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The role of the Russian writers-officials in development of an official seal in the second half of the 19th century is shown in article. The author in detail considers literary and publishing of G.P. Danilevsky in the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper.

In the article the role of Russian writers-officials in the development of the official press in the second half of the 19th century is showed. The author considers the literary and publishing activity of G.P. Danilevskiy in the newspaper "Governmental Herald".

official seal, Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper, official-writer; official press, newspaper "Governmental Herald", official-writer.

APON Marina Evgenyevna — to. and. N, associate professor of personnel management of SZAGS, St. Petersburg

Public policy in the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century included careful selection of shots for ideological services of the state, including for work in bodies of a government official seal. The history of activity of such semi-official organ as the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper, is indicative both in terms of technology of staff recruitment sotrudnikov1, and from positions of efficiency of activity of the attracted personnel.

The famous writer G. of Item Danilevskiy2 became one of bright and considerable figures in the history of blossoming and popularity of the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper.

The writer Grigory Petrovich Danilevsky came to the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper from the first days of its organization and did not leave to death. Twenty one years worked it in the government newspaper and nearly ten of them were her editor-in-chief.

G.P. Danilevsky is person toiler, "ordinary talent", the journalist, an ocherkist, the publicist, the public figure who was living and creating in one of the most interesting and most difficult periods of the Russian history and imprinted important lines of an era in the original works of art. Its literary fate, practice of the journalist, moral shape clear up a lot of things in the history of the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper, in understanding of that role which was played by the Russian writers-officials in development of an official seal in the second half of the 19th century

In the student's years which coincided with increase and revelry of the Nikolaev reaction there was an event which saddened cloudless St. Petersburg life of Danilevsky. On April 22, 1849 he was arrested in the matter of Petrashevists and concluded in the Peter and Paul Fortress where it was more than 2 mesyatsev3. Released G.P. Danilevsky on June 10 for lack of evidence.

The file note of office of the St. Petersburg ober-chief of police (according to the inventory of 1866 No. 69) demonstrates: "Grigory Danilevsky. The student of the St. Petersburg University in Nikolay Pavlovich Imperator's reign was mistakenly put in fortress" 4.

1 See M.E. Apon. Formation of editorial structure of the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper//the Power, 2010, No. 10, page 125 — 127.
2 Its destiny and a historical role strange and unexpectedly is connected with the famous namesake — N.Ya. Danilevsky.
3 See: G.P. Danilevsky Sochineniya. - SPb., 1901, t. 1, page 37-43.
4 Shchukinsky collection. — M, 1906, issue 5, page 64.

Of course, it is possible to assume that G.P. Danilevsky was arrested instead of the author of work "Russia and Europe" and that on clarification of this misunderstanding more than two months were required. However N.Ya. Danilevsky was also arrested! And if to consider that G.P. Danilevsky appeared in the Peter and Paul Fortress not accidentally, then in what relations he was with Petrashevists? E.V. Sviyasov, reproaching Danilevsky with political apathy of an author's position in the 1850th, writes that "after hardly outlined contact with Petrashevists, frightened of arrest and the conclusion in the Peter and Paul Fortress, it lost any touch with the circle of the advanced people of society" 1. However Danilevsky's letters do not give the slightest hints on the fact that he was fond of freedom-loving exercises or theories, read the forbidden books or kept up acquaintance with petrashevtsami2. On the contrary, they demonstrate that Grigory Petrovich was "very careful and reasonable student who is fond of science and literature, and in particular poetry" 3. The writer did not like to remember and tell about arrest not only the stranger, but also the blizkim4.

Arrest did not influence neither the termination of the university, nor on future fate of Grigory Petrovich. Upon termination of a course of the university in 1850 it came on service to the ministry of national education where served about seven years. The creative identity of Danilevsky as journalist is fully shown in the beginning the 1850th when he becomes the active employee of capital newspapers and magazines. Having begun the way of the journalist on a university bench, subsequently he actively cooperated with various editions: it is published in "St. Petersburg" and "The Moscow sheets", "Library for reading", "The magazine of the ministry of national education", etc.

At the end of 1853 there is the first large prosaic work by Danilevsky — the collection of stories and stories "Slobozhane" called kriti-

1 See: Sviyasov E.V.G.P. Danilevsky in literary and public process of the end of the 1840th — the beginnings of the 1860th — L., 1982.
2 G.P. Danilevsky. Decree. soch., t. 1, page 41.
3 In the same place.
4 In the same place, page 37.

which "the best of what was written ever by Danilevsky" 5.

Rough literary activity did not prevent Grigory Petrovich to carry out honestly the functions in the ministry of national education. To the contrary, the position of the official of special instructions helped works of the young writer. As obliges it often had to leave in long business trips, to observe life and customs of various people that allowed it to scoop rich material for literary creativity. So, summer of 1854 — 1855 it is sent to business trips to the Kursk, Kharkiv and Poltava provinces. Results of these business trips were stated by a part to them in articles printed in "The magazine of the ministry of national education": "Private and public collections of ancient acts and historical documents in the Kharkiv province" and "Poltava old times concerning at the right time Peter the Great" 6. In the spring — fall of 1856 from the sea ministry he together with other writers visited Ukraine where he wrote down words and melodies of 80 Ukrainian songs. Here it should be noted that, having acted as the first translator Ukrainian skazok7, Danilevsky throughout all the life actively promoted the Ukrainian culture and literature, thereby strengthening and developing the Russian-Ukrainian cultural ties. And in it its role is huge.

Love for literature, it "the calling, delightful force" forces Danilevsky to leave public service, secular St. Petersburg and to write in the letter to mother such words: "The writer is higher than any official, the writer the same honest official of the great God's state, but its field is higher than anything of another" 8.

So, the official-writer chose literature. In search of the muse, writer's "I" he goes home to the province. Danilevsky considered that in a voice of the true writer the voice of the people has to be heard, the Fatherland voice that true material for the writer is only endured and is changed the mind -

5 St. Petersburg sheets, on Dec. 1853, 20
6 The magazine of the ministry of national education, 1856, No. 2 — 3.
7 Steppe fairy tales: collection. — SPb., 1852.
8 G.P. Danilevsky. Decree. soch., t. 1, page 62.

Nov that "studying people, hearts, passions and thoughts of the present" 1 is necessary. With G.P. Danilevsky's exit in resignation in 1857 the initial stage of his creativity which in the letter to A.V. Druzhinin of November 22, 1862 the writer characterized as follows comes to an end: "Here the dark side follows: any literary misses pathetic for rakes-ttsy written on the memory of the edge seen in the childhood, disgusting swayings on disgusting literary circles, sale of freshness and youth in felyetonishka" 2.

Its stay in the Kharkiv province lasted the whole twelve years, but it was the period, very important for it — the period of blossoming of his writer's talent, it is time creations of the best novels of everyday life making the famous trilogy — the epic from life of Novorossiya. Three novels of everyday life written to them during stay in the homeland — "Fluent in Novorossiya" (1862), "Will" (1863) and "New places" (1867) in which Danilevsky reflected the events characteristic of provincial Russia of that time revealed in it the true artist realist.

At the beginning of 1869 it returned to St. Petersburg and came on service to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In the order on the ministry of February 4, 1869 it appeared: "... the retired outdoor adviser Danilevsky is appointed by the official of special instructions of the VI class at the Ministry of Internal Affairs, over the state, a former rank of a collegiate asessor, since January 25th" 3. Along with the order he was sent to the order of the editor-in-chief governmental gazety4. So its work in this edition which continued 21 years began. In the newspaper not the literary time-worker, but the writer who found forces came to overcome the epigonsky nature of the early works, to address the most burning subjects concerning the Russian society in the middle of the 19th century, to raise the questions connected with release of peasants from serfdom. Carrying out within eleven months of a duty which on established for

1 In the same place, page 63.
2 Tsit. according to prince: Letters to A.V. Druzhinin. 1850 — 1863. — M, 1948, page 115.
3 Official gazette, on Feb. 1869, 5
4 G.P. Danilevsky. Obituary. — SPb., 1890, page 7.

"Official gazette" to rules were assigned to the assistant to the editor-in-chief, Danilevsky at once became one of key employees of the newspaper. Its abilities and diligence were appreciated by the editor-in-chief V.V. Grigoriev and the Minister of Internal Affairs A.E. Timashev. In January, 1870 Grigoriev wrote to Timashev the report in which, in particular, it was said: "On my assignment it [G.P. Danilevsky. — A.M.] arranged and conducted almost all those personal intercourses of edition with representatives of various ministries and main highest departments by means of which continuous delivery of official data on department of "Messages" — as about more curious works of ministerial departments and offices was nowadays organized and is almost provided for edition, and about classes of various design commissions and committees. Moreover, according to my instructions it executed, on the basis of official materials of some departments, several independent works which attracted attention periodicals, and since the end of June until the end of July corrected a position of the editor of official department with night work" 5. Further V.V. Grigoriev asked the minister to appoint Danilevsky to the position of the assistant to the editor-in-chief. He was V.V. Grigoriev assistant, at P.I. Kapnist, at S.P. Sushkov and only since August, 1881 itself headed the newspaper. Along with the organization of bilateral communication of the newspaper and the government, the assistant to the editor-in-chief, according to provision of editorial office of "Official gazette", was obliged "in case of a disease and absence" the 6th editor-in-chief to take up his place. It was necessary to fulfill the editor-in-chief duties to Danilevsky very often, especially at Grigoriev and Kapniste7 who were not differing in good health. So, for example, it happened also in July, 1871 when trial over nechayevets began. Background of this business which received the name nechayevsky, obshcheizvestna8. Nechayevsky business was a subject of a brisk discussion in pecha-

5 Tsit. according to prince: G.P. Danilevsky. Decree soch., t. 1, page 78.
6 RGIA, t. 785, op. 1, 1, l. 65 (about).
7 In the same place, 5.
8 See, e.g.: High treasons in Russia in the 19th century — Stuttgart, 1903, t. 1.

ti. Since January, 1870, messages, correspondence, notes about Nechayev, his accomplices, about circumstances of murder of Ivan Ivanov were systematically published in newspapers. It was the first public political process which drew close public attention to itself in Russia and abroad. According to the first political process the leading role was assigned to the official government newspaper. Process materials (including program documents, leaflets, etc. Nechayev's materials, speeches of lawyers, etc.) were widely published in the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper which was edited at that time by G.P. Danilevsky. Its numerous notes in Head department for the press where he reports about the measures taken by edition for the serviceable room of reports on political process St. Petersburg judicial a pas-laty1 demonstrate to it.

Since March, 1872, after final reorganization of editorial office of "Official gazette", besides performance of duties of the assistant to the editor-in-chief, it began to conduct government department of the newspaper.

In August, 1881 Danilevsky who for operating time in "Official gazette" proved exclusively versatile journalist becomes his editor-in-chief. From this point it — not only the most active employee and the head of the newspaper, but also to some extent the ideological mastermind defining its direction. He seeks to expand the maintenance of its department of internal news, tries to give to the official newspaper literary character. At it in the newspaper interest in provincial life, especially South Russian considerably amplified. In it messages about various scientific achievements in Russia and abroad and also feuilletons on the different industries of knowledge, literature and art, mainly on theater and painting were located. In 1882 Grigory Petrovich becomes the member of council of Head department for the press with leaving as the editor-in-chief of "Official gazette" 2. New appointment was about -

1 In the same place, l. 16.
2 G.P. Danilevsky. Obituary. - SPb., 1890, page 8.

it is dictated by need to get acquainted closer with plans of the government for various questions of public life and also to facilitate to the editor-in-chief of the official newspaper constant personal contact with representatives of the highest public institutions to publication of various government materials.

Reflecting, in general, government views of domestic and foreign policy, at the same time the Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper at the editor-in-chief Danilevsky quite often places "notes, articles and reviews, extols books which from the government point of view hardly deserve it" 3. So, for example, Danilevsky published in the newspaper two articles about L.N. Tolstoy with an appreciation of his novel "War and peace" and a denial of charges of violation by the author historical pravdy4.

In time, free from service, he continued to be engaged in literature. From the middle of the 70th G.P. Danilevsky focuses on a historical subject. Using the situation, he tries to obtain access to classified archival documents of the 18th century which, along with family legends and the special literature which is carefully studied by it, were sources for historical novels "Mirovich", "Princess Tarakanova", "The Burnt Moscow", "Black Year". In 1886 P. Danilevsky was made in privy councilors, and in January, 1890 his forty-year office career crowned the highest award — a star of Vladimir of the 2nd degree. On December 6, 1890 Danilevsky did not become.

G.P. Danilevsky passed a way from a journeyman to the master, from the literary time-worker to the big Russian portrayer of ordinary life and, at last, transferred the increased art to the area of the historical novel. It is necessary to add to it that he was official-writer — an integral part of the political system which generated it. Also saw in the occupation service on advantage to the Fatherland.

3 R.I. Sementkovsky. Among departed//the Historical bulletin, 1917, No. 7 — 8, page 105.
4 Russian writers 1800 — 1917. Biographic dictionary. — M, 1992, t. 2, page 81; also see: Apostolov N.N.L. Tolstoy and Danilevsky//Leo Tolstoy and his satellites. — M, 1928.
Thomas Lopez
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