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Role of Institute of guardianship in development of professional (agricultural) education in the Russian Empire


Historical experience of functioning of institute of guardianship in the system of professional (agricultural) education in the Russian Empire is considered. The guardianship role in creation of a system continuous agricultural is shown

formations and in formation of the competitive experts demanded in labor market of that time.

S. Galiullina


The historic experience of the functioning of the institute of guardianship in the system of professional (agricultural) education in the Russian empire is regarded. The role of guardianship in the creation of the system of a continuous agricultural education and in the formation of the competitive experts demanded on a labor market of that time is described.

The problem of guardianship is very relevant; it is on a joint of pedagogics, sociology, cultural science and economy. In this regard the institute of guardianship in the system of a professional agricultural education which is effectively functioning in the Russian Empire is of great nauchnopraktichesky interest. The Russian experience of the organization of an agricultural education by means of guardianship is studied by domestic and foreign schools of sciences. The attention of scientists is drawn by a guardianship role in creation of a system of a continuous agricultural education, since the lowest step to the highest.

The history of development of guardianship in the system of professional education, in particular agricultural as special industry in Russia, is put by the empress Catherine II when in 1765 the Free economic society in St. Petersburg which played a big role in formation of the Russian agronomics, promotion of agricultural knowledge and in formation of conditions for creation of the higher agricultural education was created. The program of activity of society included promotion and distribution "all-useful introductions and manuals in agriculture and domostroi-

telstvo of knowledge, in studying provision of the Russian agriculture and conditions of economic life of the country and also position of agricultural machinery in the Western European states". At the same time M.V. Lomonosov "was concerned" about the organization of a class of a zemledelchestvo in the Russian Academy of Sciences [6, page 137].

In 1790 near Nikolaev in the village of Bogoyavlenskom the first agricultural school was created. In 1797 near St. Petersburg the first practical school of agriculture for the purpose of training of mentors for model farms is founded. In 1822 the Moscow agricultural school is open for training of salesmen, kontorshchik and surveyors from serfs.

In the first half of the 19th century the situation changed a little. The manifesto of the emperor Alexander I from 8 founded on September (20), 1802 the ministries. For "education of youth and distribution of sciences" the Ministry of national education in which department since 1893 there was an agricultural educational institution - Institute of agriculture and forestry [2, page 125 was formed]. This educational institution was located in Nova Aleksandrii and since July 1, 1912 it was transferred to department of Head department of land management and agriculture. At institute

two offices were created: agricultural and forest. At the same time at the Moscow, St. Petersburg, Derptsky, Kazan, Kiev and Kharkiv universities separate agricultural disciplines were taught.

Then in the 1830th, agricultural schools and schools which trained masters and skilled workers - gardeners, wine makers, cattle-farmers, masters were formed initial and special (one-two years); the lowest agricultural schools (three years) - assistants to agronomists, local agronomists.

Geodetic schools, to initial — a geodetic rate - torskiye classes, the lowest and other agricultural schools treated an average link of an agricultural education. The first average agricultural school was founded in Moscow in 1835. In the 19th century about 20 average schools which were letting out agronomists, land surveyors, gardeners, forest wardens, wine-growers-wine makers, hydrotechnicians, kulturtekhnik opened.

However owing to domination of the serfdom the created agricultural educational institutions of that period did not gain the development. According to professor I.A. Stebut, told in 1867, "Russia still supported the agricultural schools more from desire not to lag behind other countries, than from the general awareness of their need for agricultural business" [7, page 629].

The need for agricultural knowledge began to be felt only after release of peasants by the Manifesto of the emperor Alexander II and Polozheny on February 19, 1861 about an abolition of serfdom when it was necessary to arrange landowner economy on a new basis of free work.

Russia approached peasant reform with extremely backward and started local (territorial as then spoke) economy. Meanwhile state kaz-

on it was exhausted, and the government could not lift local economy by own efforts. At this historical stage a role of guardianship was played by the liberal public which petitioned for introduction of local government. As a result of January 1, 1864 the law on territorial self-government which was established for the leadership in economic affairs was approved: construction and the maintenance of local roads, schools, hospitals, almshouses, for the organization of food aid to the population in lean years, for the agronomical help and collecting statistical data. Provincial and district meetings, and executive - district and provincial territorial justices were administrative organs of zemstvo. At the same time zemstvoes began to perform functions of institute of guardianship, contributing to the development of a professional agricultural education in the village and to improvement of life of the Russian village. Under the Provision on initial national schools of July 14, 1864 provincial and district uchilishchny councils which were called for "care about satisfaction of need of the population for primary education and about its appropriate moral direction" were organized.

Care about an agricultural education was assigned to the district leader of the nobility and district uchilishchny council, and in the whole province - to the provincial leader of the nobility and provincial uchilishchny council. On an obligation of provincial uchilishchny council "the highest care" about initial national schools of the province lies, it was the highest authority for the solution of important issues. Were its part the chairman - the provincial leader of the nobility, the director of national schools, two members of provincial territorial meeting and on one from the Ministry of national education, internal affairs and clergy. In district uchilishchny councils, except the same representatives from

departments and a territorial district meeting, the inspector of national schools sat, and presided - the leader of the district nobility [7, page 119].

The institute of guardianship in stimulation and development of the lowest agricultural schools had especially important role. The state pursued the practical aims as the landowner and country economy passed with reforms of the 60-70th of the 19th century to the market relations, demanded constant technical re-equipment, introduction of new forms of the organization of production and advanced technologies.

Starting with the seventieth, numerous petitions from municipalities of domicile and public organizations about permission of opening of the lowest schools began to come to the government. Considering this fact, the Normal provision on the lowest agricultural schools [5, page 672-675] was Most highly approved on December 27, 1883 according to which they pursued the aim "distribution in the people of the main knowledge on agriculture and crafts, necessary for it, mainly by a practical training". It was authorized to open schools individuals, societies or zemstvoes and to use grants from treasury up to 3500 rub. Could be allocated for them in free use up to 500 tithes of the state earth. The course was established three-year-old. They were subdivided into two categories: The I category - for the persons which graduated from two-great rural schools, the II category

>- for the persons which graduated from national schools. At school, preparatory classes could be arranged.

However thanks to institute of guardianship, proceeding from various requirements of the agricultural environment, in practice schools of more various types were created that was provided by the Normal provision on the lowest agricultural schools of 1883. Trustees of the above-stated schools, considering

current situation in labor market, the educational and cultural level of the population of this area and also a measure of support of the government and municipalities of domicile, were authorized to perform the following functions: organizational, administrative, scientific and pedagogical, financial and economic and also to make independent decisions on the choice of the category of school and establishment of terms of training. They played a key role on selection of rooms for schools, on their material equipment, on formation of a trajectory of the educational environment, the curriculum, teaching staff, development of all types of certification of pupils, programs the practician.

As a result of laborious work of trustees of agricultural schools were created: 1) the lowest agricultural schools the general the I category. By January 1, 1898 them was 36 (by January 1, 1899 - 41), from them five - are arranged treasury, 16 - zemstvoes, 4 - different societies and 11 - individuals. The first founded state Ma-riino-mountain school in 1880. A specific place was held by the state schools operating on specially approved charters and the having programs a little more difficult than provided Normal situation. As among being admitted to schools I of the category there were very few two-great rural schools which ended a course, almost at all schools it was necessary to found preparatory classes; thus, the course at schools made 4-5 years. Besides, many schools sent the pets after the end of training to year practice to private manors and issued certificates only after submission of the satisfactory report by pupils.

2) The lowest agricultural schools the general the II category. By January 1, 1898 them was 14 (by January 1, 1899 - 15) from which six - are opened by zemstvoes, one - the Kurland nobility and seven - private

persons. The difference between schools I and II of categories actually was insignificant. The course proceeded three years, but mostly there were one or two preparatory classes. In relation to the normal charter for schools II of the category also schools of the steppe Governorate-General are arranged. By January 1, 1898 them was eight (by January 1, 1899 - 13).

3) Schools and schools of gardening. By January 1, 1898 them was 18 (by January 1, 1899 - 21); from them three - state, 11 - are founded by societies, one - zemstvo and three - individuals. The curriculum of state schools was wider and allocated more place to theoretical teaching. The main task of schools - training in gardening (fruit growing) and truck farming; besides, at six schools the beekeeping, in two - hop-growing, in two - wine growing, in two - silkworm breeding, in one

>- forestry, in one - winemaking and in one - agriculture in general was studied.

4) Schools of dairy farming. By their January 1, 1899 there were 10, including two offices at schools. All schools were open in private manors; the first school, Pavnikovsky, was founded in 1889. Under the charter of 1890 of school of dairy farming aimed at training - mainly by a practical training - to cattle breeding, butter manufacture and cheese making. Training continued two years; the third year was devoted to a practical training.
5) The lowest schools on other specialties — the Goretsky vocational school aiming to form the masters capable to produce and repair agricultural tools and cars and also to operate them, and the Berezovsko-Pokrovsky school of ovchar aiming to prepare the knowing ovchar and practicians.
6) Women's agricultural schools. The first school, Zozulinsky, is founded in 1888. By January 1, 1898 them was three (by January 1, 1902 - eight), all are based in private manors. These schools trained vos-

pitannitsa to the housekeeping and some special branches of agriculture important for the rural hostess. Training continued two years.

7) Practical schools and courses of simpler device which began to arise for satisfaction of the increasing need for skillful and inexpensive workers on agriculture and, mainly, on its separate industries — gardening, truck farming, wine growing and other. Their organization depended on local conditions. The course proceeded from one to four years; the persons who are already able to read and write were accepted usually. By January 1, 1898 such schools was nine (by January 1, 1899 - 15), including seven schools and two courses. One school was founded in a state manor of Salgirk near Simferopol, three schools are founded by zemstvoes, three - individuals and two courses - societies of corrective shelters [7, page 632].

Thus, the network of the lowest agricultural schools was created, however there was not enough this quantity: they were located over the country unevenly, their organizational formation had no system character. Systematic activity of the government in development of agriculture began with reorganization of the Ministry of the state imu-shchestvo (since 1837) when the Ministry of agriculture and state imushchestvo of the Russian Empire was founded on March 21, 1894. Further, May 6, 1905, it was transformed to Head department of land management and agriculture, and on October 26, 1915 it is again transformed to the Ministry of agriculture of the Russian Empire. This period was the most fruitful for development of an agricultural education [4, page 643].

During this period the guardianship gained broad development in connection with the New provision on an agricultural education which was approved on May 26, 1904

The big part in the Provision on an agricultural education of 1904 was assigned to "the special person" - the trustee, Council at it and to Supervisory committee which had to carry out a task "cares on welfare of agricultural educational institutions and for observation of their activity".

In those agricultural educational institutions in which not less than a half of regular expenses on their maintenance was charged to means of zemstvoes, the cities, societies and individuals the candidates for positions of trustees of educational institutions, chairmen and members of supervisory committees had to be elected by above-mentioned institutions in the order established by Glavnoupravlyayushchy land management and agriculture. The elected candidates were approved for three-year term, as the chairman of supervisory committee at average agricultural schools - the Royal order, in other cases - as glavnoupravlyayushchy. In department of Head department of land management and agriculture, scientific institutions and educational institutions by an agricultural, handicraft and industrial and forest part consisted. Depending on their accessory they were in a zavedyvaniye of Department of agriculture, Forest department, Department of rural economy and agricultural statistics.

By types of an agricultural education in the Empire educational institutions for training of specialists on agriculture and educational "establishments" for distribution of agricultural knowledge were founded [4, page 644].

According to scientific preparation the agricultural schools were subdivided into the highest, average and the lowest. The first was aimed at training of the persons with the higher agronomical education who are scientifically developing questions of agriculture, leading actions

the government and various institutions in the field of agriculture, managing directors of the large agricultural enterprises. Most often the higher agricultural schools made only office of the university or polytechnical institute, and the students studying agriculture listened to lectures on the main objects together with other students getting an education on other specialties.

High agricultural schools trained managing directors of less considerable manors and employees on less important posts. In them the pupils who ended a course of elementary school were accepted. Here they not only gained special knowledge, but also completed full education.

The lowest agricultural schools trained the lowest serving personnel for large manors and also gave to children of peasants the chance to continue fatherly economy on the rational beginnings.

Functioning of the lowest agricultural schools had the difficulties and depended on cultural environmental conditions. If the peasantry stood on low cultural level and its economy had routine character, tasks of agricultural schools became complicated as, besides realization of special knowledge, it was necessary to increase the general level of development of pupils and to give them the chance in specially created economy to observe receptions of modern economy. Under such circumstances the importance of the lowest agricultural schools as the course was aimed at continuous character from the rural environment and agriculture for country children taking into account need of peasants at this conjuncture of life increased. Experience of functioning of the lowest agricultural schools was adopted from winter schools of agriculture and additional classes at them of Austria and Germany.

By January 1, 1903 in Russia there were 211 agricultural schools, including in department of the Ministry of agriculture and the state imushchestvo - 200 (two - the highest, 14 - averages, 184 - the lowest); The Ministries of Finance - one the highest; The Ministries of national education - 11 (two

>- the highest, three - averages, five - the lowest). However there was not enough this number of educational institutions, besides experience of functioning of data of educational institutions was accumulated, shortcomings are revealed. All this was the basis for creation of the New provision on an agricultural education which was approved on May 26, 1904 [4, page 644].

According to this document, the Minister of agriculture and the state imushchestvo the right to issue the charters defining the device, an order of management, volume of a training course and distribution of classes was granted in agricultural educational institutions the practical preparation prevailed.

The division of schools on the general, the intended for training in agriculture in general, and special, aiming trainings in separate branches of agriculture and also division of educational institutions on men's and women's became an important innovation (before they were only male). In this regard Glavnoupravlyayushchem by land management and agriculture was granted the right at establishment of women's agricultural educational institutions to publish special rules for adaptation of some articles of the law to conditions of women's education and training.

Agricultural institutions were still subdivided into the highest, average and the lowest. However the highest agricultural institutions which had to be established on the basis of special provisions were expelled from the types of educational institutions provided earlier.

Were provided by the provision on an agricultural education of 1904

average agricultural educational institutions: average agricultural schools; the lowest agricultural educational institutions are the lowest agricultural schools and schools (I and II categories) and practical agricultural schools.

Tasks "were assigned to average agricultural schools to deliver to pupils in them practical, on a scientific basis education on agriculture for preparation them to agricultural activity" [4, page 645]. The course was provided for six years and was divided into two general education and four special classes. The structure of schools without general education classes was in certain cases allowed. In 6-great general agricultural schools, obligatory disciplines - such as Scripture, Russian, one of modern languages, geography, history, mathematics, drawing and drawing, natural sciences and as special - zemlemery, agriculture and its industries, bookkeeping and jurisprudence were taught. Upon termination of school the graduates were entitled the agronomist.

The lowest agricultural schools were established for preparation for practical agricultural activities; the course made three years. In special schools the term of training could be reduced to two years. The general lowest agricultural schools were taught: The Scripture, Russian, arithmetics, the geometry bases, drawing, zemlemery, geography, the history of Russia, the main data from natural sciences, agriculture with its industries having the prevailing local value, and data on the major laws relating to rural life.

The lowest agricultural schools were aimed at "a podgotovleniye, mainly by a practical training, expert and skillful performers on

to agriculture" [4, page 645]. The course at the general agricultural schools made three years; in special - one or two years. At those and other schools, additional classes for improvement in the separate industries or receptions of economy could be established. At the general agricultural schools I of the category, general education disciplines were studied — in relation to a course of two-great rural schools, and special, belonging to agriculture.

At schools II of the category a general education course, adjoining a course of initial national schools, had to consist in strengthening of knowledge acquired in these schools and in their application to studying special objects.

Practical agricultural schools intended for "training of skillful technicians-workers on different branches of agriculture, somehow: on gardening, wine growing, winemaking, butter manufacture and also for training of cattlemen, ovchar and to that similar workers". Training duration - from one to three years. For receipt only abilities to read and write in Russian were required.

Agricultural educational institutions could be founded at the expense of treasury, zemstvoes, societies and individuals. For the lowest agricultural educational institutions on expenses on a teaching department allowances could be granted: to the lowest agricultural schools - not over 10 thousand rubles a year; to the lowest agricultural schools I of the category - up to 7 thousand rubles; to the lowest agricultural schools II of the category - up to 5 thousand rubles and to practical agricultural schools - up to 3 thousand rubles a year.

to Agricultural educational institutions could be allocated for

in use land and the timberland of the state earth and also free of charge we release the state wood on construction, repair and heating of buildings.

Also Situation of May 26, 1904 provided the device so nazyvaye-

my "educational establishments" for distribution of agricultural knowledge: agricultural classes, courses, readings and conversations. The minister of agriculture was granted the right to allow establishment and the adoption of charters of the local societies aiming at the structure of agricultural educational institutions and in general distribution of agricultural knowledge, and under the agreement with the Minister of Internal Affairs — societies for care about the former pupils of agricultural educational institutions.

Trustees, chairmen, members of supervisory committees had the rights of public service appropriated to their positions, except the rights for pension and production in ranks. They could be recommended for the highest decorations.

In the subsequent amendments taking into account the New provision on an agricultural education of May 26, 1904 which assumed suit at the lowest schools offices for training of teachers of initial schools, familiar with agriculture, the lowest personnel for needs of the territorial agronomical organization and also experts in various crafts having special value in any given area were introduced. At the same time shortcomings of those schools which had the low contingent of students were revealed.

Then various types of the simplified schools with the differentiated approach were offered: on the one hand, such in which the main attention would focus on a practical side of agriculture as already existing practical schools, with another — such in which the main attention would be paid to the theoretical objects which are the cornerstone of agriculture.

In the organization and functioning of agricultural schools the experience of the Ufa province formed in is interesting

1865 as a part of counties Ufa, Belebey, Birsk, Zlatoust, Menzelinsky and Sterlitamak. Agriculture played a significant role among other crafts of the province in the province. Processing of the earth was conducted by "primitive tools, the most primitive way". On grounds the lands were distributed: pashenny and meadow - 5199526 des., forest-5109454 and inconvenient - 529840 des. Cultivated area in 1902 was determined in 1626648 des. The Raspakhannost of lands decreased in process of removal to the East, and Menzelinsky and Belebey Counties were most of all opened. Truck farming was conducted in a limited size by residents of the cities for satisfaction of own needs for vegetables. The beekeeping was most of all developed, but though it was and it is more profitable, was conducted primitively, without scientific approach. The cattle breeding thanks to abundance of meadows could bring more benefit, however insufficiency of knowledge of care for the cattle brought this type of economy into not profitable; the cattle was small, unproductive, the breed degenerated, became shallow. In a germ there were domestic industries. Provincial and district zemstvoes applied many forces to development of these crafts which could provide a part of the population with jobs.

By 1901 there was only one geodetic school which was open in 1879 in Ufa, there was it in department of the Ministry of Justice (by 1909 in the Russian Empire there were only five geodetic schools) [1, page 69-72; 80]. The purpose of this school was "education of technicians for production of boundary and geodetic works and also... works on radical improvements of land grounds and taxation researches". The course is 4-year-old; the young men of 15 — 19 years who graduated from city schools were accepted. Under the Provision of 1872 a theoretical part of the curriculum included the general education objects repeating and deepening

disciplines of city school (Scripture, Russian, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, physics, cosmography, drawing) and special (geodesy, jurisprudence, boundary laws, soil science and crop production, improvement of land grounds, agricultural and forest valuation, drawing of plans, calligraphy). A practical training was organized in the spring and in the summer, lasting not less than two months in academic year. The persons which graduated from school were entitled the land surveyor-claimsman. It should be noted what persons interested to come to the called educational institution was always much. For example, in 1912, at 30 budgetary vacancies 297 applications were submitted to the Ufa school.

Geodetic taksatorskiye the classes opened in 1859 at the Ufa men's gymnasium thanks to his trustee were the first agricultural educational institutions of Bashkiria with the two-year term of training. Accepted in the called classes of young men from 15 years which successfully passed the examinations corresponding to the volume of knowledge at the level not below a course of district school. The ended classes and six years which worked on a profile received the certificate on a rank of the private land surveyor and claimsman. Pupils in classes studied only special objects, and a practical training was given annually within three months in the field.

Appearance of the Russian population played a progressive role in Bashkiria. By the end of the 19th century the Bashkir population finally passed to settled lifestyle, was engaged in agriculture, joined industrial work. Almost each independent Bashkir farmer had in the neighboring Russian village, in the volost center, in market settlements of "zna-godfather" - the Russian sworn brother with whom regularly communicated, at which stopped on a lodging for the night or a day halt; he received during distant (for this purpose

time) trips to a market, to the city or on mail, and even in hospital, to the doctor. Besides, the methods of managing which developed for centuries ceased to satisfy inquiries of modern times; new receptions under the influence of the developing scientific research began to be developed quickly. All these factors were the fertile field for development of an agricultural education in the Ufa province.

At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century in the Ufa province the lowest agricultural schools began to open that was connected with transition of economy to the new capitalist relations therefore demand for qualified specialists increased. The following belonged to this group of agricultural schools: Berezovsky school of butter manufacture, cheese making and livestock production, Biklyansky lowest country boarding school, Askinsky agricultural school for girls-magometanok, La hovsky school of truck farming, beekeeping and fruit growing, the Ivanovo school of gardening, truck farming and beekeeping, practical school of truck farming and field husbandry of Klyucharev, Novotroitsk agricultural office, the Belebey lowest agricultural school I of the category of the Ufa provincial zemstvo and Menzelinskaya of the Ufa provincial zemstvo the lowest agricultural school I of the category. Each school opened efforts of their trustees. As a rule, as the trustee, eminent persons acted: chairman Ufa provincial

territorial justice, her members [6, page 69]. In some of them "for care about welfare of schools and observations of their activity" advisory bodies with involvement of the public - the boards of trustees (supervisory or economic committees) which chairmen appointed trustees of educational institutions were created. The organization and functioning of the given advice were provided by Authorized norms of educational institutions. Up to the Moustache -

to tavny norms of Menzelinskaya of the Ufa provincial zemstvo of the lowest agricultural school I of the category the supervisory committee included the following members: three representatives of menzelinsky district zemstvo elected by the Ufa territorial meeting; the representative of the Ufa provincial meeting in case the Ufa provincial zemstvo had the grants in school; representative of Head department of land management and agriculture [3, page 10]. Representatives of zemstvoes were approved in positions on each third anniversary by Head department of land management and agriculture under the agreement with the Ufa governor. Later, after organizational efforts, the main task of trustees and the boards of trustees was research of funds for the maintenance of schools and schools which would not be fruitful without support of the public which well knew and respected prominent persons of trustees: "Society of mutual assistance learning and learning in educational institutions of the city of Menzelinsk and its county", "Society of mutual assistance learning and learning in the lowest and initial schools of the Ufa province". Trustees also actively cooperated with directors of national schools which had the right to appoint one of board members in each society. By means of it they advanced everyone the interests.

Thus, thanks to creation and functioning of institute of guardianship in the field of professional (agricultural) education in the Russian Empire the network of agricultural educational institutions which developed by 1914 allowed to improve significantly training of professional staff of the lowest and average link.

Being representatives of provincial territorial justices, trustees were large key figures in the organization and in management of educational institutions.

They formed regional educational policy in the field of development of agriculture in the territory entrusted to them by creation of educational institutions and

formations of the highly qualified, competitive specialists demanded and who are quoted in labor market of that time.


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Norris Gerald
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