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Military discipline in the system of military construction of the Russian state (the end of the 17th Century. The first quarter of the 18th V.)



A.F. Tanks

MILITARY DISCIPLINE IN the SYSTEM of MILITARY CONSTRUCTION of the RUSSIAN STATE (the end of the 17th century - the first quarter of the 18th century)

At a boundary of HUP-HUSh of centuries the political situation, lag of Russia in the development from the leading western states demanded from Peter I and his environment of serious efforts on ensuring external and internal security of the country. This task was solved by transformations, first of all in the military sphere.

Unsuccessful actions of the Russian army in war with Turks near Azov and Swedes near Narva who showed imperfection of the Russian armed force were the cause to start military reform, revealed the low level of discipline and moral spirit of troops. Therefore the state and military authorities of the country took serious measures for providing in troops of discipline and organization.

This work was begun in the 90th of the 17th century, i.e. from the moment of Peter I's ascent on a throne, and continued during all his life till 1725. As a result of the made efforts by the end of reign of Peter I in the state and in army there was a certain system of strengthening of discipline which basic elements were: the state and military ideology as a discipline basis in army; forms and methods of education of the military personnel; shape of the soldier of Petrovsky army - "the monarchic servant"; bodies of the public and military administration which are responsible for discipline and order in troops; military and criminal legislation; law-enforcement work; moral and psychological preparation; moral education of the military personnel.

Word "discipline" 1 in the Russian legislation and military life was introduced from Europe during the reign of Peter I and for the first time used in its decree "About Maintaining Discipline by the Ship and Jurisdiction of the Sea and Overland Military Personnel of People", published in 1714 2 In many other documents a concept of discipline adjoined to a concept of "order" and "behavior". Peter I did not think of military service without strong discipline and sense of duty. He repeatedly emphasized need of maintenance of "a kind order" for troops, obliging chiefs "the truth, court and orders on -

strong to look", demanded to take immediate measures against violators of discipline and "very to abstain from any obscene reasoning on decrees which... from the chief are given". But, along with it, he demanded every time to think how it is better to execute any given authorized provisions. "In charters the orders are written, and there are no time and cases", - said on3.

Already during the pre-Pertine period in power structures there was an understanding that the order and discipline in the state and in army cannot keep only on violence. Already then social development needed clear ideological reference points. In new historical conditions when in the country there were revolutionary changes, unclear to most of the population of the country, need of creation of a system of values and ideals increased a hundred times. Understanding it, Peter I paid to development of the state ideology, "the system of national education" much attention.

To Peter the system of national education - the ideology resulted from synthesis of the autochthonic political tradition of "autocracy" which is going back to Kievan Rus' and some traditions of the Tatar-Mongolian hansky power. An exclusive role in this system was played by Orthodox Church. The power spiritual worked in the close union with the power civil and gave it religious justification.

At Peter the state, its ideology, its spirit changed. The consent of church and state as equal allies in achievement of the uniform purpose - the managements of the Christian people to the God's Kingdom ended. Under the influence of the western values the Russian State during this period apprehended ideology, new to it, the so-called "natural right". The power of the state is absolute. The religion, church, clergy is only special functions of common cause of citizens for "general welfare". It are servants of one, from now on not a religious, but secular task.

So in the address to the Russian soldiers before the Poltava fight Peter I leans, first of all, on such concepts as the Fatherland, the state, and only in the second - on trust: "Soldiers! Here hour which Otechestva will decide destiny came. And so you should not think that you battle for Peter, but for the state, to Peter handed, for the sort, for the Fatherland, for our orthodox belief and church. The glory of the enemy, as if invincible to which you the victories over it repeatedly proved a lie should not confuse also you..." 4.

Undoubtedly, influence of ideology of "the natural right" imposed otpecha-

current and on all process of strengthening of discipline and education in the Russian army. The Russian monarchy adhered to this ideological doctrine during very long time up to emergence in 30 years XIX g of a uvarovsky triad "Orthodoxy-autocracy-nationality" and its interpretations on For Vera the Tsar Fatherland! army.

The ideology of military morality, military morals, the requirement, components the whole "code of specially military practical morals" which organically fits into way of activity of newly established professional army becomes important addition to the state ideology of the educated absolutism for army.

In the conditions of regular army the service for the soldier became his profession, companions - fighting friends on whom also his own life depended now. This circumstance favorably affected moral spirit and discipline of troops.

According to many historians, Peter I managed to create army which discipline was based not only on the compulsory nature of service, but also on understanding of the military duty on protection of the state interests, on postulates of military morals. Not accidentally many researchers of the XVIII-XX centuries considered army "happy". The Russian soldiers battled successfully and believed for happiness to die with benefit for the Fatherland. The famous Russian writer of the beginning of the 20th century M.O. Menshikov claimed: "Pietro il Grande the first achieved that Russia, at last, had happy army which fearlessness was maintained by deserved pride" 5.

For clarification of features of law enforcement and discipline in newly established regular Russian army it is very important to understand methods and forms of education of the military personnel.

Conditions of autocracy and the serf relations in Russia were imposed to the Russian people violently, respectively, dictated similar methods of strengthening of discipline in the Russian army. Not accidentally in the first quarter of XVIII

century the main method of strengthening of discipline was the coercion method used concerning those who "... did not like readiness to offer the egoistical motives - the general advantage of the state" 6.

About what attention was given by the emperor to development of forms of coercion, the military criminal code the "Military article" 1715 developed under the personal guide of Peter I demonstrates. In it are thoroughly painted mno-

the gochislenny types of punishments striking our contemporary with the cruelty. The quantity of types of crime for which the death penalty relied in this document was expanded not only in comparison with the previous domestic laws, but also foreign analogs. So, according to "the Code Tsar of Alexey Mikhaylovich", the death penalty relied for 60 types of crime, on modern to it to the French legislation — for 115, and Peter entered the death penalty for more than 200 types of crime.

"Discipline of the rod" which practiced Europeans in mercenaries, for "increase in their fighting capacity" is entered into armies. Forms of such discipline were punishment of a shpitsrutenama which was applied only to the foreigners serving in Russia and also punishment of a batogama (birches) earlier. At the beginning of Northern war the baculine methods of strengthening of discipline were applied also in relation to officers.

Arrests in fetters belonged to widespread punishments. Widely degrading practiced. Officers, sometimes and the senior generals as Repnin, "were written in soldiers", the lower ranks "were written in izvoshchik" (i.e. obozny). Very often criminal penalties were used together with moral - "defamation", "opprobium".

According to the author, cruel measures of providing an authorized order in a specific historical situation are quite justified and clear: first, similar strict measures of punishment were peculiar to all states, Russia was not an exception; secondly, the "new instrument" parts created at the beginning of the 18th century in the moral relation were not quite steady (experience of Narva, escapes of recruits, introduction of "the press of Antichrist") proceeding from what the severe collectings fixed legislatively were presented to Peter I's contemporaries quite appropriate.

Along with a coercion method in Petrovsky army the belief method was widely used. The rigidity in the attitude towards violators and criminals did not prevent Peter I to see in the ordinary soldier of the person capable to accept the purpose of Petrovsky undertakings, to tower before understanding of the role in the solution of national objectives.

The soldier in Petrovsky army becomes the state person with all that it implies. Respect for military discipline is not blind obedience, but conscious submission on office questions. Soldiers were granted the right not to execute the order of the officer if it "to

service of its Majesty does not concern" if it "to service soldier's is obscene", and to officers under the threat of the bringing to court and deprivation of a rank it was forbidden to beat the subordinated soldiers, however, with the reservation - "without the important and decent reasons". The person and his spiritual power become a decisive factor of victories. "Not a set win!" - these words of Peter the Great became the motto of its army. Not a set win where rely on strength of mind, the truth and knowledge.

Thus, it is possible to claim that rigidity, justice and humanity were for Peter the predominating elements in maintenance of the most strict order and discipline. On the one hand, Peter I preached and approved in army rigid discipline within the legal framework (often subjektivnoabsolyutistsky). On the other hand, the major place was allocated to moral education of army. Peter I specified that all material conditions are no more as a branch for future fruits, a root to eat a moral element ("bezkonfuzstvo"). As a result of the measures taken during this period the moral condition of our army considerably enhanced its fighting qualities.

The important place in the general system of strengthening of military discipline during the studied period is taken by formation of new shape of the soldier of Petrovsky army - "the monarchic servant".

"The name of soldiers" in Army regulations of 1716 "comprised all people who in army an essence - from the vyshny general even to the last musketeer". Peter's efforts were directed to giving to the name "soldier" high moral sense and on it to approve the Russian army.

The military reforms of the first quarter of the 18th century which led to creation of regular army changed psychology of the lower ranks and officers, placed greater demands on their discipline. For the purpose of ensuring high discipline and an authorized order a number of measures as a result of which the discipline and an order in troops considerably improved was undertaken.

First, the army as a reliable support of the Russian state, receives the highest status in society. As the recruit adapted to conditions of service in regular army, he came to awareness of the new social status. State bread, clothes did soldier's life is more carefree and more free than country.

Secondly, the serviceman of regular army becomes the professional, the member of army corporation, the citizen of the state. In our opinion it is necessary to agree with V.D. Verkhodubov who claimed that regular are -

miya of that period ". was not national, but army of the feudal state. To ovorit about close and organic connection of army with the people - means to allow unnecessary idealization of Petrovsky army". Loss of communication of the armed force with the people as it not paradoxically sounds, did not reduce its organization and discipline, and even on the contrary. This army begins to be at war successfully both against armies of other states, and against unorganized performances of the dissatisfied fellow citizens.

Thirdly, sets were carried out to field shelves from draft peasants only in great Russian areas, and the Russian army (as well as Swedish) is national, socially, konfessionalno and psychologically was almost uniform that favorably affected moral and psychological climate of military collectives.

Fourthly, conditions of service of the soldier of the Russian army differed from conditions of service of soldiers the European armies. If, for example, in Prussian army the stick of officers in the 18th century worked all day long, beating out from hired crowd of obedient soldiers, then in the Russian army the stick was not the main method of disciplining. The Russian peasant was accustomed to obedience by serf life. Similarity of community was the unique soldier's artel which strengthened soldering, soldier's brotherhood, reduced desertion and absolutely excluded something similar to semi-annual hazing of the 20th century

Fifthly. Conducting continuous sea and overland wars, tactical maneuvers created a situation when to break discipline was once. Besides drastic measures which were taken by the tsar in relation to violators in the conditions of wartime were perceived by the lower ranks as need.

Sixthly, the allowance in Petrovsky army was excellent. Daily "ration" consisted of pound of meat, two pounds of bread, two cups of wine and garnets (quart) of beer. Monthly one and a half garnets of grain and two pounds of salt were given, the tsar himself was influenced by this ration throughout a month before approving it.

Seventhly, the shortage of officer shots forced Peter I to provide to soldiers and sailors fascinating prospect - at the corresponding eagerness, bravery and discipline each of them could serve to the first officer rank which granted the right for the nobility.

Creation of above-mentioned conditions promoted that the army finally received staff of rather high quality as professionally, and on discipline level. According to a number of historians any European state for that period had no such hardy, patient, unpretentious, brave and pereimchivy soldiers.

In the course of creation of regular army Peter I paid much attention to formation of officer shots.

Low-level of culture of the country forced to address during the studied period only two main sources of completing of army by officers - to the nobility and foreigners.

Resorting to completing of officer corps from among foreigners as to a compulsory measure, Peter I after Narva did not trust Europeans of key posts in army. In the period of its board all 3 general field marshals were Russians. From 7 full generals there were 4 Russians and 3 foreigners, from 7 lieutenant generals - 2 and 5, from 23 major generals - 16 and 7 sootvetstvenno8.

Since 1711 Pyotr began to pursue conscious policy of replacement from army of "overseas" officers and training of national officer corps. The government began to watch closely service of officers-foreigners, behind their discipline and sense of duty and shipped back outward those which carelessly belonged to military service. So, after the Prutian campaign (1711

>), from field army 5 foreign generals, 6 colonels and the 45th headquarters officers were fired. In 1714 the decision to check all foreign officers, to define their suitability to military service and to leave in army only those who are really useful to business was made. As a result of in the twenties 18th century the officer corps on nine tenth consisted of the Russian officers.

The nobleman who is arriving on service the private, then receiving an unter-officer rank and, at last, made in officers becomes a figure, typical for officer corps, during this period. To a third of officers it was made from the lower ranks of guard which all staff of regiments long time consisted of noblemen. The considerable number of officers was made from soldiers of not noble origin. In 1720 had not noble origin to a third ofi-

9

Peter I underlay the principles which performance promoted promotion to command positions of the officers who are really able competently to -

to mandovat subordinates, to strengthen among them discipline. Unlike foreign armies where patents for officer ranks in most cases were on sale for money, the emperor considered only correct a system at which future officer, beginning service in Guards regiments, had to comprehend military science the ordinary soldier.

At the emperor Peter I the principle of personal merits was the cornerstone of a chinoproizvodstvo of officers that was legally enshrined in the decree of January 1, 1719. "About production in military ranks and about replacement of vacancies". Still it was required "through a rank of nobody to favor, but rather to build a rank from a rank". In 1720 Peter I issued one more decree on a chinoproizvodstvo written to them with own hand: "About harm for the state interest of an order of increase on seniority in service and about its non-use in Russia" 10. Production in the senior officer ranks, according to Peter I, has to be caused only by abilities of the person to this role.

At Peter I requirements to professional qualities and morality of officers were formulated, the foundation of domestic school of education and training of officer corps is laid. The tsar Pyotr demanded thorough knowledge of military business and high moral qualities from the officer. Under the Charter the officer was the carrier of military valor. The personal bravery had to be obligatory property of the officer.

Training of officers happened in Guards noble regiments or in specially organized schools. For training of officers in 1698 - 1699 the bombardier school at Preobrazhensky the shelf was founded, and at the beginning of new century were created mathematical, navigatsky (sea), artillery, engineering, foreign languages and even surgical schools.

The officer corps were created as elite of society. Officers and generals began to hold the highest posts in the state and to affect all aspects of life of society.

Thus, as a result of the measures taken by Peter I the problem of military shots was successfully solved. The national officer corps in practice became an autocracy support, the main force organizing an order and discipline in troops. Also subordinates were a match for it. The professional soldiers battling in battalion shoulder to shoulder found firmness and ability to maintain terrible (up to 30-50 percent of structure) losses which were not maintained by any army of the world. Solid and organized fighting orders gave strength lobo-

to the vy collision bayonet attacks providing success to the Russian weapon up to the middle of the 19th century

Peter setting an example of service to the state was capable to impart to soldiers the love for military science, determination in fight. So among officers and the lower ranks there was a cult of "father Otechestva".

Since Peter's times the army took the outstanding place in life of the Russian society, having become its major element. It was claimed that in Russia not the army was at the state, and, on the contrary, the state at army. At Peter all state mechanism was debugged in such a way that worked for army, on ensuring in it discipline, an order and organization. In turn and the state institutes were constructed by the army principle. Here the full one-man management reigned, public servants were in essence soldiers and officers, and the military discipline was designed to bring up an order, diligence, consciousness, Christian morality in people.

Implementation of the military principles to the civil sphere was shown in distribution of the military legislation on the system of public institutions and also in giving to the laws defining work of institutions, values and forces of army regulations. Conscious orientation to military samples, desire to give to state machinery of line of the grandiose military and bureaucratic organization created and operating as a uniform military organism were characteristic of Peter.

Thus, in the first quarter of the 18th century in the Russian state there were serious transformations in military science. In army there was a new situation - the way of completing defined to officers and the lower ranks the lifelong status of "the monarchic servant"; "regulyatorstvo" became the basic principle of the organization of troops; there was a modernization of military equipment; strategy and tactics of modern fight changed. Petrovsky innovations created, on the one hand, conditions which favorably affected discipline of the military personnel, and on the other hand, showed increased requirements to discipline of officers and the lower ranks. A certain system of strengthening of military discipline was as a result created. Basic elements of this system became: new state ideology, forms adequate to a feudal system and methods of education of the military personnel, the new status and shape of the soldier of Petrovsky army - "the monarchic servant"; bodies of the public and military administration; priority directions of strengthening of military discipline.

The analysis of features of strengthening of military discipline in Petrovsky army shows their planned character, systemacity and difference from hired armies of the western countries. If in the European armies the "baculine" discipline was spread, then in Russia more attention was paid to the moral party of education. Peter saw a basis of victories in moral superiority over the opponent which is reached by a personal example of the officer, constant insistence of commanders to subordinates in combination with the fair relation to them. The motto "In Service — Honour" made a core of all educational work of that time.

the Real system was improved by

throughout all activity of Peter I and showed the high efficiency. The taken measures allowed Peter to provide a high condition of military discipline and morally strengthened army. Instead of the huge and friable, gathered from time to time army, Peter I created personnel regular army - 200 thousand people (apart from 100 thousand Cossacks) which led Russia to the victory in the wearisome, lasted almost for quarter of the century war.

1 Discipline (Latin V1vs1r1ta - study, education, school), 1) the certain order of behavior to Luda answering to the rules of law which developed in society and morals and also requirements of any given organization...//Big encyclopedic dictionary.
2 See: Wolves E. I sea charter of the Russian fleet//Military and historical magazine. 1968. No. 5. Page 113 - 116.
3 Sb. military and historical materials. SPb., 1892. Issue 1. Page 31.
4 Peter I's order before the Poltava fight//the Russian archive, 1871. No. 1.
5 MenshikovM.O. Central citadel of the nation//Russian military collection. 2002. Issue 19. Page 165.
6 Tsit. on: A.I. Verkhovsky. An essay on the history of military art in Russia the 18th and 19th centuries of M., 1921. Page 37.
7 Verkhodubovv. Construction of regular Russian army at the beginning of the 18th century. Page 61.
8 See: Quickly S.M. is foreign experts in the Russian army and the fleet (18th century): Avtoref. yew. edging. east. sciences. M, 1999. Page 12.
9 See: S.V. wolves. Russian officer corps. M, 1993. Page 69.
10 Troitsk S.M. The Russian absolutism and the nobility in the 18th century. M, 1974. Page 43.
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