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Mechanisms of deportation of the people in days of the Great Patriotic War



UDK 947. 084. 8. (=512.37) & #43; 325. 254.6. (=512.37) (091)

A.S. Ivanov

MECHANISMS of DEPORTATION of the PEOPLE in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

Surgut state university

Deportations, or compulsory migrations, - this one of forms of the political repressions undertaken by the state in relation to the citizens or citizens of other states with use of force or coercion [1, page 5].

In days of the Great Patriotic War a number of large-scale ethnic deportations was carried out to the USSR. As "helpers" of fascism, were for the same reason moved also Kalmyks.

We will try to reveal the main springs of resettlements on materials of the Omsk region on the example of compulsory resettlement of the Kalmyk people. At the same time we will concentrate attention on secondary kompensatorsky repression to which Kalmyks already in places of primary resettlement underwent.

Kalmyks underwent deportation owing to false charge of universal cooperation with Hitlerites and treachery of interests of the Homeland, of surrender of the 110th Kalmyk cavalry division. These charges were the cause for emergence on December 27, 1943. Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR on elimination Kalmyk ASSR. Emergence of this Decree was an incitement to carrying out People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the operation "Uluses" [2, page 72].

The Omsk region accepted in January, 1944 in 14 echelons [3, l. 39-39 about.] a considerable part of Kalmyks - 27088 people. In the territory of the area of Kalmyk special immigrants accepted 19 areas [3, l. 46].

It was primary accommodation of Kalmyks within the Omsk region.

Studying problems of deportation of Kalmyks to Western Siberia, we face also so-called secondary compensatory repressions which took place in relation to the "dispossessed" peasants and German special immigrants [4, page 135].

These compulsory migrations aimed at the forced replacement of able-bodied population in those territories where owing to action of extraordinary factors (in this case - wars) there was the sharpest deficiency of trudresur-owls. And Kalmyks were moved again and got on the territory of the Ob North not from Kalmykia, and from the southern areas of the Omsk region as a result of implementation of the resolution of regional committee

The All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and executive committee of a regional council "About resettlement of Kalmyk special immigrants to fishing districts of the area" [5, l. 142-143] of April 30, 1944 which was accepted in pursuance of the joint resolution SNK and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of 6.01.1942 No. 19 "About development of fisheries in basins of the rivers of Siberia and in the Far East" which provided allocation of a significant amount of labor for fisheries, mainly for fishing and the resettlement of special immigrants [6, l was authorized. 130-131].

In what the specifics of compulsory resettlement on the North consisted? We will consider it on materials of the Khanty-Mansi national district in the territory of which by November, 1944 5999 Kalmyks were placed.

The main feature of resettlement to northern districts distinguishing it from compulsory migration by the South of the Omsk region was the fact that responsibility, according to the resolution of April 30, lay on representatives of fishing trusts (Khanty-Mansi, Yamal-Nenets and Tobolsk). Escort of special immigrants [5, l was assigned to People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs. 142].

Preparation for reception of new immigrants began long before the specified date. Still on February 11, 1944, when the managing director of the Khanty-Mansi gosrybtrest Boganov cabled to Moscow (Soyuznarkomrybprom) the resettlements of 1944 given about estimated cost which, by its calculation, had to be 5 million rubles. First of all interested him from what sources the financing [7, l is supposed. 187]. In April were instructed trust: to make out expenses on resettlement as production expenses under the article "Expenses on a Set of Labour" [7, l. 142].

Under control of trust all actions for reception, resettlement and distribution for objects of work were made. Under its management such major documents preceding migration as "Summary calculation of requirement of delivery of immigrants for the industry and collective farms of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug / without the local industry / in 1944" (on February 21) [7, l were formed. 156] and "Distribution of Kalmyk special immigrants on the enterprises and collective farms Khanty-Mansi ok -

ruga" (on April 15) [7, l. 105]. These sources among other things reflect incorrect data of the authorities on the number of the arriving immigrants. It was supposed that in the district there will arrive 2347 families of perese-lentsev-Kalmyk, and 1759 families [8, l were actually settled. 9].

On February 16, 1944 to heads of the Soviet bodies and directors of fish factories for clarification of real opportunities of the district for reception of labor it was instructed: to reveal all free living cash space in the subordinated organizations by March 1, "to force the accelerated rates construction of a new living space, especially through fish factories and fishing collective farms" and also "with calculation by July 1 of this year to provide to fish factory, collective farm preparation of housing facilities for reception of immigrants in the sizes providing a covering of a lack of labor" [9, l. 62 about.].

On the enterprises of trust by May 5, 1944 it was considered free living space of 6794 sq.m. As it became clear later, it was perfect insufficiently.

On collective farms of areas for May 5 it was considered free 16893 sq.m [10, l. 184 about.]. The number of free housing in collective farms considerably surpassed the sizes of the area which was available for the rybtrest that it is possible to consider the reason which induced production chiefs to transfer of a part of the contingent to collective farms in July-August, 1944

Meanwhile preparation passed from planned area into practical. In Samarovsky district on April 19, 1944 from Samarovsky canning plant (the enterprise subordinated to a gosrybtrest) on those Village Councils where accommodation of immigrants was supposed, telegrams with the requirement "were distributed to start (j) to repair of housing facilities (c) to provide with calculation three square meters (on) one immigrant". Chairmen of the Village Councils were obliged to report on work flow weekly [7, l. 90].

With some delay also the Soviet bodies dealt with issues of reception and account. The Surgut executive committee began to take effective measures only to the middle of May. On May 15 at its meeting the question "About Sanmeropriyatiya on Reception of the Immigrants Arriving in the Area" was heard. Was decided to oblige chairmen of selyispolkom and directors of fish factories - Surgut, Sytominsky, Lokosovsky - to allocate temporary rooms (places of acceptance) for immigrants where they would contain before carrying out sanitation and to organize work of baths and a dezokamer [9, l. 125].

Due to the resettlement also there took place reorganization in the gosrybtrest. Order No. 47 on

To Samarovsky canning plant submission to department of personnel of trust for reception and resettlement of immigrants of organizational and construction department, human resources department and construction office was provided. For account and distribution of immigrants responsible the head of department of personnel Vakhrushev [7, l was appointed. 3232 about.]. Thus, administrative structures of trust which exercised control of resettlement were mobilized.

For reception in assembly points (in places of sending), maintenance and distribution of immigrants responsible were appointed two groups of persons:

1) the "strong workers" who were at that moment in Omsk and Tyumen which were responsible for reception and escort of deportant along the line (transportation on river transport and convoy by land to points of constant resettlement);
2) employees Khanty-Mansi gosrybtres-that, "put" on steamships in Samarovo and responsible for distribution of immigrants for the enterprises of trust [7, l. 51 about., 52].

Responsibility of workers of the first category was made out by the special order on state fishes trusts. On the workers distributing Kalmyks the special power of attorney [7, l was made out. 45, 52, 101].

In Omsk as the main distributor of labor on the fishing enterprises there was a deputy manager of Maksyu-tenko trust. He regularly cabled from Omsk about the direction all of new and new steamships [7, l. 52, 55 about.] with the indication of number of the directed persons and also the number of immigrants relying each organization [7, l. 55].

Detailed calculations for resettlement financing were made. It should be noted that calculations were made proceeding from the assumption that there will arrive 16000 thousand people (8 thousand able-bodied and 8 thousand dependents). Transportation cost one able-bodied immigrant (daily allowance) was 9 rub a day, on the dependent 4.5 rub [7, l were necessary. 142-143].

by

In six areas determined 11 places of "the most mass disembarkation" and "placement on the permanent residence" [10, l. 185].

Transfer to the North was begun with concentration of Kalmyks in special resettlement points in Omsk, Tyumen and two more smaller stations. In Omsk they were placed in station districts of the city, and then transported from stations on pier [5, l. 143].

The first steamship of which sending we know, this vessel "Usiyevich" which went from Omsk on May 16 [7, l. 53]. Its inclusion in Samarovo was

issued by the order on a rybtresta of May 21, 1944 [7, l. 108].

The way of this vessel reveals features of resettlement. This steamship originally arrived on May 20 in Repolovo (as according to the plan intended to local state farm), but, without unloading, was according to instructions of the deputy manager of trust Okulov who was guided by production reasons, is sent to Samarovo [7, l. 59]. It is necessary to pay attention that heads of trust, but not representatives of "three" were engaged in distribution of labor.

There arrived immigrants and in other districts of the district. On May 20 the steamship "was sent to Nizhnevartovsk to them. The third International" which transferred immigrants to fish factories and collective farms. Transfer happened porayonno: it was only offered to Lokosovsky (Surgut district) to transfer the special settlers living earlier in the Lubin district and Nizhnevartovsk to fish factories (Laryaksky district), and taking place in the Ma-ryanovsky area transferred to Laryaksky fish factory and collective farms of Laryaksky district.

On the arrival of immigrants the chief of an echelon (called echelons steamships) made out the act of transfer of Kalmyk special immigrants of a certain organization [11, l. 20; 7, l. 76].

The celebration of production expediency is visible also that as the most important criteria of an opportunity or impossibility of receiving special immigrants by the enterprise served two factors:

1) existence of a free living space;
2) possibility of carrying out sanitation (existence of baths, ready to use, and dezokamer) [7, l. 68].

The lack of one of conditions could form the basis for change of the place of disembarkation of deportan-t as it happened in Tyulyakh (Kondinsky district) from where the place of disembarkation was transferred to Nakhrachi (on May 29, 1944) due to the lack of the room for sanitary cleaning [7, l. 68, 99].

As rooms for temporary placement served the buildings provided by locals, seteposadochny workshops, buildings of stations, etc. [7, l. 68, 62-62 about.].

Reception of Kalmyk special immigrants came to the end formally on June 15, 1944 [3, l. 51]. As shows the analysis of correspondence on resettlement, to the middle of June the bulk of immigrants was placed in the territory of the Yugra earth.

By November, 1944 in the district there were 5999 Kalmyks [11, l. 1]. The resolution of April 30 predetermined employment of the delivered special-immigrants. In the majority of able-bodied Kalmyks assigned to the numerous enterprises Khanty-Mansi state -

rybtrest and also fish farms. The others were transferred to Siblestrest, rayrybkoopa, district groups of industrial enterprises, promartel, collective farms [12, l. 1 about.;

11, l. 2-2 about.].

For understanding of essence of the migration processes happening in the district, a particular interest provide the intermediate data on movement of Kalmyks made as of July 15, 1944. These data demonstrate that there was a redistribution of labor in the district from her main recipients (the fishing enterprises of trust and logging enterprises) to the organizations and institutions servicing trust (fishing collective farms, rybkoopa, promartel).

Transfer of immigrants from one enterprise of trust to another at that time was insignificant, only the Nakhrachinsky fish factory transferred to the Na-hrachinsky motor and fishing station of 36 people. At the same time to fishing collective farms it was transferred 434, to promartel - 130, to rybko-opa - 48 and to "the other enterprises" - 76 people [11, l. 12, 23, 25, 28].

Active resettlements of Kalmyks happened also in August-September, 1944 what confirm "The list of immigrants of Kalmyks of Samarovsky which remained nominal to / plant, transferred to other organizations" of July 28, 1944 [11, l. 141] and also "The list of the Kalmyk special immigrants" who arrived by steamship "Communist" for September 12, 1944 [11, l. 36]. The last list characterizes not intra district compulsory micromigration, but "doseleniye" of Kalmyks from areas at that time of already independent Omsk region (Kormilovsky, Omutinsky and actually Omsk).

The movements of Kalmyks authorized by the authorities took place also in the subsequent time (both in the district, and beyond its limits), but these movements were single, their exclusiveness is confirmed by authorization of similar actions not by the enterprises and the management of trust (with the subsequent notification of the district authorities), and resolutions of the regional party and Soviet organizations. So it was in a case with transfer of 350 Kalmyks for work at the enterprises of the Tobolsk gosrybtrest (on October 24, 1944) [13, l. 204].

There were also movements of people in the "return" direction - from "minor" recipients of labor to the main enterprises of trust. Also the reference sent to the address of the instructor of the Khanty-Mansi district committee where it was noted that "in the summer of 1944 according to the order of the Managing director of the Khanty-Mansi gosrybtrest Kafitin Sosvin-were transferred says to us about it

to sky fish factory Kalmyk immigrants", earlier placed in four fishing artels of the area [14, l. 7].

The analysis of intra district micromigrations helps to understand how immigrants appeared in the organizations which are not relating to maintaining the gosrybtrest, first of all in collective farms (but their list was rather extensive and included regional departments of national education, land departments, institutions of Spetstorg and other structures). Summary data on the number of similar able-bodied micromigrants were obtained by November, 1944, and 1002 persons, to collective farms to other organizations 261 persons [11, l were transferred. 4].

We consider that micromigrations were caused and accelerated by difficulties which the authorities met with resettlement, - first of all, the shortage of free premises (them in much bigger volume collective farms possessed). A main objective of movements were rationalization I rub-doispolzovaniya immigrants and their economic arrangement. Life calmed down, came to the "normal" course as far as there can be normal life on the special settlement.

It should be noted that the district authorities had enough time for preparation to about -

to conducting operation to which also his heads had to provide carrying out (and in it its specifics) from beginning to end gosrybtrest. Okrispolk, the district committee and control of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs on the district exercised the support functions directed to implementation of decisions of trust (executive committee and People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs) and also to formal control of its actions (district committee). Operation on resettlement took place in general successfully that allowed to meet the planned deadline generally.

Thus, in repressive actions in relation to the Kalmyk people we see a combination of two types of compulsory migrations which differ with the resettlement purposes. If at primary resettlement, first of all, punishment for complicity to the enemy (according to it the leading role at deportation is played by People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs), then at secondary resettlement the repressive aim is not pursued (though moved from it it was not easier) was the purpose, to the forefront there is an economic development, and here the leading role in implementation of deportation is played by the production organization (gosrybtrest). But this action at all the specificity was not unique as similar actions were taken concerning Germans in 1942

Came to edition 16.05.2008

Literature

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Elizabeth Meredith
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