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Training of command structure on the fleet in the interwar period (1921 − June, 1941)

kopanishin V.V.


Preparation of command personnel of the Navy provided in the interwar period: 1) receiving naval education in naval educational institutions and on courses, 2) training of command structure on the fleet, during commander study and working off of educational and fighting tasks during actions of combat training, 3) improvement of command skills and knowledge of the officers who are in a stock.

Content of commander study, as well as combat training of the Navy, in general, was defined by the level of development of the equipment and arms of the fleet, the tasks set by the military-political country leaders and also conclusions of naval science about ways of the solution of these tasks.

The main directions of fighting study in the 20th of last century were developed by young Soviet naval science in bitter ideynoteoretichesky struggle during the discussions and conferences of all-naval scale where the problem of construction and combat training of the fleet on the principles of close interaction with the Rabochee-Krestyansky Red Army was proved (further - RKKA); the tendency to underestimation of underwater forces which was outlined in the foreign fleet is rejected; it was convincingly proved that emergence of sea aircraft and submarines disproves arguments of supporters of linear tactics of the fleet, the demand to establish unanimity of views of a nachsostav on expeditious use of the fleet and the organization of combat training, to finish underestimation of a role commander uchyoby1 is made.

According to objectives the command of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Fleet (further - RKKF) developed plans of campaigns and operations. So, according to the directive of the Commander-in-chief of all Armed Forces of S.S. Kamenev No. 11073 of December 12, 1921. By the chief of Naval forces of the Baltic Sea (further - MSBM) M.V. Viktorov and his headquarters it was made & #34; Plan of a campaign Baltic флота" approved as the Commander-in-chief in 1922 2

During educational combat training of action of troops and forces of the fleet otrabatyva-

foxes when carrying out maneuvers, performing special tasks and long campaigns. From September 28 to October 9, 1922 there took place the first in Soviet period maneuvers on Baltic with participation of 27 surface ships (including the battle ship & #34; Марат"), 7 submarines, 13 planes of the Air Force of Baltic Fleet and also the sea fortress of Kronstadt and the Petrogradsky strengthened district.

Combat training of Naval Forces became more active with arrival to the management of RKKF of E.S. Pantserzhansky. At the end of September, 1923, large maneuvers of the fleet at the Baltic and Black seas were carried out. On Baltic 24 surface ships participated in them (including the battle ship & #34; Марат" and cruiser & #34; Аврора"), 2 submarines, 2 hydrogroups of aircraft, transport & #34; Комсомолец" and one battalion from the 11th rifle division of the Petrograd military okruga4. Maneuvers were put in the conditions close to war conditions. It allowed to expose large shortcomings of preparation and conducting combat operations by forces and to develop practical recommendations about their elimination and improvement of quality of combat training.

Increase in level of tactical and technical knowledge of a komsostav affected improvement of combat training of the ships, parts. So, the summer campaign of 1925 began for a month before usual. During its Baltic Fleet made a big campaign as a part of five groups under the flag of Narkomvoyenmora M.V. Frunze. The ships of the Black Sea Fleet for the first time left in foreign swimming, visited Istanbul and Naples. In campaigns and on exercises the commanders received big practice in ship navigation, use of weapon and the equipment. Headquarters gained some skills of the organization of joint actions of the ships, aircraft and parts of coastal defense.

During military reform of 1924-1928 the combat training of a komsostav was given planned character. Its main form were three-months winter repetitive classes. Their programs were formed differentially: for the senior komsostav - studying strategy and tactics of the Navy, for an average - increase in knowledge in the specialty, studying sea practice, army regulations, etc. Annually before the summer campaign testings in volume of the passable programs were organized.

Upon the demand of the management of the fleet the winter parking was turned into a winter campaign. At the nonfreezing seas the combat training was conducted all the year round, and on the others fighting schedules, landing of a landing to the ships, fight against diversionary means of the opponent, etc. of Komsostav were fulfilled in the winter

persistently seized ways of interaction with overland parts. The ships those years were visited by all commanders of seaside parts of RKKA, and komsostav the fleet often visited maneuvers, the camp and headquarters of Ground forces.

The lack of guidance documents had an adverse effect on combat training of forces. The draft of the Fighting charter of Naval Forces developed in 1924 did not reflect the reached level and did not correspond to tasks which were set by the top management for the fleet. Experience of combat training and development of a domestic military and sea scientific thought formed a basis for development of new guidance documents. In 1925 were put into operation: The charter of ship service RKKF, the Charter of service of mechanical and electrotechnical parts on vessels RKKF, the Charter of service of a mine part on the RKKF submarines, Manual on carrying out bilateral maneuvers of the fleet.

Introduction in life of the fleet of the new army regulations which generalized experience of the last wars, construction and fighting study of army and the fleet was essential for strengthening of fighting capacity of RKKF and its shots. The crew personnel of the military fleet built the activity according to again issued Charter of ship service which accurately defined the rights and duties of all officials, the organization of combat and political training and also everyday life by the ships. Approved by the Revolutionary Council of War (further - RVS) the USSR and the put into operation since October 1, 1925, Temporary Disciplinary charter of RKKA was the general charter for army and flota5.

In process of growth of the fleet the structure of the attracted forces and the tasks solved on maneuvers and exercises extended. There was usual a solution of several educational and fighting tasks during the same maneuvers. For 1925-1928 twice more drills and maneuvers, than for the previous three years were staged. The bilateral maneuvers of 1925 which are carried out on August 25-30 on Black and on September 20-28 on Baltic the seas with attraction of all regular forces and means flotov6 were the most instructive. During maneuvers of Naval forces of the Black Sea (further - MSChM) and the 51st UVO rifle division executed landing operation which purpose was - & #34; check of the general readiness of the fleet to active landing


to operations.

Results of maneuvers of 1925 underwent the careful analysis in headquarters of RKKA and RKKF, in Naval academy, were considered at several meetings of Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. The received conclusions formed a basis for development of the modern theory of fighting use of forces of the fleet.

In the years of military reform authorized norms of all parties of service of a nachsostav were for the first time developed. In 1924 it was published & #34; The Provision on service on the military ведомству". Unlike former division of a nachsostav into red commanders and the former officers, the uniform rank & #34 was established; commander РККА". Nachsostav was divided depending on the nature of service into command, political, administrative, medical and veterinary, and on a post - into groups and categories: average nachsostav (the 3-6th categories), senior (the 7-9th categories) and the highest (the 10-13th categories). State deadlines on military service and in a stock, an order of certification, dismissal from service, carrying a dress code, etc. were established. This Situation created a possibility of the most expedient placement, promotion of capable and vigorous commanders.

Comprehensive strengthening of military shots allowed to begin implementation of one-man management which still V.I. Lenin called only the correct setting of work in armii9. On March 6, 1925 the Central Committee of RCP(b) published the directive on introduction to one-man management RKKA and RKKF in two forms - full and incomplete. In it it was stipulated that in the fleet the one-man management has to be entered by slower rate, and the institute of military commissioners has to remain in the previous form. For the fleet the value of a course on one-man management was exclusively high. The authority and social and political weight of a komsostav, its responsibility for combat readiness of the ships and parts increased. Commanders realized the urgent need of increase in the military and theoretical knowledge and acquisition of practical skills, mastering skill of work with subordinates even more.

In 1927. The national commissioner on military and sea affairs and the chairman of Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR K.E. Voroshilov checked a condition of the Baltic and Black Sea fleet, participated in their maneuvers, including in disembarkation of a large landing near Odessa. He highly appreciated the increased ability of a nachsostav of the fleet to solve complex combat missions.

In general, in the 20th characteristic of a condition of a komsostav of the fleet became the fact that literally all his commanders and political workers, understanding a lack of the knowledge, persistently studied. In the course of their laborious military work the new type of the naval commander who is up to standard of modern achievements of military science and technology was shaped. In short terms the Soviet fleet turned into significant fighting force. Its command shots, having received neobkhodi-

my preparation and naval qualification, were capable to solve the main objectives facing the Navies.

The Soviet Union entered in the 30th in the conditions of relative foreign policy and internal stability. It allowed RKKF already in days of the first five-years period to receive new submarines, patrol ships, torpedo boats. April 26, 1931. Council of Work and Defense of the USSR adopted the resolution according to the report of the Chief of the Navies of RKKA R.A. Muklevich in which the results of development of the fleet for 1929-1930 were summed up and actions for 1931-1933 were outlined. In the resolution it was noted that & #34; Certain achievements in combat training in recent years have Naval Forces and are rather serious factor of RKKA on defense our sea границ"10.

In the conditions of modernization and significant increase in number of army and the fleet the question of creation of an accurate and effective system of commander study of a nachsostav was especially sharply raised. In resolutions & #34; About command and political structure РККА" of February 25, 1929 and on June 5, 1931 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), having noted the insufficient level of military technical training of a nachsostav, demanded to reconstruct the system of training of commanders so that it provided mastering with them in perfection military equipment and irregular shapes of modern fight, imparted them high strong-willed qualities, increased their ideological and theoretical knowledge and ability to direct podchinyonnymi11. These instructions formed the basis of all work on training and education of a nachsostav.

For development at all command structure of the fleet of a broad tactical outlook, ability to work resolutely, to look for and use the new policy strokes corresponding to hardware of the ships and forces interacting with them the evidence-based system of commander study was necessary. It was created in the 30th

By this time on the fleet rather skilled and authoritative command shots capable to develop and put into practice new operational and tactical views on character, the contents and methods of use of Naval Forces in the forthcoming war grew. The Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and indicated on February 11, 1931 in resolutions on a state and tasks of the fleet of November 19, 1930 on the need of transition from a stage of single preparation and group swimming

the ships to joint operations training of all childbirth of forces of RKKF and troops


RKKA. These requirements found reflection in the new charters and manuals developed and accepted at the beginning of the 30th. (The fighting Charter of Naval Forces, 1930,

the Ship charter, 1932, Manuals on educational combat training of Naval Forces, Manuals for production of maneuvers, Courses of combat training of the ships of various classes, etc.).

Since 1930 fighting study of the fleet will be organized in the form of an annual cycle of preparation for performance of forces of RKKF of uchebnoboyevy operations, typical for any given sort. This cycle provided three periods: preparation of the single ship; preparation of uniform and maneuverable connections for educational combat operations; maneuvers of a squadron with participation of submarines and torpedo boats.

The ships received a task to fulfill use of all types of weapon, conducting fight day and night, providing all types of defense and protection. Connections and the fleet annually performed various educational combat operations corresponding to political and geographical features of sea theater. So, for example, in 1932-1933 MSBM fulfilled actions on sea communications of the opponent, active defense of the Gulf of Finland with performance of landing operation, MSChM - search and an attack of forces of the opponent on the sea and fight from it desantami13.

Complication of the organization of fighting activity of forces of RKKF, increase in a role of fire and tactical preparation of the ships and parts revealed lag of knowledge and practical skills of a komsostav from requirements of a new stage of development of the fleet. In 1930-1931, because of weak knowledge and insufficient fitness of a komsostav on the fleet, there were cases of collisions and crashes of the ships, death a supply -


ny boats. Generally because of a komsostav the rate of fire of tools of average caliber of destroyers and battle ships decreased from 10-12 volleys in a minute in 1914 to 2-4 in 1930 15 Lag of commander study turned into a brake for further increase in combat readiness of RKKF.

The system of commander preparation created at the beginning of the 30th was of exclusively great importance for future fleet. Since fall of 1931 for classes with komsostavy 3 days in dekadu16 were allotted. In annual orders RVS USSR on fighting study of army and fleet for the forthcoming year the section & #34 was specially selected; Preparation command кадров". Proceeding from these orders, the Chief of Naval Forces of RKKA determined by the directives specific objectives of commander study. Its main types were special, general education, Marxist-Leninist and operational and tactical preparation.

Responsibility for the organization of commander preparation was conferred on commanders of the ships and connections. On each fleet were established uniform

for commander study days during which it was forbidden to borrow komsostav with something another. For training of heads of groups special time was allowed. The system of control, checks, indicative classes, etc. was introduced

Special preparation intended for development by command structure of the equipment, the weapon, charters, manuals and rules necessary for execution of the functions. Classes in studying specialty were given generally in the groups created on the scale of connection under the leadership of the corresponding flagman expert and came to the end with tests. In the 30th the system of collecting a komsostav on specialties which were carried out, as a rule, at the beginning of academic year on connections, on the scale of the fleet or the Navies developed and received tradition force. So, for example, in 1940 was carried out all-naval gathering of navigators on which

commanders were acquainted with the new navigation equipment, with new standards and methods of the solution of mate tasks. Two collecting the engineer-mechanics for acquaintance with the new equipment and experience of its application were the same year carried out on the scale of the Black Sea Fleet. A number of gatherings of experts of mine and artillery weapon for studying the device and rules of use new


technicians the Naval academy carried out.

An important role in development of specialty was played by a practical training and exercises with komsostavy. Throughout the 30th, special mate campaigns during which commanders studied sea theater and mastered ship navigation art were carried out. So, in 1940 komsostav the Pacific fleet made mate campaigns on specially allocated submarines and destroyers along the coast of Primorye, Sakhalin and Kamchatka. During these campaigns the commanders solved more than 5,000 astronomical problems of definition of the place of the ship in the sea, learned to make quickly and unmistakably races -


couples of fighting maneuvering. With komsostavy artillery and minnotorpedny specialty under the leadership of commanders of the ships and connections trainings in offices on devices and exercise machines were held, courses of managing directors of fire were periodically organized, indicative firing practice by one of the ships with the assistance of commanders of this specialty was carried out. Forces staffs annually carried out offsets and examinations in knowledge komsostavy corrected uses of mine and artillery weapon.

These years the firm order of preparation of a komsostav of submarines under construction was established. The commanders selected for them on acting

submarines beforehand mastered the ship device, use of torpedo weapon, the rule of fight for survivability. Upon termination of study testings according to a post of the commander were made. Only after that komsostav it was allowed to acceptance of submarines from building berths of shipbuilding plants.

The important place in training of the fleet was taken by study of the young commanders arriving from schools. For them separate groups of commander preparation in which studying the device of the ship, manuals and instructions was organized were created; their admission to execution of service on duty and log was made after delivery of special offsets to the senior assistant to the captain. In pre-war years, in connection with mass releases from naval educational institutions, work with young command shots became business of paramount importance. The sequence of training of young commanders for performance of duties on a position and to independent execution of watch was established by special resolutions of the Councils of War of the fleet. In base with them classes and collecting under the leadership of flagman experts were given. In the sea their study began with working off of watch on an anchor in the simplest conditions with gradual complication of a situation and tasks. Commanders of the ships tried to obtain from them clearness in implementation of instructions and rules, used for holding trainings with them each hour of stay in the sea.

The naval press systematically placed articles of sailors-commanders about experience of their service. In garrisons and Houses of the Navy, meetings of young commanders with representatives of the senior generations of a komsostav were held, special broadcasts about life and service of young commanders were organized.

Development by it entered in 1934 & #34 was of great importance for improvement of special preparation of a komsostav; The List of obligatory technical knowledge for a nachsostav ВМС"19. The program of a technical minimum calculated for 2 years provided acquaintance of all komsostav of the fleet with bases of mate business, naval weapon, the equipment of submarines, sea aircraft and Ground forces and also detailed development of a circle of knowledge in the specialty and a post.

Experience of studying a technical minimum was used in pre-war years for

training of the commanders who do not have naval education, which in


The Navy in 1939 more than 4,500 people were. In July, 1939 for them -

la the program of naval preparation providing studying the device of the ships, bases of ship navigation, weapon and tactics is announced. Transfer of graduates of civil higher education institutions and the military personnel in shots of a komsostav was made only after examination according to this program to the special constant commissions created on the fleet and in the central institutions Navy.

Due to the mass updating of ship structure on March 15, 1940. The main Council of War of the Navy considered a question of studying the new equipment komsostavy the fleet. The industry received orders for production of educational samples of weapon, devices and exercise machines for the equipment artillery,

torpedo and other offices in bases and connections. At the plants were created


courses of commanders on studying the new equipment coming to the fleet. The inspection which is carried out at the end of 1940 showed considerable improvement of special and technical knowledge of a komsostav.


Substantial assistance in special preparation to command structure was provided by technical and naval promotion. In 1940 in the Navy more than 490 technical circles worked, more than 7,000 lectures, 3,000 conferences and evenings on technical and naval subjects were given. Tens of thousands of commanders and chiefs 22 participated in these actions.

General education preparation of a nachsostav those years was extremely necessary in connection with mass replenishment of the fleet by the commanders called from a stock, made from sailors and foremen, who do not have secondary education. Since 1935 for them the three-year program of preparation and examination for a course of high school was entered. For assistance to a nachsostav on the fleet the wide network of general education courses and evening schools was developed. By the beginning of 1941 by general education preparation in the Navy it was captured 7,305


commanders and political workers. As a result thousands of commanders got secondary education and a possibility of further improvement of the knowledge on parallel classes of schools.

In 1921-1923 the system of a political education of a komsostav of the Navy was not. On the basis of party decisions in 1924 RVSS drafted the order and the instruction on involvement of a komsostav in political and educational work. Participation in it became important official duties of all commanders. It was noted in certifications and was one of decisive factors at promotion on higher

positions. In all connections and by the ships the commissions on involvement of commanders to political work were created. They defined for them concrete tasks taking into account the level of their preparation, bents and employment. These tasks joined in plans of combat and political training.

Marxist-Leninist preparation was included in the system of obligatory commander study in 1932. In the beginning, its program included studying separate problems of the theory of Marxism-Leninism (classes and class fight, about war and army, about dictatorship of the proletariat, etc.). Since 1935 in the system of Marxist-Leninist preparation of a komsostav of the fleet the studying a course of history of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and fundamentals of Leninism began. For training average komsostav united in groups on the ships or connections, senior and the highest komsostav studied the program independently. Forces of propagandists of the fleet and local party committees for a nachsostav held lectures, seminars, consultations. The help to the ships and parts of the fleet by lecturing forces, methodical and manuals was rendered by Military-political academy, Institute of red professorate and other higher education institutions. After studying certain sections of the program, test conferences and seminars were made.

The highest form of ideological and theoretical study of commanders at that time were the evening komvuza preparing propaganda shots for network of party education and political classes. In 1930 the komvuza were created in Leningrad,


Sevastopol, Kronstadt, Baku and Khabarovsk. Within two years their listeners studied isto I fly the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), Leninism, political economy and other objects. For Marxist-Leninist study 12 hours of working hours a month and two evenings a week were allotted. At this time, besides independent work on studying history of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and primary sources, lectures, seminars, consultations, excursions, etc. were held

Operational and tactical preparation - the top management of commander study - was directed to training of a komsostav in methods of fighting management of forces, to working off of policy strokes of conducting combat operations, development of ways of use of weapon, the organization of interaction of all childbirth of forces of RKKF and Ground forces.

The main forms of operational and tactical preparation in the 30th were naval games and group exercises which were held differentially on office categories of a nachsostav by the ships, in connections and on the scale of the fleet. They were unilateral and bilateral, with -

provozhdatsya by the actual use of means of communication, actions on devices and exercise machines, work on cards. Games often came to the end with an exit in the sea with performance of fighting exercises. Forms of operational and tactical preparation were also independent classes in tasks of chiefs, reports and lectures on issues of development of tactics and expeditious art of the Navy.

For the purpose of the best organization of interaction of all childbirth of forces of RKKF and overland parts for commanders of the fleet collecting in parts of sea aircraft, coastal defense and seaside military districts, fact-finding flights, indicative firing practice of coastal and army artillery was periodically carried out. In turn, commanders of aircraft, coastal defense and RKKA passed a training by the ships, participated in exercises and maneuvers as intermediaries.

Annually on the fleet and flotillas otryadny drills and the general maneuvers with performance of various fighting exercises were staged, komsostav the fleet sought to seize art of modern fight, joint actions of all childbirth of forces of RKKF for performance of the concentrated combined blow were fulfilled. In them torpedo boats, sea aircraft, submarines were widely attracted to participate. Also the fleet, together with parts of RKKA, fulfilled every year performance of landing operations and staged joint exercises on defense of sea bases from the sea and from the land.

By 1937 the Navy of the USSR generally fulfilled interaction of all childbirth of forces, passed to massive use of submarines in remote areas of the sea. Indicators of success of use of all types of naval weapons reached the highest level for all contemporary history of the fleet.

In the conditions of begun in 1939. World War II and the amplified danger of imperialistic aggression against the USSR the huge value had improvement of combat training and commander study in the fleet. The organization and a technique of commander preparation was processed by the Main Council of War of the Navy. Preparation of a komsostav was carried out by execution of daily service, the leadership in training of subordinates, holding special classes. Main types of classes were naval games, group exercises, tactical short meetings, trainings on studying sea theater and guidance documents, independent work. For commander study 3 days a month, and for independent work - 2 evenings a week began to be allotted.

Increased requirements were imposed to commanders of the ships. At appointment to the post they were obliged to pass examinations of the special commission then were allowed to ship-handling as the doubler skilled & #34; вывозного" commander. They were allowed by the decision of the Council of War of the fleet after practical development of a course of maneuvering of ship 26 to independent control of the ships.

1940 and the beginning of 1941 became the period of serious and intense preparation for war with the strong, well equipped technically enemy. Its main links were operational and tactical study of a komsostav, increase in fire skill, working off of interaction with parts of RKKA. Numerous exercises, staff games and trainings, classes and fighting exercises with komsostavy were held in the complicated situation which is brought closer to fighting. The threat of the approaching war significantly affected the nature of combat training and level of readiness of the fleet for war. Military and theoretical views of joint and independent actions of forces of the fleet were specified. Special attention was paid to study and synthesis of experience of the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 which helped to open and eliminate some defects in is prepared -

Nosta of the fleet to interaction with Ground forces.

In April, 1940. The people's commissar of the Navy admiral N.G. Kuznetsov emphasized before leadership team of the fleet that sailors studied interaction with army insufficiently. The same conclusion became at meetings on study and

to synthesis of experience of campaigns of the first period of World War II, it is carried out -


ny in October and December, 1940. And also it was noted that events of 1939-1940 revealed & #34; insufficient operational readiness and military culture of the highest command structure, army headquarters, army, front headquarters


and especially aviation штабов". It was explained by the fact that for many years there were no application guides large modern soyedineniy30. So, the meeting of representatives of the General sea staff, management of the Air Force of the Navy and Naval academy where on the basis of the comprehensive analysis and experience of conducting maritime operations and fights by the Navies of Germany, Great Britain, France and Italy within the first year of World War II needed to develop recommendations about improvement of combat training of forces of Navy and military equipment, to present to the Chief Military With -

was held on October 7-14, 1940

Veta of the Navy specific proposals on further increase in fighting capacity and combat readiness of forces flota31.

In general, combat training of parts (ships) and connections of the Navy, commander training of command structure of the fleet, despite all shortcomings of its organization, played the positive role in preparation of command shots and forces of the fleet in the interwar period and, especially, in pre-war years.

1 RGVA, t. 9, op. 26, 335, l. 68; RGA Navy, t. R-910, op. 1, unit hr. 1035, l. 71.
2 RGVA, t. 37977, op. 5, 58, l. 192.
3 RGVA, t. 33988, op. 3, 55, l. 553-554.
4 RGVA, t. 37977, op. 5, 54, l. 53, 63, 64.
5 RGA Navy, t. R-1483, op. 5, unit hr. 2, l. 332.
6 RGVA, t. 37977, op. 3, 104, l. 264-375, 377-394.
7 In the same place, l. 448.
8 See: V.F. Loboda. Command shots and legislation on shots and development of Armed Forces of the USSR. M.: Voyenizdat, 1960. Page 50.
9 See: V.I. Lenin. Half-N of SOBR. soch. T. 40. Page 77.
10 Cm: Fighting chronicle of Navy. 1917-1941. M.: Voyenizdat, 1993. Page 579.
11 The CPSU about Armed Forces of the Soviet Union. M.: Voyenizdat, 1981. Page 258, 270.
12 RGVA, t. 9, op. 29 with, 36, l. 53; RGA Navy, t. R-1483, op. 3 with, unit hr. 40, l. 41.
13 RGA Navy, t. R-961, op. 1 with, unit hr. 4, l. 12.
14 RGA Navy, t. R-886, op. 2, unit hr. 281, l. 293-297.
15 RGA Navy, t. R-1483, op. 3 with, unit hr. 45, l. 9.
16 RGVA, t. 9, op. 29 with, 156, l. 58.
17 RGA Navy, t. R-352, op. 3 with, unit hr. 375, l. 21.
18 RGA Navy, t. R-961, op. 1, unit hr. 299, l. 50-58.
19 Sea collection. 1934. No. 2. Page 10.
20 RGA Navy, t. R-7, op. 1, unit hr. 1008, l. 50.
21 In the same place, unit hr. 934, l. 322.
22 CVMA, t. 11, op. 2, unit hr. 579, l. 33.
23 In the same place, l. 33-34.
24 RGVA, sb. orders RVSS for 1924, the ave. No. 533 of April 8, 1924
25 RGVA, t. 9, op. 1, 310, l. 168.
26 RGA Navy, t. R-961, op. 1 with, unit hr. 284, l. 2.
27 See: KuznetsovN.G. The day before. M.: Voyenizdat, 1966. Page 300-301.
28 RGA Navies, t. R-92, op. 2, unit hr. 758, l. 2-79; t. R-1877, op. 1, unit hr. 154, l. 3-54; t. R-1678, op. 1, unit hr. 186, l. 168-174.
29 RGVA, t. 4, op. 14, 2742, l. 18.
30 In the same place, l. 25.
31 CVMA, t. 1, op. 1, unit hr. 40243, l. 12.
Holly Vega
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