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Category: History

The St. Petersburg educational house in 1797



STRANITSA ISTORIYA

T.G. Frumenkova,

associate professor of the Russian history

ST. PETERSBURG EDUCATIONAL HOUSE B 1797

1797 became year of the beginning of the serious transformations in the St. Petersburg educational house connected with I.I. Betsky's death (1795), Catherine II (1796) and accession to the throne of Paul I. 1797 opened an era independent, separate of Moscow, lives of the capital Educational house. The new period of activity of educational houses was closely connected with the first stage of their existence — with I.I. Betsky's era. Continuity was not only that educational houses of the end of XVIII — the beginning of the 19th century developed on the foundation laid in the previous reign. It was shown also that the general contours of reorganization of educational institutions for orphans were planned by Catherine at one of her last orders signed on October 28, 1796. She for the first time suggested to divide pupils into regular and rural and also demanded to introduce the rule by which the children sent for education on villages on reaching majority were enlisted in the category state krestyan1.

However Catherine did not manage to carry out conceived. After her death the heads of the capital house hurried to show the loyalty to the new monarch. Even in the summer of 1796. The St. Petersburg tutorial council received the application from the heir to the throne S.I. Pushchin, close to family, wishing to arrive in trustees. The statement was followed by a request of Crown Prince Pavel Petrovich for the room of the applicant "on pervootkryvshuyusya a vacancy". Then did not follow reaction of council. On November 11, 1796 main trustee of columns X. S. Münnich suggested trustees to accept S.I. Pushchin "in the fellow members", despite the lack of a vacancy that council could show thus "the devotion and care to execution of will" of the sovereign. About observance of rules of replacement of the positions established by I.I. Betsky there was no speech also. However, the diligence did not save the column X. S. Münnich, and on December 22, 1796 Paul I signed the decree on appointment of Siversa2 as the Main trustee Ya.E. The order ordered for such cases by "Master plan" of Ekaterina's times was broken this time by the emperor.

Prior to the beginning of May, 1797 the calm reigned in affairs of educational houses. Probably, just then the issue of their future destiny was resolved. At last, 2 (on new style 13) May Paul I signed the decree "About Acceptance of the Main Administration over Educational Houses in Both Capitals to the Empress Maria Fiodorovna". In the decree it was reported: "As at our will its Imperial Majesty, our all-dearest spouse from philanthrophy, akin to It, and wishing to facilitate the general good, accepts on Themselves the main administration over educational houses in both capital cities our founded with all institutions belonging to them; that owing to this also we rule to belong to the trustee of it in what it is necessary, to Her Majesty; in other, as for to tutorial councils and before the use of the capitals on advantage of this institution to arrive on the establishments published about that" 3.

With transition under Maria Fiodorovna's protection the St. Petersburg educational house, having kept strong communications with a related teaching and educational institution in Moscow, received independence and began to find the unique lines. In the years of Maria Fiodorovna's management in her charitable institutions the foundation of pedagogical education of graduates of the St. Petersburg educational house was laid. For this reason the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, the successor of pedagogical traditions and organizational forms of the St. Petersburg educational house, reckons the history from 2 on May (13), 1797

Having received the imperial decree, trustees solemnly noted appearance of the new most august patroness. Under the resolution of the St. Petersburg council "in expression of general joy of the educational house" and "appreciation to chadolyubiveyshy contempt of their Imperial Majesties

silent babies" on May 12 the priest made the All-night vigil, and next day in the presence of pupils and employees the liturgy with a thanksgiving prayer about health of an imperial couple was served. In St. Petersburg decided to prepare detailed data on children and employees in case of Maria's arrival of Fedorovny4

Indeed, from the very first days tenure "the commander-in-chief over educational houses" the empress developed rough activity and vigorously undertook targeting in the house of an order which in recent years Ekaterina's reign to some extent reeled. She paid special attention to the St. Petersburg house. First of all, she was concerned by problems of rescue of life of chest pets and medical care of children. Already on May 3 the monarchess disposed to give annually from the income 9000 rubles in favor of the children who were at wet nurses. On May 18, having found out that to a third of pets in the capital are included in lists of patients, she threatened physicians with dismissal. The honored person, the Golitsyno guest and the famous doctor N. Maksimovichu-Ambodiku had to explain that the children brought to the house in the majority are unhealthy, returned from rural wet nurses "sheludyam, ulcers and other zakozhny diseases are covered with itch, various rash, scabs,", rooms of the house are too close, and in general the number of patients "neither from chiefs, nor does not depend on doctors". Later, fall of 1797, the empress continued to be engaged in the solution of medical problems: she submitted the recommendations about treatment of pets prepared by doctor I.F. Beck in the St. Petersburg tutorial council and also gave the personal instructions specifying a diet for nikh5.

The most august patroness established constant control over work of the house. On May 21 the order followed the chief supervisor of the house I.G. Sumbatov twice a week to submit it sheets about number of children and employees. It agrees the first of them, under the authority of the St. Petersburg house then 3927 pupils of both sexes consisted (including the children sent on education to villages), and the senior from boys was 15 years old. At the same time in the house there were 86 girls aged from 16 up to 20 years. The staff of attendants made 180 people. There was a problem of the device of fate of adult pupils. It was not also without misunderstanding. Pupil

A. Sergeyev, the skilled worker, "well learned to zolotoshveyny business", got in servants to the countess S.

B. Stroganova. On October 1, 1797 the main trustee ordered to let out alumnae only from the written consent of the chief supervisor. Later, in 1798, in Vedomosti an advertisement of that persons interested to accept to houses of the trained graduates were to the chief supervisor was placed. Besides, from the submitted lists the new administration saw that the pupils baptized in the house, "have all otchestva of the being priest Nikitina". The last was summoned to Council and demanded to invite to a christening of different attendants and pupils that pets received "various otchestva" 6. The identical names and middle names playing a role of surnames included big confusion in documents.

On July 5 the empress approved new rules of sending babies to the village, to wet nurses peasants. It was necessary to give them only healthy children examined by the doctor, to watch that kids were nursed and kept clean. The architect should have prepared the plan of reorganization of close rooms of the house. Unfortunately, all in a month of a circumstance forced Maria Fiodorovna to depart from rules. In August, during a season of harvest works, in the St. Petersburg house the shortage of wet nurses was found. Attempts of the empress to find them in own possession failed. Women said that they expected to come to "the important private house" and refused to raise foundlings. It was necessary to dispose about the emergency departure on villages of all children, including sick and premature.

On July 5, on the same day, when there was an order about chest pets, the empress paid attention and to training of the senior children. She demanded to make some changes to the program of their training, in particular, to enhance its religious orientation and to increase hours by studying the Scripture. The chief supervisor of the St. Petersburg house presented it the corrected lesson schedule with a wide range of general education objects and practical disciplines.

On July 9 Paul I signed the decree which demanded that tutorial councils took more hard line in relation to debtors of houses. Throughout the Pavlovsk reign are long those who obtained a loan in safe or loan treasury of the St. Petersburg house, collected firmly and reshitelno7.

On October 5, 1797 Maria Fiodorovna submitted to the spouse the report. She suggested to dispose that metropolitans and governors ordered to priests and to deliver to the lower territorial courts of the St. Petersburg and Moscow provinces the exact information about the pets sent to villages and also to look after their contents. On October 9 Paul I signed the similar decree in the part concerning governors and the letter directed to metropolitans. Transferred to the St. Petersburg governor the list of villages with number of the children of both sexes living there. In the response official report of one of the lower territorial vessels — Shlisselburg — it was reported that three children are held in villages of the county "in any purity and an allowance", they are healthy, apart from the fact that at one boy "from an ospenny disease of eyes became is curve". The spiritual consistory demanded from administration of the house to submit it personalized lists of children and to order to the wet nurses receiving children, to be noted at parish svyashchennika8. Contacts with local authorities and clergy, as envisioned by the empress, had to promote strengthening of control over peasants tutors.

All previous decrees served as the overture to the main resolutions which opened the new period in work of Educational houses, first of all, St. Petersburg. On December 15, 1797 the empress suggested to get for the capital house, instead of the old close building, the palace of the count K.G. Razumovsky on Moika (nowadays — the main building of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia). Next day the emperor enjoined to issue to tutorial council on it the bill of sale.

On December 23 according to the report of the spouse Paul I approved a new order of the organization, education, training and the device of fate of pets. "The major fault (reason. — T.F.) organization of educational houses" was called "uniform of charitable duties of mankind — love for the neighbor, its action addresses extorting innocent mankind which the birth is not approved by the law from death hands to vospoit an alien mlek of the unfortunate baby, at the birth responsible for its life left and that, at last, this among the parents the orphan to disdain, bring up and form his soul and heart and to make useful to him and society". So, the house intended mainly for the thrown bastard children.

"Establishments" reported that the house occupied by the St. Petersburg pets "at internal narrowness, without having the extensive yards and gardens, vsekonechno very strongly affects life of babies". For providing "purity and freshness of air" and also for "improvement of initial rules of good conduct" it was supposed "to buy" to the palace of the count K.G. Razumovsky the "sosedstvenny" house (nowadays — the 2nd building of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia) which would allow to divide children on a floor as it was already accepted in Moscow.

"Uncertainty (numbers) of pets", according to legislators, resulted in "limitlessness of costs" of house and did not promote that children achieved success in training. According to the project prepared in the last days of Catherine II's reign it was planned to limit number of pets to a framework of the state and "in each capital to have no more than 500". Other children should have been sent to villages. They were expected by a lot of state peasants. For education of boys to 17, and girls up to 15 years were supposed to be paid peasants. Article of "Master plan" under certain conditions giving the chance to be exempted from serfdom to husbands of pupils was repealed. The free state was kept now only by the graduate of the house. Her husband and children remained serfs. Rewarding with a rank of the XIV class of merchants and representatives of other estates which offered for needs of the House at a time not less than 1000 rubles as it was provided by I.I. Betsky in "Master plan" of 1763, was also cancelled. Grant, according to legislators, the sovereign should have noted only service, and such right belonged only to the sovereign.

Pupils of "rare sharpness of mind" needed "to be sent in academy" for development of their abilities. The further history of the St. Petersburg educational house demonstrates that the empress Maria Fiodorovna scrupulously carried out provisions of this article. Dozens of graduates of the house at the beginning of the 19th century graduated in medico-surgical academy, Academy of Arts and at various universities. Female pedagogical education in "Establishments" of 1797 it was not mentioned yet. The system of training of girls - "tutors" will be created in several years.

"The plan for education of 500 babies in each capital" divided children into 5 age. Healthy kids were supposed "to be sent immediately on villages". In houses it was planned to leave only "absolutely weak" babies. The pets who were among regular gathered

to train in "knowledge of belief", reading, the letter, arithmetics, German, geography, drawing, crafts, needlework and "surgical science". "The stately number of children" was planned to be brought up up to 18 years. From education it was necessary "to reject all that tends to dazzle by gloss of eyes" (a stone towards I.I. Betsky and Catherine's system. — T.F.). Instead "reliable and useful rules to perfect knowledge of the Christian law, morality and acquisition of the data necessary for crafts and needlework" 9 were introduced. Thus, programs of training and the staff of supervisors were a little reduced.

On December 27, 1797 Paul approved also new regulations of tutorial council. At Catherine and I.I. Betsky the trustees from noblemen with a rank not lower than VI classes on "Tables of ranks" at first worked at the public, gratuitous beginnings, and later turned into the professional employees receiving a salary. Under the decree of the emperor Paul the position of the trustee turned into honourable court service. Maria Fiodorovna completely replaced the structure of council. His members began to be called as honourable trustees. It were the representatives of the nobility, officials of the highest ranks entering the immediate environment of the crowned patroness of educational houses. She considered them people "the best qualities, deserved respect and the power of attorney, called for this feat not by a payment, but uniform love for the fatherland and for the neighbor" so they did not receive a salary for the work in council. In new tutorial council, besides duties "overseeing and the report in general", each trustee received a special assignment and was responsible, for example, for keeping of pets on villages, for work of a town educational house or its safe kazny10.

So, need of transformations of educational houses was seen still by Catherine II, however, despite cooling of the relations with I.I. Betsky, it did not begin their transformations at his life. Maria Fiodorovna got educational houses not in the best state. In recent years Catherine's reigns senile I.I. Betsky's infirmity, his discharge from a position, appointment of "the successor of the main trustee who is taking up a position" and also reduction of interest of Catherine in educational houses, undoubtedly, promoted "supervision eases" and "its abuses flowing into structure" as it was told in Maria Fiodorovna's "Establishments". Burning issues of educational houses, in particular St. Petersburg, not only did not cool eagerness of the new patroness, but, it seems, even increased her energy.

The reforms begun in 1797 demonstrated refusal of many provisions of the plan of I.I. Betsky. The St. Petersburg educational house turned from the organization patronized by society into the model official establishment using special protection of monarchs and living from their bounties. Own views of the empress, the European woman created in line with the ideas of Education left a mark on activity of the educational house also. Maria Fiodorovna's orders changed concrete rules of education and training of pets, however, maybe, even contrary to her subjective aspirations, the humanistic ideas of Education more than once, I.I. Betsky's ideas still penetrated everyday life of the establishment created by it. In the independent St. Petersburg house the main kernel of the plan of the founder of the house — classless approach to the thrown children, their broad education and aspiration to development of abilities remained. Completely the son of the last Nicholas I only after the death of mother in 1828 will refuse I.I. Betsky, Caterina II and Maria Fiodorovna's ideas. However by this time Maria Fiodorovna's efforts in teaching and educational institutions of the St. Petersburg house already laid the foundation of the pedagogical education calculated for work with children of different age and also musical pedagogical education. The St. Petersburg school of a surdopedagogika began to develop. That the best that was developed in the training classes of the St. Petersburg educational house created and which gained development thanks to efforts of the empress was inherited by class teaching and educational institutions which were organized at it in the next decades. Special attention in Mariinsky department was traditionally paid to female education. Not accidentally under its protection during an era of great reforms there were first female gymnasiums, pedagogical courses at them, and at the beginning of the 20th century — the only Women's Pedagogical Institute of university type in Russia on the basis of which the modern Russian state pedagogical university of A.I. Herzen grew.

1. Maykov of P.M.I.I. Betskaya: Experience of its biography / P.M. Maykov. SPb., 1904. Enc. Page 37.
2. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 7. 24. L. 1-6; 26. L. 1.
3. PSZ. T. 24. No. 17952.
4. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 9. 429. L. 3; Op. 26. 370. L. 1; 425. L. 1; 477. L. 1-188.
5. In the same place. Op. 20. 156. L. 2; 139. L. 1-5 about.; 191. L. 1-9; 140. L. 2.
6. In the same place. 147. L. 1-5; 152. L. 1-8; 140. L. 4.
7. In the same place. 149. L. 1B-18 about.; 137. L. 1-14 about.; T. 759. Op. 8. 6. L. 34-36.
8. In the same place. T. 758. Op. 20. 148. L. 1-23.
9. In the same place. 154. L. 1-5 about.; Op. 9. 429. L. 5 about.-10 about.; Monographs of institutions of Department of the empress Maria. SPb., 1880. Page 207-215.
10. In the same place. T. 759. Op. 8. 1. L. 41-43 about.; T. 758. Op. 9. 429. L. 11.

E.N. Gruzdeva,

photo editor of publishing house E.M. Kolosova, director of the museum of history of the university

WOMEN'S PEDAGOGICAL INSTITUTE AT the TURN of ERAS

(1913-1917)

In 1913 across all Russia the 300 anniversary of House of Romanovs was widely celebrated. The capital of the Russian Empire to celebrations considerably changed: new ceremonial buildings were built, streets are decorated with flags and flowers, through Neva will throw the largest railway bridge. The festive atmosphere reigned also in Imperial women's Pedagogical Institute which in a year, anniversary for Romanov' dynasty, endured a time of the highest blossoming. It was the only women's institute in Russia which was recognized the government and the Ministry of national education as a higher educational institution.

The Pedagogical courses at the St. Petersburg female gymnasiums opened in the system of Department of institutions of the empress Maria in 1859 were his direct predecessor. Originally the circle of the objects entering the program of courses was directed mainly to expansion of the theoretical knowledge gained in gymnasiums. But courses began to gain special pedagogical character due to addition of special subjects soon — pedagogics, anatomy, age physiology, student teaching in a basic gymnasium.

At the end of the 19th century young vigorous graduates of the university joined faculty members of Pedagogical courses: historians A.E. Presnyakov, S.V. Rozhdestvensky, M.A. Poliyev-ktov, philologist A.K. Borozdin. They vividly responded to the offer to transform courses to Women's Pedagogical Institute. The idea proceeded from the inspector of courses admiral A.N. Stranno-lyubskogo and was approved by the trustee of an institution grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovich famous in Russia as the poet writing under the Territory pseudonym. Transformation of courses was promoted also by the public and pedagogical movement of the beginning of the 20th century. On this all-pedagogical wave the group of young teachers was also engaged in development of the expanded programme of four years' training. In 1898 A.E. Presnyakov wrote: "This program we cook in a secret circle from 7 people (all youth). & lt;...> Courses as they are put now — establishment margarine, and we want to create the highest institution of special type" 1.

When curricula of new institute were developed and approved, the grand duke Konstantin Konstantinovich invited to a position of the director of famous St. Petersburg professor of the Russian history S.F. Platonov. Choice of the trustee was very good: thanks to authority and S.F. Platonov's communications on the scientific and teaching environment, philosophers E.L. Radlov, N.O. Lossky, I.I. Lapshin, historians entered into staff of Women's Pedagogical Institute

AA. D. Grimm, A.A. Vasilyev, D.K. Petrov, mathematicians K.A. Posse, N.N. Gernet, estestvennik M.N. Rimsky-Korsakov, V.T. Shevyakov and others. Lectures and a practical training on the scientific level and volume of contents not only did not concede in new institute university, but also were

Mary Wilson
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