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Konstantin Karlovic Grot the organizer of charity and contempt in Russia in the second half of the 19th century

a. A. Hitrov


Work is presented by department of archive science of St. Petersburg State University.

In article K.K. Grot's activity - the outstanding organizer of charity and contempt in Russia in the second half of the 19th century is considered. K.K. Grot headed Popechitelstvo the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people - one of the Russian charitable departments under the auspices of an imperial surname. Besides, from 1882 to 1884. Grot was the head of Department of institutions of the empress Maria. The author investigates K.K. Grot's activity as organizer of charity and contempt.

A. Khitrov


The article tells about K. K. Grot, an organiser of charity and care in Russia in the second half of the 19th century. Grot was a chief of the Patronage of Empress

Maria Alexandrovna for the blind - one of the Russian charitable organizations under the auspices of the Emperor&s family. Furthermore, from 1882 till 1884 Grot was a chief of the Department of the Institutions of Empress Maria. The author researches the activity of K. K. Grot as an organiser of charity and care in Russia.

Characteristic feature of the system of social assistance existing in imperial Russia was that this help was carried out on the basis of charity. The state directly did not assign to itself a duty for contempt, but also did not evade from tasks of social policy, consciously and purposefully directing a charitable public initiative to their decision. Such approach to charity began to be formed in the XVIII century. In XIX - the beginning of the 20th century in Russia conditions for the most effective attraction and use of charity as bases for the organization of social assistance were gradually created. During this period the legal framework and organizational bases of activity of charitable institutions of contempt were improved, charity was encouraged with the state awards: awards, medals, ranks, uniforms, signs of appreciation from an imperial surname. Philanthropists gained wide public recognition, in their honor societies and institutions of contempt, the charitable capitals, grants and vacancies in institutions of contempt were called. However no measures for promotion of charity would yield result if did not meet a public initiative, the aspiration to do good, help persons in need. But only one charitable initiative for effective use of donations of the public, there was not enough rational organization of social assistance. It was required, speaking to the modern language, competent management, ability to focus charitable efforts on the solution of specific social objectives, to use the means offered philanthropists with the maximum return. Orga-

the nizator of charity and contempt in imperial Russia which were successfully solving the specified problems deserve not smaller recognition, than those from philanthropists who contributed significantly most to business of social assistance in our Fatherland. Activity of the most outstanding organizers of social assistance also deserves study as experience of attraction of charity to the solution of social tasks is extremely relevant for present Russia. Konstantin Karlovic Grot - the state and public figure, the creator and the long-term head Popechitelstva of the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people was one of such organizers. Besides, in 1881-1884. Grot headed Department of institutions of the empress Maria in which consisted and named Popechitelstvo. At the end of the XIX century Grot supervised the work of review commission and to improvement of the legislation on public contempt. Modern researchers address various periods of life and K.K. Grot's activity *, but his role as organizer of charity and contempt, head Popechitelstva about blind people and Departments of the empress Maria is a poorly studied problem.

Konstantin Karlovic Grot came to the leadership in charity and contempt, having wide life and administrative experience. K.K. Grot was born in 1815 in noble family of the German origin. His grandfather was the native of Gol-shtinii who moved in the 18th century to Russia. The father Karl Efimovich Grot served in Department of the state property of the Ministry of Finance, received the hereditary nobility. Having graduated from Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum, K.K. Grot began service in Minister-

stvo of the imperial yard. In 1853-1861. Grot was the Samara governor. On this post he proved the efficient and honest administrator, was held in respect of the public. In process of possible Grot fought against incompetence and bribery of officials, tried to obtain that administrative positions in the province were replaced with persons with university education, sought to bring order to wine payoffs. This activity of Grot led to the fact that he had ill-wishers. But, despite complaints and charges from their party, Grot's reputation did not suffer. In 1861, still remaining the governor, Grot was appointed the member of the commission on the structure of country institutions. After leaving of a position of the governor, Grot received a post of the director of the department of different taxes and collecting the Ministry of Finance, but then according to the proposal of the grand duke Konstantin Nikolaevich Grot was appointed the director of the department of neokladny collecting the Ministry of Finance. In this position he was engaged in elimination of wine payoffs and introduction of an excise system of sale of alcohol. In 1869. Grot left this post, but remained ranked as the Ministry of Finance. Since 1870. K.K. Grot - the member of Department of laws of the State Council. During this period in government circles issues of improvement of a prison system and development of the general charter of prison management were discussed. Work in this direction was strengthened in 1878 when the question of improvement of a prison system began to be considered under the leadership of K.K. Grot in the State Council. The project of transformation of a prison system presented to them was recognized as the best. For development of the prison legislation it was decided to create at the State Council commission of his members and representatives of the interested ministries which was headed by Grot. In 18811882 he directed in the rank of the minister the prison department separated from the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In 1882. Grot resigned, believing that further pre-

formation of a prison system will not meet support in new reign. At this time Grot already actively was engaged in the organization of contempt of blind people.

The history of creation Popechitelstva about blind people is connected with attempt of the organization of contempt of disabled people of the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878. During the war in St. Petersburg the "Main guardianship for contempt of the needing families of soldiers" operating under the patronage of the empress Maria Aleksandrovna was founded. It consisted "... mainly from the ladies of the highest circle elected to destination the empress, and transferred Her Majesty to committee to start business to 200,000 rubles" [8, page 44]. K.K. Grot was approved as the chairman of guardianship. Having started the organization of work of guardianship, Grot sought to define what help wounded and sick participants of war needed. It became clear that to one and a half thousand were in whole or in part deprived of them sight, and the majority suffered from this illness not because of the Turkish bullets and shells, and from diseases and bad treatment. To such persons the okulistichesky help began to appear. At the initiative of Grot "the experienced oculist who within two years examined 440 blind men soldiers was sent to the different provinces of Russia, made 118 eye operations, ordered to many patients treatment and appointed points." [3, page 341]. Besides, the 475th the most needing blind person Popechitelstvo gave allowances in total amount to 9 thousand rubles [3, page 341].

Having learned that the Main guardianship for contempt of the needing families of soldiers helps blind people, in it also the civilians deprived of sight and who had diseases of eyes began to address. In this regard, K.K. Grot had a thought to unite the help to blind people and affected with eye diseases in one department. The idea got support of the power, and the Mariinsky guardianship about blind people called in honor of the empress Maria Aleksandrovna which was headed by Grot was founded on February 13, 1881. The help suffering

from diseases of eyes was business close to Grot also because he had a poor eyesight [11, page 24]. The property and money abolished in 1880 were transferred to new department. The main guardianship for contempt of the needing families of soldiers. Originally Mariinsky guardianship about blind people consisted under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but on March 10, 1883 it was included in the structure of Department of institutions of the empress Maria, having received the name "Popechitelstvo the Empress Maria Aleksandrovna about Blind People". Thus, Popechitelstvo about blind people accepted the nature of special charitable department under the auspices of an imperial surname. Such departments worked in Russia since the end of the XVIII century before revolution of 1917. The Department of institutions of the empress Maria (including Popechitelstvo the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people and Popechitelstvo the empress Maria Fiodorovna about deaf-mutes), Imperial philanthropic society, the Russian society of the Red Cross, Popechitelstvo about the labor help were the largest of them. The principle of rendering social assistance on a charitable basis with assistance of the state was most consistently embodied in activity of these and other similar departments and committees. Originally charity under the auspices of an imperial surname was intended to show care of the autocratic power of citizens, but in the conditions of lack in Russia of the public social policy the largest listed above departments, working with assistance of the state and having a number of privileges, actually undertook the solution of tasks of social policy in nation-wide scale. Contempt of blind people became one of such tasks.

Having headed new department, "Konstantin Karlovic with usual energy and organizing abilities, without regard to old age, was entirely given to new business" [8, page 45]. Grot directed Guardianship about blind people in quality predsedate-

la of his administrative body - Council. To have an opportunity to report directly on affairs Popechitelstva to the sovereign and his spouse, Grot was entitled the secretary of state. According to traditional ideas of the power and society of social assistance, Guardianship about blind people was created as charity public organization. The purpose of its activity was social and medical care blind and affected with eye diseases. At "The main beginnings for activity Popechitelstva the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people" it is specified that Guardianship, "being private institution, uses protection of the government and consists with all institutions arranged to them in Department of institutions of the empress Maria" [6, page 3]. Meant that Guardianship about blind people was independent and did not depend on other charitable departments and societies and also on the state. Guardianship submitted only to bosses of Department of the empress Maria, i.e. the monarch and his spouse. But it also meant that Guardianship about blind people could not count on means of Department of the empress Maria and its institutions. Thus, it had to resolve issues of ensuring the activity independently, attracting donations. In the three-volume work which came out in 1915 devoted to life and K.K. Grot's activity it is noted that he "tended to consider charity only a minor appendage to Popechitelstva, but nevertheless and primary activity Popechitelstva devoted to training of blind people for independent work had to accept inevitably charitable character" [5, page 375].

Grot was convinced that Popechitelstva training of blind people of work that they could provide the existence at least partially has to become the main activity. It concerned both adults, and children who were supposed to be trained in specialized teaching and educational zavede-

niya. By then in Rossi there were two such institutions which were a part of Imperial philanthropic society - the Institute of blind people founded in 1807 and the Mariinsky institute of blind maidens created in 1871. In the second half of the 19th century both institutions represented that other as almshouses in which there were in total no more than three dozen people. For the purpose of studying experience of training of blind people, Grot visited Institute of blind people and made sure that "it was, in effect, not the institute, but almshouse where blind men, having acquired a game of different musical instruments, remained to a grave" [4, page 367]. Domestic experience of contempt of blind people was unsatisfactory, and K.K. Grot made a trip abroad for the purpose of studying foreign experience. During the trip Grot visited a number of teaching and educational institutions for blind people in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Switzerland, France and Italy.

Upon return to Russia Grot began work on creation of a full-fledged teaching and educational institution for blind children. In 1881 in St. Petersburg the school was open for boys, in 1883 - school for girls. But at this time new duties were assigned to Grot. In 1882 he received from the empress Maria Fiodorovna the offer to head Department of institutions of the empress Maria - the charitable department, largest in Russia, under the auspices of an imperial surname called in honor of the creator - the spouse and Paul I's widow Maria Fiodorovna. In 1881 the prince P.G. Oldenburg-sky heading Department since 1860 died glavnoupravlyayushchiya Department of the empress Maria. Vigorous and active Pyotr Oldenburg-sky made for development of charity, contempt and female education in Russia much. However financial and economic position of Department of the empress Maria left much to be desired. Alexander III's spouse understood that establishing order in Department requires not only the skilled administrator having experience of management in this area but also the person, not -

indifferent to sufferings and needs of prizrevayemy. K.K. Grot fully had these qualities, but he tried to reject Maria Fiodorovna's offer, referring to age, the state of health and employment. The reason of unwillingness of Grot to head Department of the empress Maria consisted not in age. He wanted to focus completely on the organization of contempt of blind people, in particular, to finish business of creation of a modern teaching and educational institution for blind children. There was also other reason. Grot considered a basis of successful administrative activity independence in acceptance of decisions. He was afraid that he on a post of the head will be held down in the actions by most august patrons of Department and their confidants, traditions, not changing decades. In the autobiographical notes written to them in 1896 in Nice, Grot noted that in Department of the empress Maria "too much depends on the personal relations and is connected by old times and representations of prereform time" [8, page 52].

Having entered a position, Grot vigorously was engaged in transformations. The financial situation of Department was difficult what Grot drew the attention of the emperor and his spouse in the vsepoddanneyshy report in December, 1882 to. By this time Department received 11,397 thousand rubles, and expenses for 1883 were assumed in the sum of 11,719 thousand rubles. The budget deficit of Department was 322 thousand rubles, "and the lack of means did not make the new phenomenon as several years in succession estimates of department consisted the deficiencies reaching the considerable sizes" [4, page 305]. Under the leadership of Grot operations on production and sale of playing cards were expanded and ordered that made monopoly of Department of the empress Maria, management of property of Department was ordered, the costs which are not connected directly with contempt are cut down, strict rules of bookkeeping and control over expenditure of funds are introduced, the Control expedition of Department underwent reorganization.

Later, in 1888, on the basis of the last the Control of Department of institutions of the empress Maria submitting to directly glavnoupravlyayushchy was created. At the initiative of Grot in 1884 two volumes of "The collection of data on the capitals of Department of institutions of the empress Maria" were published (the third, additional, the volume left in 1898). Thanks to the taken measures, Grot managed to achieve deficit-free budget of Department. The emperor and his spouse were happy with Grot's activity, but the actions which are carried out by him as he noted subsequently could not deliver to him "great popularity in this department at the head of which it stood" [8, page 30]. In 1884 Grot's request for resignation from a position of glavnoupravlyayushchy Department of the empress Maria was granted, and on September 27 the same year he left this post with the kind rescript of the emperor. It gave the chance to Grot completely to focus on the leadership in Guardianship about blind people.

Great efforts were costed to Grot by creation of Aleksandro-Mariinsky school of blind people in St. Petersburg. The municipal public government of St. Petersburg donated for school a ground on the Pharmaceutical island. The emperor allocated 250 thousand rubles for a building construction of school, but for completion of construction of money was not enough. Moreover, there was unresolved a question of how the school will be financed further. Thanks to authority and Grot's persistence these issues managed to be resolved. Alexander II in memory of the died spouse offered 1 million rubles on the charitable purposes, but did not specify what precisely it is necessary to spend this money for. Having headed Department of the empress Maria, Grot created the commission for development of a question of use of these means. According to Grot "it was supposed to arrange in memory of the empress suffering from lungs, hospital for treatment of chest diseases and originally meant to carry maintenance costs of hospital at the expense of Department of the empress Maria, construction of the building proiz-

messages into the account of the offered one million" [4, page 392]. Having considered the project, Alexander III wished that its cost did not exceed the mentioned one million, but it was not succeeded to keep within this sum. After all, the project was abandoned, and the emperor, apparently, forgot about the ill-fated one million. This one million was just enough for completion of construction of the building of school of blind people and the further maintenance of this institution. In 1887 the member Popechitelstva about blind people O.K. Aderkas published the brochure in which it was spoken that not to find for one million offered in memory of the empress Maria Aleksandrovna the best application, than to spend it for school of blind people, "which could be always a live monument to the empress" [1, page 74]. K.K. Grot, having supported O.K. Aderkas's thought, "used all the influence to get so serious material support for blind people" [1, page 74]. The idea to immortalize thus memory of the empress-mother pleased Alexander III, and on June 14, 1888 he enjoined to give the mentioned one million with the collected percent Popechitelstva about blind people. It allowed to complete all works on creation of Aleksan-dro-Mariinskogo school of blind people which solemn consecration took place on May 29, 1890. In many respects it occurred thanks to enthusiasm and K.K. Grot's energy. In its biography it is quite fairly noted: "Opening and the structure of school was purely personal record of K.K. Grot" [4, page 374]. Such situation developed because the empress Maria Aleksandrovna who was interested in questions of contempt of blind people died, and the new monarch and his spouse had no idea of the purposes and tasks Popechitelstva of blind people at all. In the pre-revolutionary works devoted to the story Popechitelstva about blind people it is not mentioned visit by the tallest persons of its institutions. Possibly, they did not see sense in such visits - blind people could not contemplate them. To draw the attention of Alexander III and his spouse to contempt of blind people, time and personal efforts of K.K. Grot were required.

However Grot's joy on the occasion of opening of school was saddened. Transferring Popechitelstva one million mentioned above, Alexander III in own way disposed of bank percent from this sum which made 300 thousand rubles. On this money he enjoined to buy from noble family of Myatlev the New Znamensk giving - a ground near St. Petersburg on which there were no buyers. 55 more thousand rubles were spent for repair of country constructions. This giving was transferred Popechitelstva to whom it was not necessary at all. Soon it became clear that the area of giving is not 230, but 150 tithes, moreover, the part of the dacha was earlier sold to different persons. Subsequently Guardianship about blind people with great difficulty got rid of the site, having sold it to the municipal public government of St. Petersburg for 90 thousand rubles. From outside business looked so as if the head Popechitelstva made a gross and obvious blunder. However it was impossible to shed light on circumstances which led to obviously unprofitable and unnecessary acquisition, and K.K. Grot was forced to be silent.

The Aleksandro-Mariinsky school of blind people became a sample for creation of other similar teaching and educational institutions. By 1907 as a part of Popechitelstva 27 schools of blind people worked [1, page 73]. Besides the institutions intended for specialized training and education of children, Grot sought to create institutions for labor training of adult blind people. In 1893 at the initiative of Grot in St. Petersburg, workshops were open for training of adult blind people in crafts and rendering the labor help to them. It was specified in Rules for the workshops made personally by Grot: "Purpose of establishment of workshops double: first, training in skill of adult blind people and, secondly, work simplification in those adult blind men which, having studied skill, have no comfortable room for craft activity" [5, page 348]. As well as at construction of Aleksandro-Mariinsky school of blind people, Grot constantly was on "object", penetrating

in all questions connected with construction and worrying because of any delays. In the letter to one of the correspondents Grot noted: "Construction of my workshops goes quickly forward, but I spoiled to myself at the same time a lot of blood and I hope that I deal with architects last time in life. This clean punishment" [5, page 438]. For creation of workshops there were not enough means, and K.K. Grot offered own savings - 45 thousand rubles [4, page 398]. From modesty he did not advertize the act. Grot presented business so that this money was received under the will of his late sister. In fact it were its personal means, and money of the sister Grot also offered, having founded three grants of her name in the St. Petersburg women's school of St Helena of Department of the empress Maria. Besides, in 1893. Grot offered 3 thousand rubles. To Christmas women's school of the Patriotic society which was a part of Department of the empress Maria for establishment of grants of a name of his late wife A.N. Grot [7, page 13]. K.K. Grot considered personal charity as absolutely disinterested aid by the person in need. Grot's note on the letter of the representative Popechitelstva about blind people on the Perm province of Vasilyev who suggested to give for donations Popechitelstva an award and other distinctions as it was in Department of the empress Maria and Imperatorsky philanthropic society is characteristic. Grot specified: "Nikolay Mikhaylovich Pochtenny forgets that if to establish such order for all charities, then a half of the population would go with distinctions which in that case would lose any value" [5, page 354]. But in certain cases Grot vigorously petitioned for rewarding of any given persons if it was demanded by interests Popechitelstva.

K.K. Grot's Works on creation of workshops were noted by assignment to this institution of his name. Completely this institution was called "Workshops for adult blind people of Konstantin Karlovic Grot". As well as Aleksandro-Mariinsky school

blind people, workshops were model establishment by which example it was planned to create workshops in other cities of Russia. However the lack of means did not allow to extend successful experience all over the country.

The help deprived of sight and having eye diseases, carried out by Guardianship about blind people, covered, mainly, the capitals and the provincial cities. In rural areas these categories of persons in need were deprived of any medical and social assistance. U K. K. Grota arose a thought to send to business trips to rural areas the so-called okulistiche-sky groups consisting of doctors and other medical experts. In 1892 at Popechitelstva the Special department of research of measures for prevention of a blindness which next year sent to provinces of 7 okulistichesky groups working one and a half months in summertime was created. For this term more than 7500 patients were examined, it was made up to 1500 eye operations, it is revealed up to 500 incurable patients [9, page 18]. Characterizing activity of the first okulistichesky groups, K.K. Grot wrote: "The results received from sending of seven groups brilliantly equaled the hopes laid on them" [5, page 398]. In 12 years during the period from 1893 to 1905. Guardianship about blind people to provinces sent 315 okulistichesky groups which examined 542,054 patients and 181,323 operations are performed [1, page 81]. In total okulistichesky groups and the stationary Popechitelstva medical institutions about blind people during 1893-1905 accepted 1,448,841 patient and 377,668 operations are performed [1, page 82]. In total Popechitelstva about blind people at the beginning of the XX century several hundreds of thousands of persons annually used various medical and social assistance. For example, in 1904 Popechitelstva 602,459 people used the help in total [2, page 23]. By then Popechitelstvo had 24 schools for training of blind children, 8 almshouses, several clinics and institutions of the labor help [2, page 22-23].

Popechitelstvo the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people, as well as other charitable departments under the auspices of an imperial surname, actually solved nation-wide problems in the field of contempt, medicine and health care. In what Popechitelstvo about blind people could organize work on assistance to blind people and affected with eye diseases in scales of the whole country, leaning, mainly, on a charitable public initiative, an undoubted merit of the head of department - Konstantin Karlovic Grot who laid the foundation for activity Popechitelstva.

The period of the accelerated modernization of the country which began in the 90th of H1H of century was followed by aggravation of social contradictions. K.K. Grot who sent in 1891 to the Ministry of Internal Affairs a note in which characterized a situation in the field of social assistance in Russia paid attention to it also and introduced the idea of need of revision of the legislation on contempt. Grot perfectly saw defects and shortcomings of the existing system of social assistance. In a note, in particular, it was noted: "In our Fatherland business of public contempt does not represent any system, besides - it has no uniform body on which obligation management for contempt would lie" [5, page 430]. Grot believed that contempt of persons in need has to be one of essential obligations of the state [11, page 24]. Grot's initiative got support, and at the end of 1892 at the Ministry of Internal Affairs under its management the interdepartmental commission for development of the new legislation on contempt ** was created. However the attempt to draft the new legal framework of social assistance terminated without results. The commission considered several projects, but her members could not come to a consensus and develop the general project. Grot, seeing futility of work of the commission, in 1895 began to ask about resignation from a post of the head of commission. Besides, in 1895 to it 80 years were executed, and it could not any more as before, it is vigorous

to be engaged in affairs. The same year it left the head's post Popechitelstva the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people, having remained the Honorary Chairman of Council Popechitelstva, the honourable trustee of Alec-sandro-Mariinsky school of blind people and workshops of his name. After resignation Grot was awarded the "vsemilostliveyshy" rescript of Nicholas II and the highest state award of Russia - Andrew the First-Called's Awards. In turn Grot addressed with the circular employees Popechitelstva about blind people in which he thanked them for joint service to contempt business. In 1896. Grot was seriously ill and left work in the commission. At last, on March 13, 1897 he retired from a position of the head of commission. At the same time "on the highest command action of the commission were prekra-

a shchena, and affairs and works it are transferred... in the Ministry of Internal Affairs" [5, page 441]. Further materials of the commission were not used in any way. In October, 1897. K.K. Grot died.

After resignation and K.K. Grot's death in government circles there is no statesman left capable to work vigorously and professionally on questions of improvement of social policy. It was not capable to comprehend these questions and the sovereign. The system of social assistance in Russia, as before, continued to act on the charitable basis. The power, despite vigorous appeals of the public, did not start elaboration of the public social policy. The lack of the last also became one of the reasons of shocks which Russia felt at the beginning of the XX century.

* About Grot's activity on a post of the Samara governor see: P.I. P.I. He installed call of duty in local officials (An essay about Konstantin Grot)//the Samara local historian. Samara, 1994. Page 139-152; about Grot's guide of review commission of the legislation on charity and contempt see: G.N. Ulyanova. The legislation on charity in Russia (the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century)//National history. 2005. No. 6. Page 17-30.

** In more detail about work of the commission see: Dee Senja N.K. To a question of revision of the current legislation of public contempt. (The review of bills of the organization of contempt of the poor)//Works of the First congress of the Russian figures on public and private contempt on March 8-13, 1910 SPb., 1910. Page 123-135; G.N. Ulyanova. The legislation on charity in Russia (the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century)//National history. 2005. No. 6. Page 17-30.


1. Aderkas O.K. Prizreniye of blind people//Public and private contempt in Russia. SPb., 1907. Page 69-84.
2. Department of institutions of the empress Maria//Charity in Russia. SPb., 1907. T. 1. Page 1-25.
3. Children's help. The magazine for the interested charity. (Body of society of care about poor children in Moscow). 1885. No. 6. Stlb. 340-345.
4. K.K. Grot's activity on advantage of blind people//Konstantin Karlovic Grot as the state and public figure (on January 12, 1815 - on October 30, 1897). Materials for its biography and characteristic. By century from the date of its birth: in 3 t. SPb., 1915. T. 1-2. Page 365-406.
5. Konstantin Karlovic Grot as the state and public figure (on January 12, 1815 - on October 30, 1897). Materials for its biography and characteristic. By century from the date of its birth: in 3 t. SPb., 1915. T. 1-2. 489 pages
6. The main beginnings for activity Popechitelstva the empress Maria Aleksandrovna about blind people and rules for activity of the Kiev office Popechitelstva. Kiev, 1904. 10 pages
7. Department of manuscripts of National Library of Russia. T. 226: K.K. Grot. Op. 1. 33. Page 1-15.


8. Russian state historical archive. T. 764. Op. 1. 734. Page 1-52.
9. A.I. Skrebitsky. The review of results of activity Popechitelstva about blind people in Russia in 14 years on the basis of his reports, from 1881 to 1894 (inclusive). M, 1897. 29 pages
10. Meeting of legalizations of Department of institutions of the empress Maria. T. IV. Reign of the sovereign emperor Alexander the Third. Prince 3. From January 1, 1891 to October 20, 1894. SPb., 1898. 755 pages
11. G.N. Ulyanova. The legislation of charity in Russia (the end of XVIII - the beginning of the 20th century)//National history. 2005. No. 6. Page 17-30.
Thomas Leonard
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