The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

The new settlement of ancestors of Komi-Zyrians on Central Vychegda

izvestiya of Komi of scientific center OURO RAHN Release 2. Syktyvkar, 2010.


UDC 903.4 (470.13)


K.S. Queens

Institute of language, literature and history Komi NC OURO RAHN, Syktyvkar

To 50 - the 60th of last century the opinion on late settling of east part of the Vychegda region by ancestors of Komi-Zyrians dominated. Researchers considered that they in this region of the Komi of the settlement appeared only in the 16-17th centuries and carried it to trade territories of ugr (ancestors of Mansi and Khanty). Situation began to change with the middle of the 1970th when as a result of works of the I Vychegda archaeological group of Institute of language, literature and the history Komi of Academy of Sciences of the USSR branch under the leadership of the author in the valley of Central Vychegda the first monuments of ancestors of Komi-Zyrians were open and investigated. So far on a considerable extent of an average current of the Vychegda River (more than 200 km), from the mouth of its left inflow of Sysola above, nine monuments to Perm Vychegda are open and investigated.


Till the 1950-1960-s of last century the opinion on late settling of the eastern part of Vychegda territory by ancestors of the Komi-Zyryans dominated. Researchers believed that in this region the Komi population appeared only in the XVI-XVII centuries and it was referred to trade territories of the Ugrians (ancestors of the Mansi and Khanty). The situation started to change from mid 1970-s when as a result of works of the 1-st Vychegodsky archaeological group of the Institute of Language, Literature and History, Komi Braneh, USSR Acade-my of Sciences, under the guidance of the author the first sites of ancestors of the Komi-Zyryans had been discovered and investigated in the middle Vychegda valley. By now on a considerable extent in the middle reaches of Vychegda (more than 200 km), from the mouth of its left tributary of Sysola and further on, 9 sites of the Vychegda Perm have been discovered and investigated.

The natural boundary on a coastal terrace of the starichny Lake Levaty on the left coast of the Vychegda River which is approximately in 3 km to the south of the village of Podjelsk and in 1 km from the riverbed of Vychegda local the Komi the population is called "by Chud of carat" ("Chudskoye ancient settlement") (fig. 1).

The coastal terrace of the northern coast gradually raises from southwest and northeast extremities of the lake to its middle part and here reaches 10-meter height over lake level, forming the grivoobrazny height about 100 m long and (fig. 2) 25-30 m wide.

The terrace surface in a sublime part rather equal with a small bias to the northwest, places is covered by a belomoshnik. Here the mixed wood with prevalence of a pine grows.

At survey of a surface of a coastal terrace roundish holes with a diameter of 1-3 m and 0.3-0.5 m in depth were recorded. Four of them are located at an edge of a coastal terrace of the Lake Levaty, and one - at the western edge of the terrace bordered with the marshy lowland.

In 2004 on a surface of a terrace prospecting holes with a total area of 12 sq.m in which fragments of not ornamented ceramics, metallurgical slags, silicon splinters and otshchepa are revealed were put.

In 2005-2007 the excavation with a total area of 232 sq.m focused over the countries of light (fig. 2) is put here.

The structure of the soil within an excavation the following: 1) a plant layer - 3-4 cm; 2) dark gray sand - 4-30 cm; 3) white sand - 5-30 cm; 4) yellow sand (continent).

The cultural remains of the medieval settlement generally were located in the coastal sector of a northern part of an excavation. They lay, as a rule, under a plant layer in dark gray sand (horizon of 0-0.1 m), is rare in white (the horizon of 0,10,2 m). In the southern and northern parts of an excavation in the second and third horizons silicon plates, nuklevidny fragments are met, nozhevidny I shout -

Fig. 1. Schematic map of the basin of Central Vychegda. Monuments of ancestors of Komi-Zyrians: 1 - The Ust-Sysolsky burial ground, 2 - the Ozyolsky burial ground, 3 - the Pezmog-sky burial ground, 4 - the Nebdinsky burial ground, 5-6 - Shoynata II'S burial grounds and III, 7 - a sanctuary of Dzhudzhydjyag, 8 - the ancient settlement Novik, 9 - the settlement of Levaty.

dy, the skrebkovidny tool, otshchepa and splinters relating, apparently, to Mesolith era.

Ceramics. The majority of fragments of clay vessels is not ornamented (52 copies; fig. 3. 7-9, 11) and only two are decorated with an edge pattern (fig. 3. 4, 5). On one fragment the ornament from zigzag edge prints and a row from circular prints remained (fig. 3. 6).

In the ceramic mass of the majority of fragments considerable impurity of a dresva and sand, but is single copies and with the easy, porous test. On many fragments there are raschesa - smoothing traces. Roasting weak, color of a surface - brownish, dark gray, in breaks - gray and black. In a collection of ceramics there is a fragment of an indefinable clay product (fig. 3. 10).

Jewelry. They are presented by one slip from a bronze plate (fig. 3. 1), two links of a bronze chain from the rustling pendant (fig. 3. 2) and crystal bipiramidalny bead 2 cm long (fig. 3. 3). The stone stock of the medieval settlement is presented by two grinding bars (3. 13, 15). From other finds it should be noted strongly rusted indefinable fragment of an iron product, small fragments of the calcinated bones, pieces of slags and dresvyany stones (the melkotolcheny dresva was added to clay weight for manufacture of vessels).

In the central part of an excavation, on the edge of a coastal terrace under a plant layer (of 0-0.1 m), the stone mold for casting probably of bronze jewelry is found (fig. 3. 16). Mold subrectangular for-

we (5х6 cm), about 0.9 cm thick. One party of a bilateral stone form for so-called flat casting remained. Metal is filled in in a form through a funneled cavity in its top part. Similar molds on monuments of ancestors of Komi-Zyrians meet rather seldom.

In a northeast corner of an excavation on a surface the hole with a diameter about 2 m and 0.3 m in depth is recorded. After removal of a plant layer and dark gray sand around a zapadina the hole of rounded shape with a diameter about 1.4-1.5 m and about 0.6 m in depth in yellow continental sand was delineated. Hole walls inclined planes, bottom roundish,

Fig. 2. Settlement of Levaty. Situational plan.

Fig. 3. Material stock of the settlement of Levata: 1 - bronze plate; 2 - fragment of a bronze chain; 3 - crystal bead; 4-12 - ceramics fragments; 13, 15 - grinding stones; 14 - nozzle fragment; 16 - a mold for casting of jewelry.

filling - grayish sand with rare pieces of coal. Several small silicon scales and splinters are found in a hole. The hole, perhaps, represents the remains of some economic construction (holes are storages?).

In the southwest sector of an excavation cleared away a hole by diameter on a surface about 2.5 m and up to 0.5 m in depth. After removal from a zapadina of a plant layer and dark gray sand the hole with a diameter about 2 m and up to 0.8 m in depth in yellow continental sand was delineated. Over 500 fragments of the burned clay plastering are found in a hole and around it (fig. 3. 12) and pechina, pieces of a burned tree, charcoal and slags. In a half a meter from this hole at a depth of 0.2 m from a surface the fragment of a stone tube is revealed (a nozzle?, fig. 3. 14). Around a hole, small fragments of ceramics without ornament are recorded (8 copies; fig. 3. 9).

Most likely, in a hole the primitive furnace - a domnitsa for melting of iron from marsh ore functioned. Syrodutny process, as we know, represented the most ancient way of receiving iron from ore by direct restoration at 1100-13500C. Cooking of iron in the holes covered with clay practiced in the Middle Ages at Maris, Udmurts and other neighbors of ancestors of the Komi [1].

The fragment of a tubule nozzle confirms the version about functioning in this hole of the furnace-domnitsy, through it leather bellows forced air in the furnace for achievement of necessary temperature when melting ore [2-3].

Syrodutny horns usually meet in the destroyed look as for extraction of a kritsa from a pallet of the furnace, its walls broke and fragments dumped around a hole.

The furnace-domnitsa, close on a design, was revealed on the vanvizdinsky settlement Ugdy of IV earlier.

It should be noted that the furnace-domnitsa on the settlement of Levaty was located at distance about 30 m to the south of the inhabited platform of the settlement with the cultural remains of the Middle Ages. They are very not numerous, and Chud carats are met only in a coastal part of the natural boundary "" which gradually collapse a landslide. A part of a cultural layer is broken and displaced to edge of a coastal terrace when laying the dirt road last century (strong fragmentation of ceramics is explained by it, apparently). Therefore whether it is difficult to judge now there was a constant or short-term seasonal settlement here.

The ceramics of the settlement of Levata with kruzhkovy and edge patterns has the next analogies and on the Nebdinsky burial ground of Perm Vychegda and nearby the ancient settlement Novik, located on the opposite coast of Vychegda [4-5]. These monuments are dated HP-HSh of centuries. Stone (serdolikovy and crystal) many-sided and bipi-ramidalny beads are dated no later than the 12th century [6]. Previously, the settlement of Levaty can be dated within HI-HSH of centuries

Materials of a newly opened monument of Perm Vychegda in east Privychegodye expand an area of srednevychegodsky local option of ancestors of the Komi, considerably remote from the Vymsky center and demonstrate prospects of search of new habitats of ancestors of Komi-Zyrians in this region.


1. Ivanova of M.G. Kushmanskoye ancient settlement//Questions of archeology of Udmurtia. Izhevsk, 1976. Page 98-99.
2. V.F. Oputyatskoye's Gening the ancient settlement - the metallurgical center of harinsky time in Prikamye//Middle Ages era Monuments in the Top Prikamye. Izhevsk, 1980. Page 92-135.
3. Makarov LD. Craft workshops of the Vyatka earth of HP-HSh of centuries//Ancient handicraftsmen of Cisural area: Materials of the All-Russian scientific conference. Izhevsk, 2001. Page 184-207.
4. Queens K.S. Ugdymsky an archaeological complex on Central Vychegda (iron era). Syktyvkar, 2002. 112 pages
5. Queens K.S. Gorodishche Novik on Central Vychegda: srednevychegodsky local option of Perm Vychegda. Syktyvkar, 2003. 28 pages. (Scientific reports / Komi scientific center OURO RAHN; Issue 459).
6. Savelyeva EA. Vymsky burial grounds HT-X^ of centuries. L., 1987. 200 pages
Charles Richardson
Other scientific works: