The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

EMPLOYMENT of MEMBERS of FAMILIES of the MILITARY PERSONNEL IN WESTERN SIBERIA in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (1941-1945)



UDK 902.316.27.316.33

E.N. Semyonova

EMPLOYMENT of MEMBERS of FAMILIES of the MILITARY PERSONNEL IN WESTERN SIBERIA in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (1941-1945)

The important direction of social policy of military years which is still remaining poorly studied - employment of members of families of the military personnel is considered. Forms and methods of the carried-out work, its results are shown.

The reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation undertaken now affecting including the social sphere, brings up a question of social guarantees of such category of citizens again as members of families of the military personnel. For the purpose of prevention of mistakes in the pursued social policy, more effective use of the available resources it is necessary to address the historical experience accumulated in this area.

In days of the Great Patriotic War huge attention was paid to families of the military personnel. During this period, in the conditions of extremely limited resources, the state approached the solution of this problem from different sides. Their employment was one of the main ways of improvement of material and household position of members of families of the military personnel. The experience accumulated in this sphere is of undoubted value during the developing and implementation of modern social programs.

Unfortunately, the subject of public policy in relation to families of the military personnel is presented to historiographies extremely poorly, and its such aspect as employment, in literature is practically not affected. In this connection this research gains the special importance.

Because of actually total absence of historiographic base in article archival sources were generally used. Most substantial and informative became documents of party bodies, in particular military departments. They included normative documents, legal and reporting documentation. The most significant is the group of reporting documentation (reports, reports, etc.). These documents are of the special value as in detail open activity of public authorities in this sphere, contain concrete figures about the done work.

From the beginning of the Great Patriotic War of family of the military personnel were one of the most numerous and slabozashchishchenny groups of the population. So, across the Novosibirsk region for December 1, 1943 280,550 families of the military personnel [1, l were registered. 15-16], on Omsk - for October 1, 1943 - 304

774 families [2, l. 85], across Altai Krai for January 1, 1944 - 340,080 families [3, l. 2]. This category of the population grew and needed continuous care and attention. Many families of veterans were evacuated from front-line areas and arrived in the Siberian cities and villages, often without means of support, without having a roof over the head. On the other hand, the families of the military personnel long ago living in Western Siberia also were unprotected in connection with departure to army of the head of the family, often only supporter.

Already at the beginning of war of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) put forward a slogan: "Care of families of veterans - a half of care of the Red Army". The Pravda newspaper in the editorial "Family of the Soviet soldier" noted that in this care the indissoluble communication of army with the people, indestructible unity of the front and back is shown [4]. Reasons of fighting capacity of field army were a starting point of policy in this question.

For performance of an objective the local authorities had to solve the whole complex of the interconnected problems, one of which was a problem of employment of members of families of the military personnel (local and evacuated).

The labor policy of the state in the years of war in general found reflection in a number of decrees of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR [5-7]. Together with it a number of the government documents concerning directly families of the military personnel was accepted. So, on August 1, 1941 on places was directionally instructive Narkomat's letters of social security (NKSO) "About an order of employment of members of the families mobilized in the Red Army", and on December 28, 1941 on this matter there was an order of SnK RSFSR [8, page 488]. According to these documents, local authorities were obliged to employ members of families of the military personnel according to their qualification in the place of their residence. The government obliged power structures on places in decade time to develop concrete plans of realization of this problem, to establish control of their performance. Employment allowed: 1) to improve material and household position of families of the military personnel, 2) partially to solve a problem of a lack of labor of the back, 3) to help the front.

Need of the solution of the first task was dictated by what the amount of payments for grants and pensions to families of the military personnel was from 100 to

250 river (the size depended on quantity able-bodied and dependents) [9, page 283] that there was insufficiently for satisfaction of material domestic needs of families of Red Army men. At the prices in the markets of Kemerovo in April, 1944 for 1 kg of beef of-200 rubles, 1 l of milk - 40 rubles, dozen eggs - 120 rubles of the paid money lasted not for long [10, page 8]. In such situation the salary was a powerful contribution to the budget of family as the average monthly salary of workers and employees was in 1945 in the industry - 454 rubles, on transport - 515 rubles, in trade, public catering, preparations and logistics 251 river [10, page 8]. With the participation of families of the military personnel in agricultural works in collective farms and state farms the possibility of payment of their work in the form of a naturoplata (vegetables, bread and other agricultural products) thanks to what families of Red Army men had not to buy them in the markets at the prices, in 7, 15 and even 20 times exceeding ration appeared.

One more powerful plus was the fact that the working family members received rations on higher norms (as workers, employees - depending on the place of work). For example, the dependents who are (not working) in a month on norms needed 500 g of meat and fish, 200 g of fats, 1,500 g of grain and pasta; and the worker and ITR of the plants, factories, the organizations - respectively 1,800, 400 and 1,200 g [10, page 6].

The necessity of the solution of the second task was caused by acute shortage of shots in all branches of the national economy in connection with mobilization of able-bodied population on the front. So, its number in Altai Krai in the first year of war decreased not less than by 500 thousand people, in the Novosibirsk region the able-bodied population aged from 16 to 59 years during the considered period was reduced by 224.5 thousand, and men - by 429.6 thousand, or for 44.3% [11, page 73]. The members of families of the military personnel involved in ranks of home front workers the work helped to develop military national economy, making the contribution to defeat of the enemy.

The Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), SNK USSR demanded from local heads to achieve full coverage and use of able-bodied members of families of the military personnel (including evacuated) in the national economy, institutions, the organizations, carrying out broad mass and political work among

the population which enhanced his participation to all events, desire to bring closer a victory. Cases when jobs instead of the husbands who left on the front were occupied by their wives seeking to help the work to the front were mass. So, Kulakov's wife in Stalinsk, having mastered the turner's profession, worked on the same machine on which her husband worked [12].

Such relation to work of the Soviet women who replaced the husbands, fathers who left on the front perfectly is characterized by lines from the letter official report of a factory meeting of women of the plant of Baranov in the Omsk region "Listen, the front": "We give two norms: one for, and another for the husband, for the brother, for the son" [13, page 50-51].

Work for which could suit members of families of the military personnel was several types: 1) a constant (at the plants, the enterprises, in institutions, the organizations); 2) temporary (it was connected generally with spring - and autumn and field works); home (it was extended in areas and the cities by the developed system of artels). Success of the solution of an objective in many respects depended on work of local authorities.

The question of employment of members of families of the military personnel was brought up at meetings of partiynosovetsky authorities repeatedly in all areas of Western Siberia for all years of war. In September, 1941 during verification of the material and household provision of families of the military personnel in Altai Krai it was established that district committees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and district executive committees do not take necessary care of the evacuated families of command structure of RKKA. As a result of it necessary measures for the labor device of members of these families were not taken. The bureau of regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) demanded from secretaries of mountains district committees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and chairmen of mountains district executive committees to take urgent measures for the solution of this task [14, l. 188]. However by the end of 1941 the situation changed a little. Badly put work with families of the military personnel led to attempt of the evacuated families of a nachsostav from the Far East in December, 1941 self-willedally to return to native places. To correct a situation, according to the decision of regional committee and a krayispolkom in the region an inspection of position of families of the military personnel was carried again out, the help to persons in need including concerning employment [15, l is rendered. 99]. However and after that in a solution of the problem of employment and material security of families of the military personnel there were serious shortcomings. The third check of a situation in the region showed that in Barnaul, Biysk, in Kurinsky, Loktevsky, Uch-Pristansky and other areas the situation still was difficult. It provoked new attempt of unauthorized departure of the families of a nachsostav evacuated from the Far East to duty stations of husbands. So, Kurinsky district 209 families, Loktevsky - 100 families, etc. [16, l left. 22, 22 about.]. According to the Barnaul gorsobes, for March 12, 1942 from 8,559 not employed members of families of the military personnel filing documents on grants, the issue in favor of employment was resolved only concerning 3,312 people that made 38.6% [17, l. 18]. And it when only across one Oktyabrsky district of Barnaul there were 4,246 families of Red Army men [17, l. 27].

In this regard in the region organizational events were held, political and mass work is strengthened. Decrees of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR, the resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) on mobilization of able-bodied population for agricultural works in collective farms, state farms, on production for the purpose of fuller coverage were widely explained by work of able-bodied members of families of the military personnel. For the best control of the carried-out work, secretaries of mountains district committees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) were obliged monthly (to the 10th) to inform regional committee on the done work [16, l. 22, 22 about.].

Serious shortcomings of the solution of the questions connected with employment of members of families of the military personnel took place in the Novosibirsk and Omsk regions. The inspection of this work which is carried out in August, 1941 in the Novosibirsk region showed that in a number of districts of the city of Novosibirsk (Zayeltsov-sky, October, etc.) as well as in Altai Krai, there was no systematic work on employment. Defects in some other the cities and districts of the area were revealed. In Kiselyovsk from 463 families of the command commanding structure it was employed only 129 that made about 28% [18, l. 150]. The facts of bad work on employment were established also in a number of areas of the Novosibirsk region (for example in Vasyugan and other districts of the Narymsky region) [19, l. 27].

In the Omsk region the local authorities undertook measures for assistance to families of veterans from the first days of war. On July 15, 1941 the bureau of the Omsk regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) adopted the resolution on work with families gone to the Red Army. The regional committee of party obliged the party organizations of area to surround with daily attention and care of family of fighters and commanders of the Red Army and to help them in the labor device. In the resolution it was highlighted that secretaries of mountains district committees of party have to deal personally with these issues [20, page 67].

Difficulties of objective character (mass evacuation of the enterprises, organizations, need of their placement in short terms, etc.), led lack of due consideration to families of Red Army men from the Siberian Military District and mountains district social securities to emergence of a large number of complaints and statements from families of the military personnel, including on labor and their household device. The situation became a subject of numerous discussion at meetings of bureau of regional committees of party. August 23, 1941. The Novosibirsk regional committee of party made the developed decision on this question, having demanded from mountains district committees of cardinal changes in the carried-out work [21, page 66]. Repeatedly (on September 25 [22, l. 25-26], October 16, 18, 1941, on January 20, 1942 [20, page 67].) the Omsk regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) discussed issues of material and household position of families of the military personnel, having paid special attention to an employment problem. These questions were considered at meetings of bureau of city town committees, district committees, party and trade-union meetings of the enterprises, institutions. Work of the commissions on consideration of complaints and statements was improved, a number of organizational measures is carried out, mass and political work is strengthened. All this yielded certain results. So, in Pikh-tovsky district of the Novosibirsk region for September 25, 1942 from 1,896 families of the military personnel 1,856 families, or 98% were employed. Members of 40 families [22, l were not employed. 307]. In Sta-linske for September 1, 1942 1,727 families [22, l were employed. 285]. Only from June 22, 1941 to January 1, 1942 across the Novosibirsk region 18,000 members of families of the military personnel [18, l were employed. 210]. For July 15, 1942 from 15,506 adult members of a nachsostav evacuated to the Novosibirsk region 10,214 were employed. From them 7,142 people worked at the enterprises and in institutions, 3,072 - in agriculture. Besides, from 1,106 teenagers at the age of 14-18 years worked the 926th persons. 5,292 adult members of families did not work, including: on an old age - 633 people, due to illness - 645, having juvenile children - 3,417. Without the reasons 597 people [23, l did not work. 21].

In the Omsk region from June 22, 1941 to July 1

1942 more than 21,501 members of families of the military personnel [24, l were employed. 203].

The radical turn towards strengthening of attention of power structures of the region to needs and inquiries of families of defenders of the Homeland is connected with acceptance on January 22, 1943. Resolutions of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee "About measures of improvement of work of the Soviet bodies and local party organizations for assistance to families of the military personnel". In this regard the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian Federation adopted on January 30, 1943 the resolution "About education at SNK RSFSR of Management on the state providing and employment

families of the military personnel" [25, page 263]. According to these documents in all areas of Western Siberia at regional executive committees, in the cities, rural areas, departments of the state providing and the household device of families of the military personnel were created. Only in the newly created Kemerovo region 39 departments, from them 9 were created at executive committees and 7 at district executive committees of the cities of Kuzbass. According to the decision of the Altai regional committee parties of February 14, 1943 such departments were created in the cities and areas of Altai Krai [26, page 115].

Maintaining these departments included studying life of families of the military personnel, rendering the help in receiving grants, pensions, employment, receiving a new profession to them, attraction to this work of various organizations and the public. Party, Soviet bodies demanded sharp improvement of all work.

On February 17, 1943 the bureau of the Novosibirsk regional committee discussed the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of January 22, 1943, having planned practical measures for work improvement [27, l. 141]. At the end of February there took place the sessions of city, regional and village councils of deputies of workers. On March 3 the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee was discussed at a plenum of regional party committee. Due to the preparation for a plenum in a row of the cities and districts of the area crews of regional committee of party for check of a condition of material service and employment of members of the families evacuated were directed. In February and March, 1943 the accounting of this category of the population on area in general, including able-bodied and employed [27, l was carried out. 142-143]. Such work was conducted in all areas of Western Siberia.

During the carried-out work it became clear that on military department of the Tomsk city town committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Novosibirsk region 10,523 members of families of the military personnel were employed, but 659 able-bodied did not work. In Cherepanovsky district it was revealed 4,689 able-bodied from which worked 4,030 [28, l. 301, 338]. In general across the Novosibirsk region (without Novosibirsk) for December 1

1943 from 78,228 able-bodied families of the military personnel members of 16,000 families were not employed that made about 20% [1, l. 15]. NeneTru-doustroennost members of families is explained by the fact that most of them were attracted for works of seasonal nature.

For the first half of the year 1944 in the Novosibirsk region (without Novosibirsk) 9,000 more people, but 7,000 people (generally because of possession of many children of mothers sick were employed and aged) did not work. Across Novosibirsk for same

the period 3,110 adult members of families of the military personnel were employed (for 1943 2,411 people). In total on the city 60,700 members of families of the military personnel worked, 11,202 adult members of families of the military personnel (5,566 - having many children, 5,411 - aged, 225-without the reasons) [29, l did not work. 105 about.].

In the Omsk region for January 1, 1944 27,211 families of officers (39,365 people) 1 from which worked 28,032 people that made 71.2% were registered. From among not employed only 995 people (8.4%) did not work without good reason [30, l. 67-68].

More difficult issues of employment of families of the military personnel were resolved in Altai Krai. According to 34 districts of the region, for August 1, 1943 18,478 families of the military personnel lived here (local and evacuated, from which adults and teenagers of 3,037 families [31, l were not employed. 75].

Archival documents demonstrate that where the city, regional authorities and boards of collective farms took due care of employment of families of the military personnel, the unemployed there were units. But where did not attach to the solution of this problem due significance, not employed there was much. There were also other reasons which did not allow to solve an objective completely. Of them were main: 1) state of health, old age; 2) presence of the juvenile children who are not suited in child care facilities; 3) household disorder (lack of footwear, clothes, food); 4) lack of qualification.

In the Omsk region for January 1, 1944 from unemployed 11,333 members of families of officers 5,158 did not work because of an old age and a disease, 5,180 - because of disorder in child care facilities of juvenile children [30, l. 67-68]. In the Novosibirsk region for the same time for the same reasons were not employed 7,000 people [29, l. 105 about.].

Inspection check in the summer of 1943 across Altai Krai showed that 50% of not employed women from families of the military personnel did not work because of disorder of children. In the spring of 1943 krayispolky made the decision on opening of 135 kindergartens on 10,600 children, but it was not succeeded to execute planned. In the Novosibirsk and Omsk regions the situation with child care facilities was better, but also there were not enough places in detuchrezhdeniye [10, page 234, 236].

The material and household disorder, lack of clothes, footwear, bread what numerous documents confirm were the serious reasons preventing employment. So,

1 data did not include areas: Maryanovsky, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Uvarovsky, Yarkovsky, Ust-Ishimsky and Tevrizsky; children aged up to 17 years are not among members of families.

spring of 1945 in the Novosibirsk region nevozmozh- the worker's kation in his profession that sposobstvono was to attract the population including families a shaft to its increase in a position and, sootvetstvenvoyennosluzhashchy, to field works because of nedo- but, to salary increase.

a statka of bread that was connected with a crop failure of 1944 Well such work was organized experts a number of districts of the area it developed heavy on- benno in the cities. So, in Tomsk in 1943 on an inilozheniye. To solve this problem, the secretary on gosobespechenovosibirsky regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) M. Kulagin obra- a niya 765 members of families were trained in a tsiativa of the Kuibyshev department at the plants

it titsya for the help in Council of People's Commissars of USSR to the military personnel, from them 75 received prodvizhev. To M. Molotov. The request was granted. ny on service. Chernorabochaya Grosheva, for example,

Food funds were allocated [32, gained qualification of the turner-carver, and vposl. 135, 195]. ledstviya held a position of the foreman [1, l. 16].

Complicated a solution of the problem of employment On 12 areas of the Novosibirsk region were put on lack of the corresponding profession or urov- Chena also worked as tractor drivers, combine operators and

nya qualifications. In this regard representatives shturvalny members of 507 families of the military personnel on employment put before bodies vlas- [1, l. 17].

ti questions of opening of courses on perepodgotov- Despite all difficulties, the main part to a chleka, retraining of workers. And such courses, it is new families of the military personnel was it is employed.

schools were created and worked in all areas Absolute majority them honestly carried out

Western Siberia. On them not only gave neobkho- the debt, making the personal contribution to the general a doldimy minimum of knowledge, but also raised kvalifi- a gozhdanny victory over the enemy.

List of references and sources

1. State Archive of the Novosibirsk Region (SANR). F. P-4. Op. 8. 598.
2. Center of documentation of the contemporary history of the Omsk region (CDNI OO). F. P-17. Op. 1. 3742.
3. Central Storage of Archival Funds of Altai Krai (CSAFAK). F. P-1. Op. 18. 616.
4. Truth. 1941. On Aug. 30
5. News. 1941. June 27.
6. News. 1941. On Dec. 27
7. News. 1942. On Feb. 14
8. Collection of the current legislation of the USSR. Section III. Legislation on work, social insurance and social security. T. 11. Prince 6. M, 1975.
9. E.N. Semyonova. An order of appointment and payments of welfare payments and pensions to families of the military personnel in days of the Great Patriotic War (on materials of Western Siberia)//the IV Readings devoted to R.L. Yavorsky's memory (1925-1995): mat-ly mezhdunar. nauch. konf. Novokuznetsk: RIO KUZGPA, 2008. Page 282-290.
10. For the sake of the Victory: evacuation of the civilian population to Western Siberia in days of the Great Patriotic War in documents and materials: in 3 t. T. 2. "On the Siberian earth" / sost. and otv. edition of L.I. Snegiryov. Tomsk: TGPU publishing house, 2005. 377 pages
11. M.R. Akulov. Industrial development of Siberia in days of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). Stavropol, 1967. 339 pages
12. P. Mikhaylov. Let's surround with care of family of Red Army men//Bolshevist steel. 1942. On Jan. 16 No. 7 (3097).
13. P.A. Grigoriev. The plant of Baranov in days of the Great Patriotic War//In terrible years: tr. nauch. konf. "Siberians - to the front". Omsk, on May 12-14, 1971 / otv. edition of E.D. Sukhinin. Omsk, 1973. 398 pages
14. TsHAFAK. F. P-1392. Op. 7. 200.
15. TsHAFAK. F. P-19. Op. 4. 203.
16. TsHAFAK. F. P-10. Op. 26. 216.
17. In the same place. 220.
18. GANO. F. P-4. Op. 6. 3.
19. In the same place. 647.
20. Yu.A. Vasilyev. The Communist Party - the organizer of the patriotic movement of workers of Siberia on rendering financial support to front 1941-1945. Tyumen, 1963. 132 pages
21. CDNI OO. F. P-17. Op. 1. 2629.
22. GANO. F. P-4. Op. 7. 642.
23. GANO. F. R-1030. Op. 1. 209.
24. CDNI OO. F. P-17. Op. 1. 3434.
25. M.R. Akulov, V.T. Aniskov, Yu.A. Vasilyev, I.I. Kuznetsov. A feat of the earth powerful (Siberia in days of the Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945). M.: Thought, 1970. 364 pages
26. L.I. Snegiryova. Activity of authorities and the public of Western Siberia on assistance evacuated and to families of the military personnel in days of the Great Patriotic War//Current problems of history of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) and the present: mat-ly of Vseros. nauch. - prakt. konf., posvyashch. to the 61st anniversary of the victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War. Tomsk, on May 11-12, 2006 Tomsk: TGPU publishing house, 2007. 250 pages
27. GANO. F. P-4. Op. 7. 10.
28. In the same place. 641.
29. GANO. F. P-4. Op. 8. 597.
30. CDNI OO. F. P-17. Op. 1. 4040.
31. TsHAFAK. F. P-1. Op. 18. 245.
32. GANO. F. P-4. Op. 9. 12.

E.N. Semyonova, graduate student.

Tomsk state pedagogical university.

Kiyevskaya St., 60, Tomsk, Tomsk region, Russia, 634061. e-mail: pihterek@yandex.ru

Material came to edition 31.05.2010.

E. N. Semyonova

EMPLOYMENT OF THE SERVICEMEN’S FAMILY MEMBERS IN WEST SIBERIA DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR (1941-1945)

An important aspect of the social policy of the war years is considered: employment of the servicemen's family members. The forms and methods of this work and its results are showed.

Tomsk State Pedagogical University.

Ul. Kiyevskaya, 60, Tomsk, Tomsk region, Russia, 634061.

E-mail: pihterek@yandex.ru

Sharp Valentine
Other scientific works: