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Men's belts and weapon of Chechens and Ingushs of the end of the XIX beginning of the 20th centuries.



etnografiya

Leychy GARSAYEV

MEN'S BELTS AND WEAPON of CHECHENS AND INGUSHS of the END of XIX - the BEGINNINGS of the 20th Centuries

In article types of belts, cold and firearms, the place of production of this jewelry, a manner of their carrying, tradition are described.

Male belts, cold weapon and firearm, places of their manufacturing, manner to wear them and certain traditions are described in the given article.

types of belts, cold weapon, firearms, traditions; types of belts, cold weapon, firearm, traditions.

Belts. The belt is considered an obligatory element of a men's attire of mountaineers at all times. Wearing leather belts and belts with metal buckles and slips is an ancient tradition of Chechens and Ingushs though it occurred also at the next people. It was indecent to not girded man to go outside, seem to the old man or the person who had higher status. Very very old men and boys did not wear a belt. And only during mourning the man could go raspoyasanny.

All clothes of Vainakhs had to be driven to a body, the belt was tightened hardly that between it and a waist it was impossible to protisnut fingers. In general Vainakhs did not love stout and big-bellied men, calling them by name with addition of the belly component: Tingar-Ahmad — Ahmed belly, Guy-Vakha — Vakh paunch.

The famous scientist E.N. Studenetskaya so describes the most widespread types of belts: "On our materials it is possible to allocate two types of men's belts: leather with metal set and belts from fabric or felt.

Belts from a tight leather belt were most of all widespread in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century. On one end the belt had a buckle in which other end of a belt supplied with a metal tip was passed through. The belt was hardly tightened on a waist, and the long tip of a belt was passed throughout a mobile oboymochka. Belts of this simplest form carried daily, they were available to any mountaineer. Festive belts decorated with numerous, often silver plaques and pendants of a different form. Wore a belt on the Circassian, on an undertunic (if the Circassian was not put on), and sometimes and on a fur coat. At Chechens and Ingushs the belt was occasionally put on also a shirt. To a belt suspended various objects necessary for the man on the way, on hunting. It were the sealing gland or fat-nitsa — a rectangular metal box with fat for greasing of weapon; the screw-driver of irregular shape for analysis of firearms serving sometimes and kresaly; bar for a point of a dagger or a knife; pulnitsa; leather marching glass; a sack in which lay flint rub, kresat, etc. The shepherd could hang up on a belt a sack with a different trifle for treatment of the cattle. In a word, the belt replaced pockets. But the most important — hung on a belt weapon: a dagger (or a knife in a wooden semi-sheath), a gun and sometimes a checker. The last was carried also on a sword belt" 1.

Tight belts with iron or copper set are found in crypts of Ossetians and Ingushs. E.N. Studenetskaya gives E.I. Krupnov's definition: "Each dead man is surrounded by one, and sometimes and two-

GARSAEV

Leychy

Magamedovich — to. and. N, leading researcher of Complex nauchnoissledovatelsky institute of RAS, Grozny

1 Studenetskaya of E.N. Odezhd of the people of the North Caucasus HUS — XX of centuries — M.: Science, 1989, p. 94.

mya leather belts with iron or bronze buckles; thin belts were decorated with silver and bronze tips and plaques. Tobacco pouches from skin with a flint, kresaly and a tinder" 1 usually hang on belts.

So, similar belts were characteristic of all people of the North Caucasus, and not just of Chechens and Ingushs.

It is especially necessary to note a traditional belt with silver set which, besides a buckle, a tip and an oboymochka, was decorated with laid on figured plaques, an engraving and gilding on silver. Richly decorated belt was a prestigious part of men's clothes, especially youth, could testify to a social and property status of the owner.

Orders of metal sets for belts were executed by the master jewelers from Dagestan working in the cities and villages of the North Caucasus with otkhodnik. Local masters, and them was a little, studied at them.

Belts wide made of cloth were worn by old men, mullahs, hajjs and also the men who are in mourning. Them could never gird undertunics, but Circassians —. Matter (canvas, silk) put several times was twisted a plait and the belt turned out. It was wrapped twice around a waist and lowered in front two ends. Felt belts 4 — 6 cm wide were tied during mowing. But still tight leather belt with metal set was and remains the steadiest part of Vainakh men's suit.

Weapon. The complex of men's wear in the North Caucasus is not considered without weapon and military equipment. It would seem, weapon does not enter a concept of "the Chechen's suit", but the general style, the nature of a suit and its separate details is connected with it (hectare-zyrnitsy, a belt, etc.). The belt covered with weapon and accessories to care for it is directly knit with military life.

The most important attributes of weapon of Chechens and Ingushs were: a dagger — shal-that (Henapi, Musi, Ataginka — on names of armorers from Dargo, Dzhugurti, Atagi), a checker — tarrash (gourde, ters-maymat — a top), a sword (din). Carried them in beautifully issued sheath, hanging on belts of Circassians, fur coats and also the shirts which are put on in summertime.

1 In the same place, p. 34.

"Ters-maymat" a mention of a checker is available also in work of the royal officer, Chechen Umalat Laudayev who in 1872 noted: "... those which have the image of an animal on a blade are considered as the best checkers; it is unknown why, Chechens identified in this image a monkey, in Chechen "маймун", and called a checker "ters-maymun". Russians it is the image recognized for a wolf and call such shash-

and ___ 2

ku top" 2.

A.P. Ippolitov who served in Chechnya (in the Argun district) is a lot of years, in 1868 wrote: "Blades with the image on them two wolf heads are called Chechen tersmaymul and are honored as the best and valuable" 3.

The dagger has sacral value for all mountaineers. It was given the most expensive to both guests of honor and friends as a sign of deep friendship, respect and honoring. For Vainakh family the dagger was a peculiar relic which passed from father to son and was protected as a family shrine. On it is mute swore, as on the Holy Quran.

Weapon made the main value and wealth of the mountaineer. Daggers of the best masters were highly appreciated very much. Their cost equaled costs of the house, a racer, hundreds of sheep.

The main decoration of the guest room in the house of the Chechen was weapon. On walls, carpets checkers, sabers, daggers, guns and guns were hanged out. Nearby the felt cloak and also the lash decorated with silver hung. Near them also expensive furniture of a horse (saddle, a bridle) 4 was stored.

From firearms guns (top), guns entered an arsenal of Vainakhs (a tapch, a tapanch).

In the second half of the 19th century the guns made by the villager Dargo of the Vedeno district by name Dusk enjoyed wide popularity. They and were called — Duski a top (gun Duski). Descendants of this famous armorer to

2 U. Laudayev. Chechen tribe//Information about the Caucasian mountaineers: collection. Issue U1. — Tiflis, 1872; Chechnya and Chechens in materials of the 19th century. — Elista, 1990, building 67.
3 A.P. Ippolitov. Ethnographic essays of the Argun district//Data about the Caucasian mountaineers: collection. Issue U1. — Tiflis, 1872; Chechnya and Chechens in materials of the 19th century. — Elista, 1990, building 64.
4 Culture of Chechnya: history and modern problems / Otv. an edition H.V. Turkayev//Ying t of ethnology and anthropology of N.N. Miklouho-Maclay of RAS. — M.: Science, 2006, p. 132.

this time live in the same village of Dargo founded by representatives of a belgatoyevsky tayp.

The quality of its guns, their range were highly appreciated by mountaineers and Cossacks. Du ska and also his father Geta were one of the main suppliers of weapon for troops of the imam Shamil. Possibly, bigger quantity of guns were provided with them with attraction of wage labor. The guns Duski had simple finishing. The only thing in the republic the gun Duski which is modestly decorated with silver remained in a private collection, perhaps. Its trunk is not inlaid, however kept on itself the drawing from the Damask steel. Except guns, Dusk produced and pistolety1.

The love and awe for weapon is reflected at Chechens in proverbs and sayings. Here some of them.

• Without need do not take out a dagger from a sheath, and having taken out — do not put back, without having applied it.

• Not the man the one who a dagger ukalyvat the opponent, but that man who cuts of

• You are sharp on language as a dagger edge — say about eloquent people.

As it was already noted, since ancient times at Chechens above everything weapon was appreciated; on it swore, it was constant accessory of the man and a subject of his pride. Sometimes the Chechen went even to death, if only in fight not to give weapon. Disarmament of the Chechen or leaving to the opponent of the weapon, even one of its components, was considered as a big shame. Since childhood of the Chechen accustomed to weapon, to accurate shooting from onions, a crossbow, a gun. Children often, playing, competed in jumps, in firing at full tilt, in firing on accuracy.

Chechens thoroughly were able to prepare for campaigns and attacks. The clothes in winter time consisted of a felt cloak, bashly-

1 In the same place, p. 139.

a mountain cap from a mutton skin, a short fur coat, footwear from tawing skin and the warmed nogovitsa with woolen and cloth socks. It was thought over and marching food is, first of all, the oat flour (tsu) made of the fried thoroughly millet, barley, corn which could be turned quickly into marching bread, having mixed flour with salt, oil and if it is necessary — and with honey; took dried meat and sausage.

The centuries-old habit to military campaigns helped Chechens to adapt so clothes, footwear and weapon that at advance they were never a hindrance. Army terminology, the name of weapon, existence of special tayp, or castes, in the ancient time proves readiness of Chechens to protect the homeland and svobodu2.

Now the Chechen blades remained a little. Their most part is lost during constant withdrawal of weapon by the royal and Soviet power.

So, traditional clothes of Vainakh men — the undertunic and the Circassian together with jewelry, since 20th of the 20th century, is gradually pushed aside by clothes of city breed. And yet in pre-war 30th the undertunic on men of middle and senile age, and less often — the Circassian as a national form of a national suit quite often met. Full transformation of Vainakh men's wear, as well as clothes of other people of the Caucasus, happened in 50 — 60 of the 20th century. Now it a little in what differs from the European. Only old men carry a habitual undertunic, and the Circassian together with a complex of jewelry already in the modernized look here and there remains in use of professional ensembles of a song and dance as a national suit.

2 Arsaliyev Sh.M-H. Ethnopedagogics of Chechens. — M, 2007, p. 238.
Norma Davis
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