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Phenomenon of modern leaflets: "spam" or objective factual account of information gradovedeniye?


UDC 01 (571.150) both #43;655 BBK 78.5 (2ros-4alt) and #43;76.17


© A.A. Fomina, 2006

Altai state academy of culture and arts, 656055, Barnaul, Yurin St., 277

The role of editions of small forms in studying edge is considered, the history of their collecting and account in the country is analyzed, results of a research on collecting and studying the documents which made information support of elections of the head of administration of Altai Krai in 2004 are given, recommendations about reflection of this type of documents in local history indexes are made.

Level of modern global information society is usually characterized by a computerization and free access to information. The example of east countries which are highly appreciating a national component of world information resources allows to consider informing on a regional document stream a part of the program of open access to information.

Information study of local lore always was the leading direction in activity of the central regional libraries. The Altai regional universal scientific library of V.Ya. Shishkov (AKUNB) publishes the current bibliographic indexes reflecting the information flow of edge. The main are "Literature on Altai Krai" and "Books of Altai available and the seals"/4/. Grants reflect universal regional approach to material selection though the share a gradovede-niya in their information filling is most considerable. Unfortunately, in the region there was no practice of collecting and accounting of products of small printing forms, and the listed grants do not reflect a product of local printing and information activities. Meanwhile the bibliography of this literature is important as it is a part of information gradovedeniye; the channel of objective factual information which, undoubtedly, will make base of future historical researches.

The history of formation of the oldest funds of the country gives many examples of reasonable accounting of information value of documents of temporality which ustarevayemost is much higher than traditional subjects to information activities - books, periodicals.

Collected the collection of material of the P.P. Dubrovsky (1754-1816) archives "Bastille, Libraries of Saint-Zhermensky and Korbiysky Abbeys" in the period of diplomatic service abroad. It included "about four hundred Western European, 94 east (in 15 languages), about 50 Slavic manuscripts and nearly 8,000 autographs of the famous people of France"/2, page 203/. This collection was of so considerable interest in the opinion of the educated persons XIX of century that the government according to the recommendation of the director of Imperial Public library A.S. Stroganov got it. At Public library (St. Petersburg) the Depot of manuscripts in which P.P. Dubrovsky "was appointed the keeper, with a salary, the state apartment & lt was specially formed;...>. Pyotr Petrovich equipped Depot of manuscripts with special cases for manuscripts, chose in Academy of Arts busts for decoration of the room, made the inventory of codes and documents of the collection" / In the same place/. Simple transfer of rarities from P.P. Dubrovsky's meeting indicates a species diversity of the collected documents: 11 thousand Western European manuscripts of a collection of Zalus-ky. & lt came to Depot ";.> 50 cardboards with papal bulls and the Polish materials", and in "1811 G.R. Derzhavin presented to Dubrovsky two manuscripts "as to the hunter to similar rarities""/2, page 204/. The principle of selection of material was designated by the author as "useful to mind human" / In the same place/. Certainly, in the collection based on funds of the state prison of France and its oldest archives, the share of listovochny material is insignificant. P.P. Dubrovsky's activity more likely a brilliant example of use of a situation for

collecting rare historical documents, as it is confirmed with centuries of existence of interest of scientists in collection materials, introduction by experts of many documents to a scientific turn.

It is remarkable that in Siberia H1H of century is noted interest in documents of temporality. The library of the director of the Tomsk real school (1877-1903), meteorologist and local historian Gabriel Konstantinovich Tyumentsev (1842-1931) contained 335 volumes of possessory konvolyut. They are known as "Collections of articles about Siberia and the countries, adjacent to it", contain more than 6 thousand the most various documents from which more than one thousand were published in printing houses of Tomsk at the end of H1H - the beginning of the 20th century/3, page 99/. "The materials & lt collected by the donor were of special value;...> in the form of brochures, articles and notes from periodicals, researches of scientists and notes of travelers, leaflets and announcements, playbills, invitation cards/9, page 96/, posters with detailed programs of theatrical performances and literary soirees, & lt;. & gt; a selection of invitation cards and cards on the occasion of a bookmark and opening of the university, etc."/3, page 99/.

Analytical painting of collections which materials more "did not remain anywhere"/9 of page 96/, during the pre-war period was planned as disclosure of contents of Siberiade of G.K. Tyumentsev. In respect of work of bibliographic department of Scientific library of the Tomsk state university (NB TGU) for 1936 the subject appeared: "drawing up the classified index to collections by G.K. Tyumentsev. But, unfortunately, & lt;. & gt; works were transferred from year to year, any of them for pre-war years was not complete though researches on separate donative collections and editions continued" / In the same place, page 92/. So far it was succeeded to restore G.K. Tyumentsev's library almost completely. "The research of history of its formation, structure, studying a circle of reading and G.K. Tyumentsev's communication - as one of the most interesting representatives of the Tomsk intellectuals of H1H - the beginning of the 20th century"/5, is begun with page 96/. Studying the well-known collection of G.K. Tyumentsev by employees of NB TGU allows to assume that similar examples were also in other regions of Russia.

In the Soviet Russia work with listovochny material gained the state character. In 1917-1925. The public library in Petrograd - Leningrad (former Imperial Public library) "received leaflets as an obligatory copy. & lt;...> It is indicative that else in 1919 the secretariat of the Central Committee emphasized RCP(b) in the special appeal to all party organizations: "Companions! For future historian

the great Russian revolution each newspaper, each appeal of the smallest organization will be precious material. This historical material should not vanish"/7, page 6/. Distribution in the 20th of leaflets as documents, first of all, of party construction allows to understand similar attention to data collection of editions, and further and to their analysis. At the same time you should not lose sight of insignificance of volumes of publishing products of the first years of the Soviet power/1 / therefore, probably, registration and storage of listovochny editions were carried out within work with an obligatory copy.

In the 30th of the 20th century B.S. Bodnarsky, solving theoretical problems of definition of the place of library science in the system of sciences, in particular analyzing its interrelation with documentation, pragmatically suggested to consider a main objective of the organization of documentation "transformation of the isolated documents into a uniform complex"/10/. Considering that as subject of documentation he called "small graphic documents which specifics are so peculiar that demands special forms for their organization" / In the same place/, it is necessary to recognize the methodological value of proposals of B.S. Bodnarsky. In definition of approaches to work on documents of a sheet form of temporality more relevant provisions are still not formulated. Within the next years the collecting leaflets, even ideological content, had generally retrospective nature of a dokomplektovaniye though in the 60th the leading organizations in this area were allocated: "Institute of Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Central state archive of the October revolution and socialist construction of the USSR, Archive of the Soviet Army of the USSR, & lt are among them;. & gt; Institute of history of party at the Leningrad regional committee of the CPSU, the Museum of Great October socialist revolution and Archive of the October revolution and socialist construction of the Leningrad Region"/7, page 5/. The species diversity of institutions - keepers of editions of temporality allows to make sure of justice of opinion of B.S. Bodnarsky believing that special facilities are necessary "(institutes, bureau, committees and so forth) which main function would be documentation. At the same time, according to him, also "auxiliary documentary organisms" to which number it carried libraries, archives, the museums"/10/have to be engaged in documentation.

In the 20th century of library of the capital centers of Russia carried out grandiose work on collecting and processing of leaflets/6/. For the first time domestic editions became a subject of attention: "publications of decrees, resolutions, orders, addresses central

and local party, Soviet, trade-union, Komsomol, military bodies". Their repertoire was considerably limited by the period of "the first years of existence of the Soviet state". Work on the catalog of leaflets realizes the information potential of funds and the mechanism of formation of a search image of documents, however it has not only applied value. Originators proved the information value of similar work, having highlighted the importance of similar activity in regional scales, all asset holders: libraries, museums of local lore, archives. "Leaflets as a specific source on stories & lt;...> long ago draw attention of researchers and readers. & lt;...> They help studying a wide range of problems of political, economic and cultural character.

Interests of scientific studying history & lt;...> demand whenever possible the broadest promoting and disclosure for readers of maintenance of a collection of leaflets & lt;...>. For this purpose in 1961 in the State Public library (Leningrad) the description of fund of leaflets and preparation of the present printing catalog"/6, began t. 1, page 5, 7, 8/. At the beginning of the 70th of the 20th century the demand of regional leaflets as they contain "big actual", "extensive material not only by such rather large administrative-territorial formations as provinces, but also on the certain cities and counties" / In the same place, t was noted. 2, page 5-6/. At the same time the low safety of listovochny funds, almost total absence of account and study, both from historians, and from the staff of libraries, significantly reduced the information value of collections. Statement of that fact that "local leaflets are a little investigated and absolutely insufficiently introduced for scientific use" reflected a typical picture in many regions, characteristic, apparently, not only for the second half of the 20th century

Rapid development of the printing enterprises in regions forces to show consideration more for editions of small printing forms, to consider opinion of experts on their role according to regional history. Proceeding from the assumption that in the center of attention there has to be information support of considerable regional events, significant persons involved in economic, political, cultural life of the city scientific group FIRID of the Altai state academy of culture and arts (ALTGAKI) * developed and implemented the research program for collecting and izuche-

* I express gratitude to students FIRID ALTGAKI

V. To Goncharov and R. Sukhachev for an opportunity to quote results of a research.

a niya of the documents which made information support of elections of the head of administration of Altai Krai in 2004. The intensity of an election campaign is reflected by the width of the repertoire of propaganda listovochny material and its circulations. Voters were supplied with propaganda material with noticeable inconstancy (different quantity every day). Ways of finishing it were various: a mailing group, "from a door at a door", distribution in squares and city streets, etc. But not all districts of Barnaul were evenly provided with this material. Most of all leaflets were distributed in the downtown and in new residential districts.

The analysis of the printing propaganda material released on paper of various quality revealed a variety of its forms: the various leaflets, posters, booklets, brochures, newspapers of various formats and color scale representing the identity of candidates against the background of sights and loud slogans. Along with traditional forms of printed materials, appeared and calendars, invitations were widely used in an election campaign of a card, congratulation. Festive cards and congratulations are of special interest. Candidates spent many means and efforts, congratulating voters on the Defender of the Fatherland Day and the International Women's Day. Congratulatory material came out on glossy paper or cardboard of high quality, was professionally issued, contained the congratulatory text. Average circulation was about 50 thousand pieces. It should be noted that not each candidate could afford it. Some candidates successfully combined personal photos and pre-election slogans together with lunar, church and usual calendars, recipes of various dishes, useful tips, etc. Everything was directed to achievement of bigger extent of identification of the identity of the candidate. Most of applicants had the whole set of the printing material including calendars, booklets, leaflets, festive cards, invitations, newspapers, etc. All printing propaganda material is executed in saturated color scale. Black-and-white color was used for reflection of working, reporting information, a business situation; white-red - for reconstruction of the atmosphere of a holiday, as a background for data from the personal file.

Within Altai Krai the leading position on production of printing propaganda material was held by the candidate for a position of the head of administration Mikhail Sergeyevich Evdokimov. In its arsenal there was a large number of the printed materials executed on paper high quality (manufacturer LLC Gart). Photos, epigraphs, quotes and addresses illustrated material on graphic and verbal urov-

nyakh. The applicant used the authority of the famous Russian writer and the actor, the native of Altai V.M. Shukshin, entering into the propaganda text of the quote from his works, become widely known ("The kind person on the Siberian earth...", "To be to good.", "With the heart broken to pieces.", "Joking aside", "Let's give hell!", "Let's think, fellow countrymen.", "Let's talk, men.", etc.). M.S. Evdokimov's slogans are professionally issued and expressed and focused on regional, Altai mentality. Mikhail Sergeyevich defined technology of relationship with voters as with the fellow countrymen. He widely used images of the nature of Altai and personal charm in a shot of a production photoshoot. The released material presented the developed characteristic not only the candidate, but also his family that, undoubtedly, enhanced positive effect of perception of advertizing.

Cumulative circulation of all propaganda materials released by this candidate averaged about 1.5 million copies.

On informational content the information campaign launched by supporters of the acting head of administration Alexander Aleksandrovich Surikov ranked second. Having secured with support of the main parties: United Russia, the CPRF, Agrarian party, Yabloko and Union of Right Forces, it released the big circulation of leaflets with the image against the background of emblems of above-mentioned parties, the leaflet with its biographic text, the list of what was and will be reached in the long term. The personality can find comments of the famous figures of edge and voters on him in the newspapers published by A.A. Surikov as and about its activity during two terms of stay on the held post.

The number of the printed materials which are turned out by Alexander Surikov during an election campaign was about 1 million copies. All products contain necessary weekend and final data. The range of printing editions of Alexander Aleksandrovich are much poorer, than at Mikhail Evdokimov. In propaganda material of Alexander Surikov festive colors of the Russian tricolor are used. Texts appeals became the main slogans: "Together we will lift the edge!", "Do not trust a lie! Do not give itself to deceive! Strangers try to occupy the region. And to us at Altai to live and work", "Year after year - to real increase in the standard of living in Altai Krai", "Strong edge - strong Russia!", etc.

Not all candidates for a post of the head of administration took care of pre-election informing the voters. And in some cases to candidates the confusion which arose because of a lack of information and giving about -

was obviously favorable to

a stor to conjectures and a gossip of voters. If Vladimir Ivanovich Nikulin released though a small amount of propaganda material, then Vitaly Aleksandrovich Surikov did not even provide the photo for publication in the information about the candidate for polling precincts. The situation was complicated by emergence in the ballot of two namesakes and very "speaking" middle name: the acting head of administration - Alexander Aleksandrovich Surikov and his opponent - Vitaly Aleksandrovich Surikov. Information context of confusion in persons of candidates, undoubtedly, affected forcing of the atmosphere of an election campaign and brought nuances in a voting process.

The Muscovite Vladimir Olegovich Semyonov was one of the most competitive candidates for a post of the head of regional administration, according to many. Circulation of editions of its election campaign is a little more than half a million copies. Main slogans of the candidate: "Vladimir Semyonov will win - will win against everyone!", "I am not afraid to be responsible for the future", "Youth and professionalism", "I know well what I want as to it to go and what it is necessary for".

The course of elections of the governor of Altai Krai demanded carrying out the second stage. Since the beginning of the first round it was clear that real applicants for a position of the head of administration there were two (A.A. Surikov, M.S. Evdokimov). It was confirmed also by comparative data of production policy of propaganda material. In the second round all variety of printing material disappeared. The release of calendars, booklets, cards stopped. The number of the newspapers filled with analytical publications about activity of candidates increased. Their circulation averaged 2 million copies., and newspapers were published only by A.A. Surikov. M.S. Evdokimov was limited to release of leaflets and invitations to elections of the second round with a circulation about 500 thousand pieces. In the second round, unlike the first, Alexander Surikov considerably surpassed the opponent in release of printed materials.

The election campaign of the second round began on March 23, 2004 and even more aggravated fight. Fight of competitors, publication of the impartial parties in characteristic of opponents added to listovochny materials of a subject for slogans and slogans. The slogans of an election campaign of supporters of A.A. Surikov illustrated the idea of protection of edge against invasion of "powers of darkness": "The edge is in danger!", "Let's protect native Altai!", "Let's not allow plunder of Altai!", "Altai passes to "martial law"".

Each candidate tried to find defects of another, resorting to sarcasm, and in such form that, appear, in our country completely otsutst-

moral censorship vut. M.S. Evdokimov released several types of leaflets with a wish of worthy and bright future and an appeal: "Let's pressurize, men!" and also invitation to elections. The text on the back of a card invited to a farewell ceremony on April 4 residents of Altai Krai with the former administration and heads who did not justify the confidence. "Farewell will take place to the addresses specified in forms of election commission. Farewell time: from 8:00 till 20:00. The appearance is obligatory".

In general listovochny material was spread mainly locally, on city space of Barnaul as one of the greatest "electoral sites" that forces to speak about the urbanistic nature of distribution and demand of listovochny material. Centripetal trends in formation of saturated market of information selective technologies included in a circle of infrastructure of ensuring elections of printing house and the publishing organizations of other cities of Altai that affected informational content of attributes of sheet materials. The turned-out printed materials were though not always and often not precisely, it is supplied with data on the customer, publishing house, its legal address, circulation, date and financial security of the publication. The main firms and institutions of the region releasing propaganda material became: LLC Altapress Publishing House, JSC Altaypoligrafservice, GIPP "Altai", GUPAK "Biysk printing house Katun", Rubtsovsk printing house, LLC Gart, "Aktion-Inform-Plus". The prevalence of leaflets of certain candidates forces to assume that publishers advertized not so much cumulative circulation, how many one of the plants. The maximum volume of circulation at the first stage of elections of the governor of the region was about 1.5 million copies. Leaders of an election campaign operated with circulations from 1.5 to 1 million copies., outsiders - were limited to 20 thousand pieces. For comparison - self-presentation circulations at the federal level - from 2 to 8 million copies. In the second round the circulation of advertizing newspapers averaged from 500 thousand to 2 million copies.

The repertoire of printed materials of an election campaign in Altai Krai drew attention of specialists of the largest information center of the region - the State public nauchnotekhnichesky library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk) which created a special collection of the political press in the wake of events. Undoubtedly, work of scientists on documents forms bases of the concept of selection and studying modern listovochny material for objective reflection of the information environment

regional urbanistics. It becomes gradually clear that assignment of the registration registering function on the central library of the region is excessive, but on the scale of the concrete city - it is expedient. It is probable that the exhaustive selection of material applied by G.K. Tyumentsev is hardly possible because of growth of number of the publishing organizations in the local information markets. Only according to AKUNB, their quantity grows in the region and will soon reach a point of five hundred. Also certain restrictions are outlined in material selection. So, the products of the organizations of the international and federal level are plentifully presented at the regional market. Certainly, only the regional representative office of these companies recorded on documents will allow to include such editions in local history collections. Hardly in the future the "flying" leaves about discounts executed in the x-copied option, locally and chronologically not attributed will be of interest.

One of important problems for modern researchers-gradovedov is the problem of the bibliographic description of editions of a small printing form. The absence in them traditional elements of the output and final data is the main reason for it. A printing form does not allow execution of the title page in advertisements, posters, leaflets, stikersa and so forth. However the content of sheet materials (advertizing of cellular communication, services of Rosgos-bank and so forth) allows to assume that the instruction on offices of advance of services, the reference to the e-mail address and furthermore the website to some extent are replacement of traditional data on the place of the publication. Development of electronic advertizing will allow to remove in a certain measure sharpness of perception of bibliographic record as search instruction.

Distribution of regional advertizing in an electronic format brings closer to understanding of Internet advertizing ("spam") as the garbage impeding progress of not advertisement/8/. Nevertheless cumulative opportunities of the websites of institutions and especially their information archives should be considered. In terms of use of a situation for collecting rare historical documents it is impossible to ignore participation of various subjects in creation of the personified information collections. It is necessary to consider corporate interest of subjects of new economic and political realities in creation of the personified information collections which maintaining, respectively at active financing of the customer, the central library of the region could carry out. In new economic conditions deya-

telnost of municipal libraries work on electronic collections of leading enterprises, political and public organizations can become the maintenance of the new direction of information activities.

In domestic historical science interest in the history of the cities was defined long ago. And though the gradovedchesky perspective is mattered by old recognition, however still many aspects of history of the cities, both Russia in general, and Siberia in particular, remain studied obviously insufficiently. Undoubtedly, selection of information containing the richest actual material for introduction to a scientific turn by future historians will allow to study more deeply and more objectively political, economic and welfare processes at the regional level.

List of references

1. Barenbaum, I.E. Istoriya of the book / E.I. Barenbaum. - M.: Book, 1984. - 248 pages
2. Golubeva, O.D. Pyotr Petrovich Dubrovsky / O.D. Golubeva//the Staff of National Library of Russia is scientists and cultures: biogr. words. - SPb., 1995. - T. 1: Imperial Public library, 1795-1917. - Page 203.
3. Kartashova, T.P. Izdaniya P.I. Makushina in library of the Tomsk local historian G.K. Tyumentsev//the Sixth Makushinsky readings: tez. dokl. nauch. konf. Novosibirsk, May 22-23. - Novosibirsk, 2003. - Page 99-101.
4. Books of Altai available and seals: catalog/KOhm. administrations of Alt. edges on culture and tourism, Alt. edges. univers. nauch. of V.Ya. Shishkov. - Barnaul: RIO AKUNB; Literature on Altai Krai: bibliogr. decree. / Viola. edges. univers. nauch. of V.Ya. Shishkov, department of study of local lore. - Barnaul: RIO AKUNB, 1959-...
5. Kolosova, G.I. The lithographed P.M. Co-sharova works in a book meeting of G.K. Tyumentsev//the Sixth Makushinsky readings: tez. dokl. nauch. konf. Novosibirsk, May 22-23. - Novosibirsk, 2003. -

S. 96-98.

6. Leaflets of the first years of the Soviet power (on Oct. 25 (on November 7), 1917-1925): kat. State collections. publich.-ki of M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin: in 2 t. / sost. Yu.S. Afanasyev [etc.]; edition of A.F. Shevtsov. - M.: Book, 1967-1970. - 2 t.
7. Preface//Leaflets of the first years of the Soviet power (on Oct. 25 (on November 7), 1917-1925): kat. State collections. publich.-ki of M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin. - M, 1967. - T. 1. - Page 5-11.
8. Ryabov, V.S. Protection of copyright of electronic documents [Electronic resource] / V.S. Ryabov. - the access Mode:; Zuyenok, Tatyana. That has to know everyone about Yandex. Part 1 [Electronic resource] / T. Zuyenok. - Access mode:; About Yandex [Electronic resource]. - Access mode:
9. Filimonov, M.R. Book treasury of Siberia: to the 100 anniversary from the opening day of Scientific library of the Tomsk university / Masculine Filimonov; under the editorship of L.I. Bozhenko. - Prod. the 2nd, additional - Tomsk: Publishing house Tom. un-that, 1988. - 194 pages
10. Tsit. on: Vaneev, A.N. Development of a bibliotekovedchesky thought in the USSR. - M, 1980. - Page 90-92.

Material came to edition of 2.10.2006

Information about the author: Anna Anatolyevna Fomina is a candidate of pedagogical sciences, the manager of department of the bibliography, ph. (3852) 40-46-33, e-mail:

Agnes Patterson
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