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Department of institutions of the empress Maria in St. Petersburg and the St. Petersburg province



A.A. Hitrov

DEPARTMENT of INSTITUTIONS of the EMPRESS MARIA IN ST. PETERSBURG AND the ST. PETERSBURG PROVINCE

The publication is devoted to the Russian charity under the auspices of House of Romanovs. Activity of Department of institutions of the empress Maria in St. Petersburg and the St. Petersburg province is considered.

The article tells about Russian charity under the patronage of the Romanov&s Family. The author describes activity of the Department of empress Maria in Sankt-Petersburg and Petersburg province.

The system of social assistance in imperial Russia was formed in the absence of uniform public social policy. Social assistance was carried out by charity organizations. The state did not confer on itself direct responsibility for the solution of tasks of social policy, but also did not keep from them, using and encouraging organized charity.

The system of the institutions of contempt acting on the charitable basis began to be created in Russia from the second half of the 18th century Catherine II soon after accession to the throne proclaimed: "Prizreniye poor and care about multiplication of inhabitants useful to society an essence two Supreme positions of each god-loving governor" [1, t. 16, No. 11908]. Catherine, on - to a being, revived the ancient Russian tradition of protection of charity and participation of governors of the state in it forgotten in the first half of the XVIII century. The mentioned Catherine's words belong to the project of the Educational house approved by the empress — institutions for the contempt of foundlings and orphans presented to the monarchess by the educator, the teacher and the statesman Ivan Ivanovich Betsky. The educational house was open in Moscow in 1763 Besides, at Catherine also other institutions of contempt were created: Educational society noble maidens (Smolny Institute), St. Petersburg educational house, Commercial school. Catherine aspired to that these institutions operated without burdening of treasury — "on a uniform samoizvolny handout from public" [1, t. 16, No. 11901]. According to the empress, not social assistance per se, but education of "new breed of the people" capable to transform the Russian society on the basis of Education was a task of institutions for children and young people of contempt.

After Catherine II's death Paul I who came to the throne the decree of November 12, 1796 gave Educational society of noble maidens for management of the spouse Maria Fiodorovna (Sofia-Dorathea Vyurtembergskaya). Maria Fiodorovna's status as patronesses of Smolny Institute was finally issued by the decree

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The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2006. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 45 — 51.

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Paul of May 2, 1797. This date is also considered to be the beginning of history of the largest charitable department of imperial Russia — Departments of institutions of the empress Maria. Social assistance became the main task of institutions of contempt. For quarter of the century under the leadership of Maria Fiodorovna the complex of various charitable institutions of contempt which were under her direct management was created. By the time of death of the empress in their 1828 was 34, apart from structural units and financial and economic institutions [2, page 56].

That these institutions continued "to affect as advantage of the state and mankind hitherto", the emperor Nicholas I the decree of October 26, 1828 accepted them under the "direct and special protection" [3, t. 3, No. 2379]. Two days later the long-term assistant Maria Fiodorovna G. I. Villamov was appointed the secretary of state for reports to the emperor for institutions of the late empress. Institutions were transformed to the IV Office of Own office of its imperial majesty. In memory of the patroness they also received the name "Institutions of the Empress Maria". Since October, 1854 in official documentation the name "Department of Institutions of the Empress Maria" appears. Soon the status of the patroness of Department was received also by the spouse of the monarch empress Alexandra Fiodorovna.

In the second half of the 19th century the highest protection of charity and direct participation of members of an imperial surname in it not only kept former value, but also got new. Alexander II's reforms led to changes in public life of the country, promoted growth of a public initiative in many spheres, including in charity. Increase in attention of society to social problems, emergence of a large number of public charitable institutions was led to emergence of an alternative of organized charity under the auspices of an imperial surname. It did not mean the competition in care of the disadvantaged, but objectively forced the imperial power to think of development of charitable structures subordinated to it. During the specified period the Department of the empress Maria actively conducts search of ways of broad involvement of philanthropists, the rights of the public in management of local institutions extend, their quantity grows.

An example on which it is possible to consider the history of Department of the empress Maria (further — WEAM) is activity of its institutions in St. Petersburg and the St. Petersburg province. The capital of the empire, industrial and cultural education center, St. Petersburg with vicinities was also the center of the acute social issues. Therefore and in the city, and in its near and far vicinities practically all types of the institutions of contempt which were a part WEAM were located.

WEAM in St. Petersburg and the St. Petersburg province institutions for children and young people were the most numerous type of institutions of contempt. One of the oldest institutions of this type was the St. Petersburg educational house aiming at contempt podki-

dyshy and orphans, since infantile age and to majority. For the 19th century. The educational house was exposed to transformations which purpose was an improvement of contempt of children, first of all reduction of child mortality and also restriction of a prinos of babies. The last is explained by the fact that educational houses could not accomodate all babies brought not only in the capitals, but also from nearby provinces. Contempt in houses was constantly improved. At the beginning of the XX century the St. Petersburg Educational house represented a large teaching and educational complex which entered actually Educational house in St. Petersburg where babies, 36 rural districts on which pets were distributed, Mariinsky the teacher- 47 at first contained

Skye seminary of prince Pyotr Oldenburgsky and School of nurses. In districts there were rural schools and shelters for the children living in the distance from schools. As of January 1, 1904 in the St. Petersburg educational house 32,974 pets prizrevatsya. The house had 112 rural schools and 8 rural shelters [4, page 312, 314].

In St. Petersburg such type of institutions for children and young people of contempt WEAM as children's shelters became widespread. They began to be created in the 30th of the 19th century. These institutions intended for day stay of children aged from 5 — 8 up to 14 — 16 years which had poor parents. At the beginning of 1840 for management of children's shelters in the Northern Capital the St. Petersburg council of children's shelters was created. In the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century in children's shelters a number of transformations was carried out: educational process is improved, training programs are unified, vocational education began to take root. At some St. Petersburg shelters orphan offices in which pets were constantly were created. As of 1904 under the authority of the St. Petersburg council of children's shelters 19 shelters for the coming children, 11 orphan offices consisted at shelters and amateur and economic school of A.G. Yeliseyev [5, page 21]. These institutions at the same time prizrevat about 4.5 thousand children, from them up to 500 in orphan offices.

The St. Petersburg educational house and children's shelters of the St. Petersburg council prizrevat pets of both sexes. Besides, in the Northern Capital a large number of women's institutions for children and young people of contempt of various types was located. A specific place among them was held by women's institutes. As well as the first institution such, Educational society of noble maidens, women's institutes intended for contempt of representatives of the nobility and officials. In the second half of the 19th century institute training programs were improved, there was a refusal of the most archaic and reactionary methods of education, an institutok began to release on summer vacation. In some institutes for a payment allowed representatives of spiritual and merchant estates. At the beginning of the 20th century the women's institutes carried out the former purposes and tasks, but the leading role in their activity was got by education. From 34 women's institutes 12 existing in Russia were located in St. Petersburg. In 1904 at them 3226 maidens prizrevatsya at a time [4, page 78 — 79]. Besides

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Smolny in the Northern Capital the most prestigious and exclusive women's institutes were located: School of the Award of St. Catherine (Ekaterina's institute) and Patriotic institute.

Growth of public interest in female education in the second half of the 19th century promoted emergence in structure WEAM of new type women's educational institutions — gymnasiums which unlike institutes were open vsesoslovny educational institutions. In 1858 in St. Petersburg as a part of Department the first female gymnasium was created. Soon also the Ministry of national education began to create female gymnasiums. At the beginning of the XX century the Department of the empress Maria had in St. Petersburg and its vicinities 11 female gymnasiums [4, page 142 — 143]. In them about 4.5 thousand maidens at a time studied. Female gymnasiums were not institutions of contempt. Their stay to WEAM was caused by tradition according to which female education under control of the state developed within charitable department. This tradition kept stability and at the beginning of the XX century. In 1903 in St. Petersburg as a part of Department the Women's Pedagogical Institute — the Russia's first highest women's educational institution which had the state status was created. As well as gymnasiums, the Pedagogical Institute was open educational institution. Admitted in it not by vote, as to usual women's institutes, and on a competition of certificates. The women's Pedagogical Institute enjoyed wide popularity. In 1906. Department of institutions of the empress Maria noted that "the number of persons interested to use it grows every year". As of January 1, 1905 on three offices of institute: verbal and historical, physical and mathematical, natural sciences and geography 331 students studied [4, page 9].

Institutions of charity type also were a part of women's institutions for children and young people of contempt of Department of the empress Maria. Schools No. 1 and No. 2 of soldier's daughters of regiments of leyb-guard and school of Patriotic society — the women's charity organization created after Patriotic war of 1812 treated their number. Pupils of these institutions got primary education and studied women's needlework.

Besides women's WEAM had in St. Petersburg men's for children and young people institutions of contempt. It were the Gatchina orphan institute of the emperor Nicholas I and Sankt-Peterburgskoye commercial school. For January 1, 1904 at the Gatchina institute 114 pupils prizrevatsya [4, page 193]. The commercial school transferred in 1800 from Moscow to St. Petersburg intended for contempt of orphans from merchants. Over time in it representatives of other estates began to be allowed for a payment. The school gave to pupils secondary education with commercial specialization and was considered as one of the best commercial educational institutions in Russia. For January 1, 1905 in it 543 pupils studied [4, page 183].

Besides teaching and educational institutions in St. Petersburg institutions for contempt of the poor were located: almshouses and hospitals. By the end of the 70th of the 19th century 7 almshouses and almshouses which were a part of Department worked in the city. These institutions received

a table and a roof over the head at a time up to 3 thousand people. Creation in 1803 of Mariinsky hospital in St. Petersburg laid the foundation for medical institutions in the Northern Capital. As of 1877 in St. Petersburg the Department had 12 hospitals and 2 clinics [2, page 1 — 9]. For the specified year about 42 thousand people used only the stationary help in these institutions.

In the second half of the 19th century the contempt of children and youth becomes the main direction of activity of Department of the empress Maria. In this regard in 1884 6 hospitals were transferred to the St. Petersburg municipal public government, the others continued to act as a part of Department. In the second decade of the 19th century the women's hospital founded at the expense of A.G. Yeliseyev was added to them. Except hospitals and almshouses the help to the poor in St. Petersburg and its vicinities was rendered by the charities submitting to central office of Department: Society of supply poor in warm clothes, Kolpino and Kronstadt charities, Community of nurses of the princess of Baryatinskaya. From these societies several hundreds of people at the same time used various help.

In the second half of the 19th century the specialized contempt of blind people began to carry out WEAM. In 1883 the Mariinsky guardianship founded two years earlier at the initiative of Alexander II's spouse of the empress Maria Aleksandrovna and called in her honor about blind people was accepted as its member. In 1885 in St. Petersburg the Aleksan-dro-Mariinskoye school of blind people — the Russia's first specialized institution of contempt for children and young people for blind people was created. Pets of school got primary education and studied crafts, available blind people. In 1893 in St. Petersburg the Guardianship about blind people organized one more type of specialized institution for labor training of blind people — the Workshops for adult blind people of Konstantin Karlovic Grot called so in honor of their creator. Except two mentioned institutions, Guardianship had in St. Petersburg several almshouses for contempt of blind people.

At the end of the 19th century. Department of institutions of the empress Maria started specialized contempt of deaf-mutes. In 1898 on an initiative and under the patronage of the widowing empress Maria Fiodorovna (Dagmara Datskaja) the Guardianship about deaf-mutes was created. At the same time Alexander III's widow headed also Department of the empress Maria. In 1900 the emperor approved the Provision on Guardianship. From now on the School of deaf-mutes in St. Petersburg existing since 1806 became base for experiments on improvement of training of deaf-mutes and preparation of pedagogical shots. At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century in St. Petersburg and the St. Petersburg province several teaching and educational and medical institutions for contempt of deaf-mutes were founded. So, the Murzinsky colony representing a complex which united comprehensive Mariinsky school for deaf-mutes, school farm, industrial practice workshops and hospital worked in the town of Murzinka on the Shlisselburg path.

All societies and the institutions VIM acted on the charitable basis. Their funds were formed mainly from

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the donations arriving including from members of an imperial surname. Donations were carried out in various forms: in the form of the regular membership fees paid by members of councils, committees, popechitelstvo and societies, irregular one-time or periodic donations from individuals, collectives and public organizations and also in the form of income from operations with the real estate and holding charitable actions: lotteries, performances, evenings, etc. To institutions of contempt the payment for keeping of pupils on supernumerary vacancies arrived. Some institutions received benefits from the means which were at the disposal of central office of Department of the empress Maria. In exceptional cases institutions of Department could count on public funds. The St. Petersburg educational house and the most part of the St. Petersburg women's institutes received the large sums from members of an imperial surname and other persons. These sums formed the basis of the "inviolable" or "main" capitals from which for percent there were specified institutions. Other societies and VIM institutions had to care for attraction of donations constantly. The exclusive status of Department created essential incentives for charity. Institutions of the empress Maria had the right to award on behalf of the state of an award, a medal, ranks and departmental uniforms for donations.

To compare efficiency of charitable institutions VIM in St. Petersburg and its vicinities to other similar institutions, it is possible to compare expenses on social assistance. Expenses of the municipal public government of St. Petersburg on rendering actually social assistance of the estimate for 1897 made in total up to 375,000 rubles. Taking into account expenses of the municipal public government on medical care and education this sum reached in the specified year 2700 000 rubles [6, page 12]. Expenses of only one St. Petersburg educational house in 1899 made 1,388,914 rubles [6, page 4]. Annual expenses on the maintenance of ten medical institutions VIM in St. Petersburg (apart from being a part of Guardianship about blind people and Guardianship about deaf-mutes) at the end of the 19th century reached 760,000 rubles. The capitals of the St. Petersburg council of children's shelters for January 1, 1899 were 1764 754 rubles 63 kopeks [6, page 6]. More than 90% of this sum were annually spent for the actions which are directly connected with contempt.

Speaking about efficiency and scales of work of the St. Petersburg institutions of Department of the empress Maria, it is necessary to consider, speaking to the modern language, and quality of the contempt which was carried out by them. In many cases these institutions surpassed other charities and institutions. First of all it belongs to contempt of children and youthes. WEAM had unique teaching and educational complexes, analogs which were not neither in St. Petersburg, nor in Russia. In the Northern Capital the Educational house, Council of children's shelters, women's schools of Patriotic society, women's institutes belonged to such complexes.

Experience of attraction of organized charity to the solution of social tasks is relevant for modern Russia. Charity cannot and should not replace the public social policy, but is capable to supplement it significantly. Activity of institutions of Department of the empress Maria in St. Petersburg and its vicinities is an example. Historical traditions of a domestic blagotvoreniye which basis were mercy kindness, consciousness of a religious and civic duty, experience of interaction of the power and society in the solution of social tasks, involvement of the public to management of social institutions and uses of the charity incentives corresponding to an era — all this can be demanded at the solution of social tasks in new historical conditions.

List of sources and literature

1. Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SPb., 1830. SOBR. I.
2. I.Ya. Seleznyov. The chronicle of Department of the institutions of the empress Maria consisting under direct protection of their imperial majesties. SPb., 1878.
3. Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. SPb., 1830. SOBR. II.
4. Educational institutions of Department of institutions of the empress Maria. Short essay. SPb., 1906.
5. The report on Department of the children's shelters consisting under the direct highest of their imperial majesties protection for 1904. SPb., 1906.
6. The collection of data on charity in Russia with short essays of charitable institutions in St. Petersburg and Moscow. SPb., 1899.

About the author

A.A. Hitrov — an edging. east. sciences, dots., KGTU.

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UDC 940.5 (438)

I.A. Timirev

DANZIG INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION COURT AND QUESTION OF EAST PRUSSIAN TRANZITE1

On the basis of documents of Political archive MFA of Germany the value of the Danzig arbitration court in protection of interests of East Prussian transit is analyzed. The conclusion is drawn that despite the efficiency the court was a little popular as the real value of obstacles on means of communication between East Prussia and a Reich was small.

1 Research is executed with financial support of RGNF within the RGNF No. 05 nauchnoissledovatelsky project — 03 — 03261a.

The RGU bulletin of I. Kant. 2006. Issue 12. Humanities. Page 51 — 55.

Franceschi Maria Dorotea
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