protection and confirmation of the rights and the privileges of Orthodox Christians.

We can assume that xenophobic reaction of orthodox church concerning Muslims is connected with fear of strengthening of influence of Islam in the territory of Western Siberia. For example, according to N.M. Yadrintsev, "Orthodoxy had weak influence on Tatars, being the united fanatical Mohammedan population" [Yadrintsev, 2000. Page 122-124]. This thesis is confirmed also by M. Filippov's observations: ".naskolko Tatars on character are good-natured, modest, available, hospitable, are so intolerant, fanatical, so far as to concern belief questions" (tsit. on: [Bakiyeva, 2003. Page 148]).

However at the same time missionary activity of orthodox church rather long time was not directed to Muslims. Muslims were not oppressed on ethnoconfessional sign, willingly were accepted on "monarchic service" (were enlisted in the category of sluzhily Tatars), corrected duties, acting as the customs heads and coachmen.

Analyzing the relations at the social level, we can speak about a certain tolerance of perception of each other the faces of various faiths. Representatives of various religions side by side lived in the Siberian cities, interacting in household, economical spheres. Perhaps, it was explained by the fact that in the conditions of the remote territory (which Siberia was) where at the heart of the formed Russian (orthodox) population there were idle and sluzhily people who had to develop behavior stereotypes in a polycultural environment on a tolerant basis, the problem of toleration was not particularly acute.


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1 Work is performed with assistance of a grant of Provincial academy of 2003
Mattsson Oliver
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