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Category: History

Formation of institute of the state insigniya of Russia (middle the XV end of the 17th century)

aleksandr MAChULSKIY


INSIGNY of RUSSIA (the middle of XV - the end of the 17th century)

In article in a historical retrospective the formation of a complex of the state regalia of Russia accompanying the act of investiture is considered.

In the article formation of a complex of state regalia of Russia applied for investiture action is considered in a historical retrospective.

attributes of the power, act of investiture, state regalia, complex of the state insigniya; power attribute, investiture action, state regalia, complex of state regalia.



Nikolaevich —





An integral part of formation, fixing and reproduction of identity of any nation and the state as sociocultural and political community are attributes of supreme authority. They act as peculiar binding elements of political culture.

Attributes of the power of the Middle Ages existed as the marking signs dominating in the society of the social, economic and political forces reflecting institutes and the social relations of society. Clothes and weapon of the carrier of the power were sign of its political and social status. In significant situations precious sacred regalia were added to them. The title of the sovereign was also important factor of both internal, and foreign policy.

The Russian state needed new registration of the idea of the power of the Russian sovereigns, development of the state symbolics which at that time was expressed including in regalia, and in the coronation ceremony accompanying their delivery.

Formation of the state symbolics of Russia happened originally as formation of symbolics of supreme authority. Besides the emblems including a sfragistichesky and heraldic component, external signs of supreme authority — the crown and a scepter, a throne and the power interfaced to the personality and the sovereign's person as the Russian princes needed confirmation of legitimacy of the power as within the country, and outside the state at entry into international "family" of governors were used.

The attributes of the power participating in a ceremony of a postavleniye, a wedding on the kingdom or crownings of the head of any given political education turned in carriers of the state idea eventually.

The first prototypes of the state regalia — "table", "cap" and a staff remained both in princely, and in the grand-ducal use. A scepter staff as an ancient state regaliya underwent a certain evolution with "europeanization" of insigniya: from a princely staff, and then the power to the shortened staff scepter. And identical process of evolution of a scepter as state regalia happened also in some other stranakh1.

Monomakh's cap becomes a symbol of the highest government when on February 4, 1498 John III crowns on great reigning with a golden cap of the grandson Dmitry. Since 1498,

1 A.V. Chernetsov. Carved staffs of the 15th century. Work of the Kremlin masters. — M, 1987, p. 12-13.

this cap almost all Russian tsars to Pyotr of Iі got married on the kingdom.

Since 1654 on the press of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich the image of a two-headed eagle with signs of throne appeared — the fantastic bird holds in paws the power and skipetr2. For the first time in the Russian history the power was handed in 1598 to Boris by Godunovu3.

Attributes of the power became that base on the basis of which the symbolics of the Moscow Russia of HU — HU ІІ developed centuries. So, the act of investiture happening on February 4, 1498 when John III crowned on great reigning of the grandson Dmitry leaned in the main moments on the Byzantine ceremony of a wedding (unitary enterprise — HP of centuries), but not on the Byzantine traditions of election of the emperor, and on the act of coronation of his son successor. The fact that for the first hundred years the wedding ceremony on the kingdom was carried out four times promoted preservation of a ritual, and in the 17th century it was not modified, only with change of quantity of the state regalia the order of their delivery changed.

The wedding ceremony on great reigning, then on the kingdom, starting with Ioann Grozny who became the God's miropomazannik existed until the end of the 17th century, construction ceremonies on a throne of emperors began then. For two centuries the ceremony was made ten times: crowned on reigning one prince and ten tsars (Ivana and Petra at the same time) 4.

Formation of the act of investiture in Russia and formation of institute of the state regalia were caused a-ism -

1 E.V. Barsov. Old Russian monuments of a sacred wedding of tsars on the kingdom in connection with their Greek originals. With a historical essay of ranks of a royal wedding in connection with development of the idea of the tsar in Russia. - M, 1883, p. 25-26.
2 E.I. Kamentseva, Ustyug N.V. Russian sfragistika and heraldry. — M, 1963, p. 140.
3 V.V. frosts, Chernetsov of A.V. Legend about Monoswing regalia in art of Moscow 16th century / Rome, Constantinople, Moscow: a comparative-historical research of the centers of ideology and culture till 17th century — M., 1997, p. 367 — 372.
4 M.E. Bychkova. Moscow autocrats: The history of construction on a throne. Ceremonies and regalia//Council for study and protection of cultural and natural heritage at presidium of RAS. State. east. - a cult. memorial estate "Moscow Kremlin". — M, 1995, p. 10 — 11.

neniye of a political system, functions of the power, relations between the power and people, international situation. New attributes of the power according to new ideology, new political goals of Russia were required. They then played a role of national symbols, were the main ways of political identification.

Experience of registration of a complex of the state insigniya of Russia formed the basis of creation of institute of official political symbols of the Russian Empire in HUS — H1H of centuries. In the context of the historical and cultural system of formation of domestic institute of the state regalia the press, a scepter, the power, a crown, a cloak, a banner were a complex of political insigniya, symbols of sovereignty Russian the states and unities of all components of the huge power.

In modern understanding the state symbol is the sign of political and geographical community and institute at the head of which there can be one person or parliament. The value of institute of the state regalia changed depending on the level of social, economic, cultural development of society, on the one hand, and formations of its consciousness as political, national or multinational community — with another. The form, a type of the state regalia and also traditions of introduction to the power make direct impact on formation of historical consciousness and historical memory which are an important condition of fostering patriotism of citizens, respect and pride in relation to symbols of the Homeland.

The state symbolics is expression of the socio-political processes happening in the state and society, a criterion of a social, spiritual and moral state and development of society; it is closely connected with the maintenance of national ideology of Russia and during all historical eras of development of statehood acted as its external form for positioning of the country on the international scene.

Lawrence Hawkins
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