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Category: History

Ethnogenesis of early Slavs

valentin SEDOV


Heard in November, 2002 at a meeting of presidium of RAS

The big contribution to studying Slavic ethnogenesis was made by linguistics. Search of sources of Slavic peoples and development of praslavyansky language were begun by linguists in the 19th century In general, language - reliable sign of any ethnic community, however the linguistics studies glottoge-nez, and it not tozhdestven to ethnogenesis. The linguistics has not enough spatial and chronological definiteness. The anthropology studies anthropogenesis which often completely does not correspond to ethnolanguage processes. It is possible to attract ethnography and folklore studies to illumination of rather recent past, but in relation to the remote periods of history the data of these sciences have limited value. The supporting role belongs also to onomastics. Slavs of the first stages of the history are not reflected in written sources, on them it is possible to present history only from a medieval time.

Certainly, the most important in studying the ancient history of Slavs are given to archeology. In modern archaeological researches natural science methods are very widely applied: datings on radio carbon fabrics, a dendrochronology, palynological, floristic and faunistic analyses, a metallography, etc. All this at constant replenishment of istochnikovy fund draws archeology conclusions historically rather concrete and more and more exact. But owing to specifics of the istochnikovy base the archeology independently studies again not complete ethnogenesis, and only its important part - culture genesis. Obviously to get into depth of ethnic history of Slavs, as well as other unwritten people, it is possible only at the interdistsiplinarny level, using fully data of all above-mentioned sciences. Gradually there is a new scientific area - an etnogenezologiya. In the real work emphasis is placed on cross-disciplinary approach in the solution of questions early

ethnogenesis of Slavs, but the outline of statement is formed by materials of archeology and linguistics.

Before starting statement of a problem of origin and initial history of Slavs, I consider it necessary to make three notes.

First, conclusions of each of sciences have to be proved in an interdistsiplinarny research completely by own materials, but not cast by data of interdisciplinary sciences in any way.

Secondly, ethnogenesis of Slavs has to be considered in interrelation with studying ethnohistory of the next people.

Thirdly, it must be kept in mind that on a question of a ratio of archaeological cultures with ethnic groups there cannot be a rectilinear answer.

In the ancient time ethnic history was very difficult and mosaic that is caused by various migrations, processes of a metisation, assimilation and integration of ethnic groups. The archeology knows cultures both the monoetnichny, and polietnichny, and characterizing more difficult situations, and not corresponding to ethnic groups, indefinable in the ethnic relation at all. Though, of course, the modern archeology is able to understand all this variety.

In archeology the basic in studying culture genesis is the retrospective method. It consists in stage-by-stage tracking sources of any given archaeological culture, the major ethnographic markers - from the early medieval period when the ethnic origin of antiquities reliably is defined by historical materials, in depth of centuries, to those cultural formations with which genetic linkages come to light, and from them - is one step lower, etc.

Now it is obvious that disintegration of Indo-European language was the multievent process which dragged on for the millennia. At the first stage stood apart and anatoliyets, then Indo-arias, Iranians, Armenians, Greeks, Thracians and tokhary1 began to develop as original ethnolanguage formations. Languages of the Indo-European tribes which occupied the State of Central Europe were issued in independent rather late. As a result of long-term linguistic researches the German scientist G. Krae came to such conclusion: while anatoliysky, Indo-Iranian, Armenian and Greek languages already separated from other Indo-European and developed as independent, Italic, Celtic, German, Illyrian, Slavic and baltsky languages did not exist yet. Dialects on the basis of which these languages developed made then rather uniform community and in different degree were connected the friend about Wad Dra-gom2.

This ethnolinguistic community existed in Central Europe in the II millennium BC and G. Krae drevneevropeysky is called. It left Celts, italik, illiriyets, veneta over time, Germans, Balts and Slavs. Drevneevropeytsa developed the general terminology in the field of agriculture, the social relations and religion. The specific hydronima characterized by the same researcher became traces of their resettlement. He defined that areas of Average Ev-

Fig. 1. Scheme of differentiation of Indo-Europeans

Western ball you

Celt of about 1



Italikn Illiriytsy about 900 about 700




Armenians of 2500





ropa to the north of the Alps were the earliest region of resettlement of trees non-Europeans.

G. Krae's conclusions found authoritative confirmation in the subsequent linguistic researches. So, the known Soviet iranist V.I. Abayev revealed a number of the severoiransko-European language rapprochements and a parallel in the field of mythology which are undoubtedly demonstrating contacts of ancient Iranians of Southeast Europe with yet not dismembered European tribes. He considered that it is necessary to recognize drevneevropeysky linguistic community as historical re-alnostyyu3. On the basis of the analysis of Slavic vocabulary of potter's, forge, textile and woodworking craft O.N. Tru-bachev came to conclusion that carriers of early Slavic dialects or their ancestors when this craft terminology was formed, were in close contacts with future Germans and italika, that is Indo-Europeans of Central Europy4. The scientist defines the Central European cultural and historical area which in general corresponds to archaeological - the territory of the Central European community of fields of funeral ballot boxes and a guide-ronimichesky kernel of drevneevropeyets. The scheme of differentiation of Indo-Europeans is shown in fig. 1.

Irrespective of linguistics the archeology also comes to a similar conclusion. By search of sources of Slavic peoples the multistage retrospective method brings to the Central European cultural and historical community of fields of funeral ballot boxes existing in Central Europe (from Rein in the West to Vistula in the east) during from 12501200 to 800-600 BC. This community apprehended and developed their culture of kurganny burials (1500-1250/1200 BC) which formation became result of a large migration wave of one of groups of Indo-Europeans. In Central Europe in a bronze age of this large cultural and historical education the archeologists paid attention in the middle of the 20th century to existence the idea Was introduced,

Fig. 2. Resettlement of drevneevropeyets and education of new ethnic groups

and - an area of the Central European cultural and historical community of fields of funeral ballot boxes: - the main directions of resettlement; in - an area of the West Hallstatt culture; are yastorfsky culture; d

>- cultures of podkleshevy burials; е - Pomor culture (suburban Balts); - zapadnobaltsky barrows; з - culture of Italic tribes; and - the East Hallstatt culture; to - cultures to an esta.

Fig. 2. Resettlement of drevneevropeyets and education of new ethnic groups.

that tribes of this community were closely related and made some ethnolanguage group of Indo-Europeans.

Now there are all bases to identify the population of the Central European community of fields of funeral ballot boxes with drevneevro-peyets (fig. 2). The situation in community, according to archeology, was just the same that appears on the linguistics facts. This historical formation of related tribes to which were peculiar uniform life, a domostroitelstvo and ceremonialism, even economy and that is very essential, community of spiritual life. Tribes in community most closely interacted among themselves.

At a transition stage from a bronze age to iron as a result of migrations, differentsionalny and unequal economic processes of the circle of drevneevropeysky community about 750 g are formed Celts (the western Hallstatt - the 8-5th centuries BC), about 700 g - illiriyets (east Hallstatt - the 7-4th centuries BC), slightly earlier (about 900 g), in the course of migration to the Apennine Peninsula (two large waves - protolatin and osko-umbrsky) - italik (cultures terramar and a villanova), veneta (culture to an esta on the northern coast of Adriatic Sea dated 950-183 BC), Germans (yas-torfsky culture 600-300 BC on Elba and in Jutland) and Slavs (the culture of podkleshevy burials 400-100 BC to Entre Rios of Oder and Vistula). A part of drevneevropeyets got into the Southeast Baltics and took part in genesis of Balts. On the contrary, suburban Balts were settled in the territory of formation of Slavs and joined their structure.

The culture of podkleshevy burials (the characteristic ceremony was to cover the remains of burnings with a large vessel - in Polish & #34; клеш" - overturned upside down) corresponds to the first stage of development of Slavic language and ethnic group. Language of Slavs just began at this time independent life, gradually developing own structure and leksiku5. Correlation of data of archeology and linguistics you -

Fig. 3. Slavs in the Roman time

and - an area of northern option of pshevorsky culture; - the southern option of pshevorsky culture created with the participation of the Celtic substrate; in - the territory of resettlement of Celts during an era a Latina; there are territories of resettlement of Sarmatian tribes and late Scythian cultures before resettlement in Northern Black Sea Coast of Slavs and is ready; д - Podolsk and Dnieper option of the Chernyakhovsk culture; е - general border of an area of the Chernyakhovsk culture.

Fig. 3. Slavs in the Roman time

shows their full correlation. The linguistics demonstrates contacts of Slavs with the western Balts, Germans and Scythians at this time. According to archeology materials, the population of culture a subflare-vykh of burials adjoined and closely interacted in the northeast with the western Balts (culture of zapadnobaltsky barrows), in the northwest with Germans (yastorfsky culture) and in the southeast with Scythian tribes.

The next stage of history of Slavs is connected with close contacts with Celts. The last, having overcome two waves the Sudetes and the Carpathians, are settled on Oder in Silesia where there is Latin culture, typical for Celts, and on Vistula in Malopolshe where tynetsky culture in which the Celtic features are combined with pshevorsky is formed. Considerable influence of culture of Celts is fixed and further to the North of the Hanging and Oder Entre Rios. As a result the culture of podkleshevy burials is transformed to pshevorsky, from obvious & #34 at the beginning; Celtic окраской". Gradually Slavs - carriers of pshevorsky culture - assimilated Celts at first of Malopolsha, and later and Silesia. The Celtic substrate made powerful impact on development of pshevorsky culture, the heritage of Celts is shown in ceramic production, metallurgy and blacksmithing, funeral ceremonialism, in spiritual life. Finally two dialect and ethnographic groups of Slavic peoples - southern where the Celtic substrate, and northern where Slavs closely interacted with the Celtic civilization as neighbors (fig. 3) participated in ethnogenesis of Slavs are formed.

Since the time of I. Dombrovsky (1753-1829) and up to now in linguistics the situation according to which Slavs were originally divided into two big groups is widespread. Researchers characterized morphological, syntactic and word-formation criteria of such partitioning. F.P. Filin showed an originality of the North Slavic vocabulary relating to features of the area and natural phenomena, to names of plants, fishes, animals and birds, terms of agriculture. The archeology puts this limitor process on a concrete historical basis.

The first mentions of Slavs antique authors (under a name & #34; венеды" & #34; венеты") P of centuries AD 6 that it really there were Slavs are dated, enough Jordan - the author & #34 definitely testifies; Гетики" written in the middle of the 6th century. He reports that veneta-" numerous племя" settled" from Vistula's (Vistula) sources on huge пространствах" known mainly as Slavs and Anta. Judging by early medieval documents, venedam

their closest neighbors - Germans called Slavs, and Germans still call this ethnonym Slavs-luzhichan. Venedami also Baltic Finns - Estonians, Karelians, Veps and actually Finns name Slavs.

Ethnonym & #34; венеды" it is necessary to believe, goes back to drevneevropeysky community. From it as it was already told, there were veneta of Northern Adriatic Sea and also the Celtic tribe of venet in Brittany conquered by Caesar during campaigns to Gallia in the fifties 1st century BC and veneda (veneta) - Slavs. For the first time veneda (Slavs) meet in encyclopedic work & #34; Natural история" written by Pliny the Elder (23/24-79 AD). In the section devoted to the geographical description of Europe it reports that Eningiya (some area of Europe which compliance is not present on modern cards) & #34; inhabited up to a dorekivisula by Sarmatians, veneda, skira... & #34;. Skira - the tribe of Germans, localizable somewhere to the north of the Carpathians. Obviously (and also Sarmatians) also veneda were their neighbors.

Slightly more particularly the residence of vened is noted in the composition of the Greek geographer and astronomer Ptolemaeus & #34; Geographical руководство" (the third quarter of the 2nd century AD). The scientist calls vened among & #34; big народов" Sarmatiya and definitely connects places of their settlements with the basin of Vistula. East neighbors of vened Ptolemaeus calls galind and sudin - it is rather well-known for-padnobaltsky tribes localizable to Entre Rios of Vistula and Neman. On the Roman map of the 3rd century AD known in historical literature as & #34; Pevtingerova таблицы" venedy-Sarmatian are designated to the south of the Baltic Sea and to the north of the Carpathians.

The areas occupied by Slavs in the Roman time (П-^ centuries AD), had no natural boundaries. There repeatedly various tribes of Germans interfered from the West that is documented by materials of archeology and it is recorded by antique authors. The analysis of this excavation of settlements and burial grounds of pshevorsky culture allows to isolate in a domostroitelstvo, funeral ceremonialism and pottery of house development the ethnographic features characteristic of Slavs and peculiar to Germans. The products which left provintsialnorimsky workshops - potter's ceramics, forge products, metal details of clothes and jewelry - both Slavs, and Germans equally used.

Becomes obvious that in the basin of Vistula the Slavic ethnos sharply dominated, in the basin of Oder also Slavic population prevailed, but here was also immigrants from radical German zemel7 much. According to data of antique authors, vandals, or van -

diliya (one of the German tribes) lived on coast of Central Oder. From 2nd century AD they move ahead on the South, and Dion Kassy defines places of their localization in the top part of the basin of Oder. In the western part of a pshevorsky area, in the neighbourhood with elbsky Germans, burgunda lived. Somewhere within the territory of pshevorsky culture there were small tribes of Germans - garniya, geliziya, manima and naganarvala entering breeding association lugiyev.

The lexical slavizm which are authentically fixed in Old English language which foundation was laid by dialects of angl, saxophones and yut became one of the reliable evidence of accommodation of Slavs in the Hanging and Oder region in the Roman time. It is known that these West German tribes moved to the British Isles at the end of IV - the beginning of the 5th century. Earlier they lived in Jutland and adjacent lands of the basin of the Lower Elba and obviously contacted to Slavs. It is interesting that in Old English there was also an ethnonym & #34; венеды"8.

In the Roman time the Slavs broadened the territory in the southern and southeast directions. At the end of the 2nd century AD carriers of pshe-vorsky culture Povislenya, having passed Carpathians Mountains on passes, were settled in northern suburban regions of the Average Podunavya. There is preshovsky culture which obviously gemmated from pshevorsky.

Even earlier, in the second half of the 1st century BC, the pshevorsky population extended on the Top Dniester and in the western part of Volhynia. As a result of mixture of this population with local, recorded by the Lipetsk and zarubinetsky antiquities, the special group of pshevorsky culture - volyno-Podolsk is formed here. In P-highway of centuries the large mass of the pshevorsky population from the Hanging and Oder region moves to the forest-steppe Areas of Entre Rios of Dniester and Dnieper occupied by the Sarmatian and late Scythian tribes belonging to the Iranian language group. In the 3rd century to the Black Sea two streams still the East German tribes - Gotha and the ge-pida presented by velbarsky antiquities move ahead. In Northern Black Sea Coast (from the Lower Danube to the Dnieper forest-steppe left bank) there is a cultural new growth of provintsialnorimsky shape - polietnichny Chernyakhovsk culture. It is characterized by relative unity of potter's ceramics and metal products - products of craft workshops, but a considerable raznotipnost of funeral ceremonialism, a domostroitelstvo and modelled ware, reflecting non-uniform ethnostructure of the population: in its structure there were local skifo-Sarmatian and geto-Thracian, alien Slavs and Germans.

Products of handicraft trade extended across all territory of the Chernyakhovsk culture among its population irrespective of belonging to any given ethnic group. Numerous finds of the Roman coins and & #34; barbaric подражаний" confirm formation in the Chernyakhovsk environment of the commodity-money relations with internal and external monetary obrashcheniyem9.10. The amphoras which are quite often found among monuments of the Chernyakhovsk culture, krasnolakovy and krasnoglinyany tableware, non-ferrous metals vessels, products from glass, etc. speak about existence of commercial relations with the Roman world

In different parts of the Chernyakhovsk area unequal ethnic processes took place. So, on concentration of velbarsky components two regions are allocated - Entre Rios of Nizhny Novgorod of Danube and Dniester and the Lower Dnieper Bank corresponding to two branches it is ready - to Visigoths (vezegota) and ostgota (ostrogota). On a right bank of Dniester of Gotha lodged among geto-dak during the first migration wave dated by the second half of the 2nd century. So, Jordan reports about large invasions of the North Danube tribes into borders of the Roman Empire in 248 and 251. In written sources of GU ’-At’ centuries this area is called as Gotiya. The second wave of migration was made sharp Gotha which place of resettlement was the Lower Dnieper Bank.

In the field of territorial mixture of the Slavic population with skifo-Sarmatian (forest-steppe lands between Dniester and Dnieper, the most suitable for agriculture) there is the slavyano-Iranian symbiosis. As a result of process of a gradual slavyanization of natives the new growth known in historical sources is formed as Anta is the Iranian ethnonym inherited by the Slavic education which endured symbiosis with skifo-Sarmatian. Their monuments make the Podolsk and Dnieper region of the Chernyakhovsk culture in which such elements of a domostroitelstvo, funeral ceremonialism and modelled pottery which became very characteristic of the early medieval Slavic culture of the Dnieper and Dniester region are shown.

A number of the language and cultural elements apprehended or inherited by a southeast part of early Slavic peoples from the Iranian world belongs to the period of the slavyano-Iranian symbiosis. Language influence is shown in vocabulary materials, elements of phonetics and grammar. It gave the grounds to V.I. Abayev to claim that participated in ethnogenesis of the considered group of Slavs skifo-Sarmatian ethnic substrat11. The analysis of language iranizm allows to say that it in the Roman time develops antsky dialect about-last12. The Iranian heritage in a southeast part of resettlement of Slavs comes to light also in spiritual culture and antroponimike13-16.

Anta are repeatedly mentioned in historical works of the 6-7th centuries. According to Jordan, Anta occupied areas between Dniester and Dnieper. Using compositions of the predecessors, this historian covers also earlier events when Anta were at enmity with Ghats. At first Anta managed to reflect attack of gothic army, but after a while the gothic king Vinitary nevertheless beat ant and executed their prince Bozha and 70 elders. L.V. Milov pointed to existence in praslavyansky vocabulary of a complex of terms (the prince, team, mister, the merchant, leanness in value & #34; бедность" the golot - & #34; нищета" tribute-" повинность" the tsyat - & #34; monetary единица"), associated with early statehood and the arising class society. Essentially the fact that these lexemes are peculiar not to whole Slavic world but only Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian and Old Russian yazykam17. According to archaeological data, all this concerns the Slavs who left an antsky area, and, therefore, formation of this terminology needs to be referred to Anta. Thus, it is possible to believe that antsky society in the late Roman time was socially stratified and corresponded to mature forms of military democracy. Anta created the early state education at the head of which there was a leader, perhaps, with the hereditary power.

the Small group of researchers (I. Verner, K. Godlovsky, M.B. Schukin, etc.) believes that the Roman civilization did not affect the Slavic world, and in this regard denies accommodation of Slavs in an area of provintsialnorimsky cultures pshevorsky and Chernyakhovsk. According to K. Godlovsky, the model of Slavic cultures began the Middle Ages on the level of socioeconomic development considerably below that that is observed in provintsialnorimsky cultures. It is close to the cultures of the population of a forest part of the Top Dnieper Bank of the first half of the I millennium AD, and here it is necessary to localize Slavs Roman vremeni18. Such thought obviously contradicts the data of archeology and a hydronimika which are distinctly showing accessory of these lands baltsky ethnolanguage obshchnosti19.20.

So far by science it is collected many facts which enough are reliably demonstrating that at a certain stage the Slavs lived in the neighbourhood with the Roman world and mastered a number of elements of its culture. Researchers paid attention to influence of the Roman civilization to some parties of Slavic national life more than once. So, is not subject to doubt that the name of calendar cycles (a Christmas carol, rusaliya, etc.) was apprehended by Slavs from Romans during the all-Slavic period. The analyses of early medieval ceramic material made Czech the researcher -

to mi D. Byalekova and A. Tirpakova, showed that vessels were made according to the Roman measures still when Slavs lived north of the Carpathians.

As a result of studying toponymics of Greece and vocabulary of Greek the essential conclusions were drawn by F. Malingudisom21. In toponymics of Peloponnese, Epirus and the western part of continental Greece and vocabulary of the local population all range of Slavic agricultural terminology is attested, beginning from processing of pashenny sites (the field, a harrow, a yoke, a mattock to root out, burn out, etc.) and finishing harvesting and a threshing of grain (a sickle, a braid, current, a barn, a threshing, etc.). It is possible to add to it also existence in these areas of such Slavic lexemes as zhito, millet, a garden, plum, etc. The water-mills well-known in the provincial-Roman world were already familiar to the Slavs who came to Greece; the harrows adapted for processing of arable fields on the flat area (before Greeks knew other type of a harrow more suitable for works on foothill and mountainous lands); braids, sickles and mattocks of those types which were peculiar to provintsialnorimsky cultures. Acquaintance of the Slavs settled in the 6-7th centuries in the territory of Greece to the Roman culture was shown not only in agricultural vocabulary, but also in the terminology connected with construction, processing of metals and a tree, weaving, fishery and beekeeping. It is rather obvious that such situation could take place only if Slavs long time lived in this area.

It is nowadays clear that until recently the opinion extended in literature according to which the area of initial accommodation of Slavs has to be allocated with the greatest concentration of a Slavic hydronimika or purely Slavic water names is wrong. In fact areas of concentration of a hydronimika of a certain language accessory reflect migrations of these ethnic groups. Typically Slavic names of waters also do not confirm antiquity of settling by Slavs of the concrete mentioned area, it can be regions of late development by them. The stratigraphy of a Slavic hydronimika which long time did not give in to development is essential to studying ethnogenesis of Slavs. At a research of water names of Ukraine O.N. Trubachev emitted layer archaic Slavic hydronimov22. However they can belong to the different periods of praslavyansky history, and, judging by existence of identical names on the Balkan Peninsula, the latest of them treat the beginning of the Middle Ages. Therefore, area

these archaic hydronim cannot correspond to the ancestral home of Slavs in any way as some researchers believe.

When the foundation of language of Slavs was laid, they lived in an area of drevneevropeysky hydronim and used them. Time was necessary for emergence of actually Slavic toponymics. Layer of the earliest Slavic hydronim is formed by the drevneevropeysky names of waters issued by means of Slavic formant, a suffiksation, an ablautation, etc. They are allocated and recently described by the German linguist Yu. Udolfom23. Their area is lands north of the Carpathians (pools of headwaters of Oder and Vistula) and on the East - to a right bank of the Average of Dnieper that corresponds to the territory developed by Slavs in the Roman time as it is outlined according to archaeological data.

Chronologically accommodation of Slavs at the Roman time in a provintsialnorimsky area coincides, according to F.P. Filin's periodization, with an average stage of evolution praslavyansky yazyka5. At this time there are serious changes in its phonetics (palatalization of concordants, elimination of some diphthongs, changes in combinations of concordants, falling away of concordants at the end of a word), the grammatical system evolves. There are all bases to believe that such phenomena were caused first of all by a vzamodeystviye of Slavs about other ethnic образованиями24th It completely corresponds to that situation which is restored according to archeology. As tell archaeological materials about it, Slavs supported the closest intraregional contacts with tribes of Germans, and at this particular time Slavic vocabulary was replenished with considerable number of loans from them yazyka25.26.

At the end of the 4th century the development of provintsialnorimsky cultures - pshevors-which and Chernyakhovsk - was interrupted by invasion of aggressive nomad tribes - Huns. Northern Black Sea Coast and areas north of the Carpathians were ruined. The craft centers supplying with the qualitative products the population of an extensive area among which a considerable part was made by Slavic farmers ceased to function. It was impossible to restore former production: master handicraftsmen or died during gunnsky invasion, or together with Germans went to borders of the Roman Empire. Continued to work only & #34; wandering ремесленники" the kept some skills. Sharp decline of culture, life and economy is observed

>- level of material culture of Slavs of the beginning of the Middle Ages was much lower than provintsialnorimsky.

The situation was aggravated with considerable deterioration in climate. It is known that the first centuries AD in the climatic relation were

are very favorable for life and agricultural activity - the basis of the economy of bulk of Slavs. And the archeology brightly demonstrates significant growth in the population at that time, noticeable increase in number of settlements and development of technology of agriculture. Since the end of the 4th century in Europe there came the sharp cold snap. The V century was especially cold, then the lowest temperatures for the last were observed 2000. Sharp growth of moisture content of the soil was noted that was caused by both increase in precipitation, and transgression of the Baltic Sea. Level of the rivers and lakes increased, ground waters rose, swamps expanded. Many settlements of the Roman time were flooded or waterlogged, and arable lands - unsuitable for agriculture. The considerable mass of the population was forced to leave the Hanging and Oder region - began & #34; great Slavic миграция".

Resettlement of Slavs in the wide territory led to further cultural and dialect differentiation (fig. 4). In the southern part of an area of pshevorsky culture where the Celtic substrate participated in ethnogenesis of Slavs, there is Prague korchakskaya culture. Since the boundary of the 5-6th centuries its carriers occupy the basin of the Top and Central Elba in the West, Volhynia and the Pripyat Polesia in the east. In the most northern districts of the Hanging and Oder basin on base veneds-which parts of pshevorsky culture is formed sukovsko-dzedzitsky which carriers gradually extended in the area adjoining the Baltic Sea (from the Lower Elba to Vistula). The ethnographic distinction of these early medieval formations shown in the equipment of a domostroitelstvo, funeral ceremonialism and forms of modelled ceramics and temporal jewelry is noticeable (the last belongs to the 8-12th centuries).

A branch of venedsky group are also the Slavs who left the Vislensky region and lodged in the 5-6th centuries in a northern part of the East European plain among the local community belonging to baltsky and Finno-Ugric language groups. Intraregional interaction of the alien population with natives began. This process continued several centuries and came to the end with a slavyanization of Balts and finnoyazychny inhabitants. The cultures of the Pskov long barrows (Krivichi Pskov) and antiquities of uzmensky type (the slovena Ilmen), in the Polotsk Podvinye and the Smolensk Dnieper Bank - that-shemlinsky culture (future Smolensk and Polotsk Krivichi), to Entre Rios of Volga and Klyazma - meryansky kultura27 belong to the early Middle Ages in the Pskov and Ilmen region.

In a forest-steppe part of Entre Rios of Dniester and Dnieper in the 5th century there is penkovsky culture. Its carriers were Anta - descendants cher-

the nyakhovsky population which soon broadened the territory at the expense of a left-bank part of the Average of the Dnieper Bank (up to upper courses of the Seversky Donets) and in the West - to the Lower Danube where together with the local Romanized community and Slavs who filtered here Prague korchakskoy groups created ipoteshti-kyn-deshtskuyu culture. In works of the Byzantine historians of the 6-7th centuries there are fragmentary news of life and acts of ant.

During disorder of the Chernyakhovsk culture by Huns the large group of its agricultural population moved to Middle Volga, having brought provintsialnorimsky pashenny tools and cultural plants there. In the territory from Samara Luka to the Lower Kama there is imenkovsky culture which subsequent story of the population does not leave doubts in accessory it to Slavic ethnos. In the X century when on Middle Volga Turkic-speaking Bulgarians already dominated, Ibn Fadlan who visited these lands as a part of embassy of the Baghdad caliphate in 922 g calls this country Sakaliba, and Almush - the khan of the Volga Bulgaria - & #34; tsar сакалиба". & #34; Ас-сакалиба" - so east medieval historians and geographers called Slavs.

On Central Danube the first Slavs appeared together with Huns. Inflow of the Slavic population to these lands in the conditions of powerful Avarian migration was more numerous. Since last decades 6th century on space from the Vienna forest and Dalmatia in the West to Potisya in the east there is Avarian culture. Her creators were not only Avars, but also larger tribes which were under their supervision or were included in conglomerate as allies. The most numerous part of the population of the Avarian khaganate was made by Slavs.

The earliest news of the movement of the Slavic population to the Balkan Peninsula are dated the first half of the 6th century, but it is possible that small groups of Slavs settled in this region even earlier. It was populated with the inhabitants motley in the ethnic relation (various Illyrian and dako-Thracian tribes in a number of places Romanized or ellinizirovanny), and made a part of the Byzantine empire. From 578-581 the development by Slavs and Greece began. Settling of this extensive territory of Southeast Europe became result of broad infiltration of the Slavic agricultural population, as well as numerous avaro-Slavic military attacks on the Byzantine lands when the large mass of Slavs settled in the won areas. Military invasions created conditions for the subsequent resettlement of farmers. The main mass of Slavic immigrants went to the Balkan Peninsula and Peloponnese

FIG. 4. RESETTLEMENT of SLAVS at the beginning of the MIDDLE AGES (U-UN of Centuries)

from Podunaysky lands, to a lesser extent from Prikarpatye and Northern Prichernomorya28.

Slavs in the 7th century got also on islands of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas and into some areas of Asia Minor. As well as in Greece, here they gradually assimilated locals. On the contrary, on the Balkan Peninsula their resettlement came to the end with a slavyanization of the local and alien Turkic-speaking community. Besides, the small group of Slavs located on the coast of the Gulf of Riga where their remains under a name & #34; венды" are recorded at the beginning of the 12th century by Heinrich Latviysky.

U-UN for centuries comes to the end the last period of praslavyansky history. Resettlement of Slavs on extensive spaces of Europe, their active interaction and a metization with other ethnic groups broke all-Slavic processes and laid the foundation of formation of separate Slavic languages and ethnic groups.


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Donald King
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