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SOCIAL and DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT IN the SECOND HALF of the 20th century. (On the example of NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN)



UDK 316.346 "19"

SOCIAL and DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT IN the SECOND HALF of the 20th century. (On the example of NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN)

A.M. Zharkenova, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of history of Kazakhstan of the Eurasian national university of L.N. Gumilev

In article dynamics of increase in population of Northern Kazakhstan in the second half of the 20th century is generalized, natural demographic increase in population and also the impact on it of various economic, political and social changes during the studied period is shown. The author's analysis of statistical data which is reflected in conclusions is submitted.

After the Great Patriotic War endured by the USSR the population of Northern Kazakhstan grew at slow rates as difficulties of the recovery period, the adverse demographic structure of the population which is characterized by a considerable disproportion of floors - considerable overweight of number of women affected. A certain period was necessary to approach the pre-war level of natural increase especially as for years of military hard times it fell in the republic to several orders. The following data, in particular, demonstrate to it. In pre-war 1939 the natural increase was 2.37% to total population, in 1940 - 2.1%; in the years of war there was a collapse: in 1941 - 1.48%; in 1942 - 0.47; in 1943 - 0.07; in 1944 - 0.11; in 1945 - 0.77% [1, page 45]. Mechanical gain in post-war years had no significant effect on growth of population of the region as up to 1959 in the former USSR the planned interrepublican migration was not carried out. On the contrary, the continuing migration processes gave to the region negative balance as in the first post-war years the inhabitants of the region participated in recovery work in the European part of the country. Besides, there was a process of re-evacuation of Northern Kazakhstan of inhabitants of temporarily occupied territories.

Nevertheless gradually rates of natural reproduction of the population increased. It was caused first of all by substantial increase of an indicator of a brachnost owing to realization of the marriages postponed because of war and also significant decline in mortality. As a result, for example, in 1950 in comparison with 1940 in the republic the increase of level of a brachnost almost twice took place (in 1940-6.1%; in 1950 - 11.7%) [2, page 67]. In the Akmola region for 1949 at total population for January 1 of this year 443,587 people natural increase was 10,903 people, or 2.3% of total number. Thus, natural increase came very close to pre-war level. Despite quite high natural increase, population of Northern Kazakhstan increased slightly owing to outflow of the population in quickly growing industrial centers of other regions. In the region the negative balance of migration was observed: in 1949 in the area arrived 15,781 people, and left out of its limits 22,143 persons. The majority left

were directed on an orgnabor to the industrial enterprises or were called in FZO schools and railway schools [3, page 63].

The change came in the 1950th which were the period of the highest population for all history of Kazakhstan of natural increase at sharply decreased mortality and high birth rate. It is possible to tell without exaggeration that in the republic in general, and in Northern Kazakhstan in particular there was the most real population explosion which allowed the Kazakh population to restore the number after genocide in the 1920-1930th and heavy human losses in days of the Great Patriotic War. What caused cardinal changes in process of reproduction of the population of the region? It is known that in the movement of the population the set ecological, biological, mental, but first of all social and economic factors intertwines. In this regard it is possible to claim that in the 1950th between demographic and socio-economic indexes the most favorable ratio both for reproduction of the population, and for social and economic development is established. It is lawful to speak about the optimum mode of reproduction. During this period the rates of natural increase of the population of Northern Kazakhstan considerably (in separate years almost twice) exceeded srednesoyuzny. These tab. 1 [4] demonstrate to it.

Table 1

Natural increase of the population on 1,000 inhabitants in 1954 - 1960, the people

Years Northern Kazakhstan USSR in general

1954 26.2 17.7
1955 30.8 17.5
1956 31.1 17.6
1957 32.9 17.6
1958 32 18.1
1959 31.9 17.4
1960 33.4 17.8

Increase in population indicators in Northern Kazakhstan during the considered period exceeded even all-republican. So, in 1960 when the highest was noted for all Soviet period natural increase of the population in the republic, it made 30.6 people counting on 1,000 people while in Northern Kazakhstan - 33.4 people [5, page 143].

Such high level of natural increase of the population is caused by a number of factors: improvement of post-war material and household, social and hygienic position of the population which overcame post-war ruin within only 4-5 years; high level of social and demographic incentives of birth rate of the population among which practice of planning of family, etc. did not gain development yet. In a certain measure the population policy of the state which developed in 1936-1941 and held on to the middle of the 1950th g affected increase in birth rate. Though in practice laws of June 27, 1936 on prohibition of abortions, stimulation of birth rate, strengthening of marriage and family and of November 21, 1941 about a tax on bachelors and childless were caused not by abstract humanistic reasons, but demographic shocks of the first third of the 20th century, they nevertheless, in our opinion, had historical value. This value is defined by the fact that transition to active public population policy for the first time was in the history carried out. However the specified laws cast by traditions of authoritative thinking and the relevant regulations of the past owing to low demographic culture it

creators, scarcity material and funds could not influence considerably realization of a goal - increase in birth rate in the country.

Without belittling value of the listed factors, we will note that feature of social and demographic development of Northern Kazakhstan during the considered period is increase in population first of all due to migrations and the termination of the considerable outflow of local, generally rural men's youth taking place till 1959 to other regions. Powerful streams of migration to Northern Kazakhstan from the beginning of development of virgin lands and its rich natural resources not only caused sharp increase in population due to mechanical gain, but also gave a strong impulse to natural increase of the population. Apparently from tab. 1, in the years of development of a virgin soil the increase in natural increase, directly after 1953, with the steady mechanism in 1957-1958 was characteristic. The main reason - mass arrival of youth at the most reproductive age (20-35 years). Besides, among migrants men prevailed. All this could not but cause sharp increase in a brachnost in the region. If in general on the republic from 1950 to 1955 the brachnost raised on 0.8 points, then in the Pavlodar region - on 2.6 points, Akmola - 4, Kokchetav - 4.2, Kustanay - on 6 points. The Brachnost in these areas, having reached the highest indicators, owing to change of the directions of migration processes, stabilized. For example, in 1958 it made in the Akmola region 14.2%% (lower, than in 1955, on 1.1 points), in Kokchetav - 14.1 (on 1.2 points), in Pavlodar - 14.2% (0.3 points higher). [6].

In Northern Kazakhstan, as always and everywhere, the birth rate and natural increase were higher in rural settlements. Originally, when rural settlements a little in what differed from city, these distinctions were not really high, but with increase in the cities they began to tend to increase. So, if to take for the 100th size of natural increase of the population on 1,000 inhabitants in rural areas, then at urban population this indicator was equal in 1955 - 80, in 1957 - 75, in 1959-72 [7].

Differences in rates of natural increase of country people are well correlated with data on areas of plowing of virgin lands and inflow of new settlers that once again confirms strong influence of migration factors on reproduction of the population in rural areas of Northern Kazakhstan. But at the same time it is necessary to consider influence of national structure of the population. In particular, materials of the Virgin complex expedition of MSU in a row of state farms and collective farms of the region, collected in 1962-1965 demonstrate to it. It is clear follows from them that in all surveyed farms the average size of family is more at Kazakhs and Tatars, it is much less at Russians, Ukrainians and Germans. So, in state farm "Turgai" (Dzhangeldinsky district of the Kustanay region) with the mixed multinational population at prevalence of Kazakhs, the average size of the Kazakh family is 4.9 people, the Russian - 4.3. Among Russians the families having over 6 people are single, Kazakhs of such families have more than 20% [8, page 12]. In this case, certainly, mental factors, traditions of various people play the role.

In Northern Kazakhstan the migration processes since the beginning of the 1950th were the most intensive in comparison with all regions of the republic. They had a huge impact on growth of population and significantly changed an ethnodemographic picture of the region. Only at the first stage of mass development of a virgin soil (1954-1956) in Kazakhstan there arrived about 650 thousand people. [9, page 144-145]. So significant growth in country people due to migration processes was not in any other region of the USSR. Besides development of virgin lands as it was already told above, coincided with large industrial construction in Northern Kazakhstan. The ratio of natural and migration increase in population of Northern Kazakhstan is confirmed by these tab. 2 [10].

Table 2

Sources of increase in population of Northern Kazakhstan in 1954-1958, %

Gain sources City Village All

The general increase in population for the fifth anniversary 48 37.2 40.3

Including for the account:

of natural increase 32.4 55.0 47.2

migration inflow and transformation of rural settlements in city 67.6 45.0 52.8

Apparently from tab. 2, nearly 53% of the general increase in the population of the region, despite high natural increase, were the share of the account of migration inflow. At the same time the role of migration inflow in fact is more as the new settlers who arrived these years made the contribution and to natural increase of the population what it was already told about. At the same time data of migration statistics show increase not only inflow, but also outflow of the population.

As the mass and not really prepared action involved development of a virgin soil not only experts and true enthusiasts, but also a large number of the casual people who arrived to Northern Kazakhstan behind long ruble. For example, according to researchers, among 650 thousand people who arrived in the region in the first years of development of a virgin soil, the people really necessary to a virgin soil there were only 130 thousand. Nevertheless the main part of immigrants strongly was fixed on new places, got families and was a part of the main frames of the industry and agriculture of the republic.

30 areas, edges and the autonomous republics of RSFSR and 12 federal republics took part in replenishment of the population of Northern Kazakhstan. It is characteristic that the majority arrived from Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova went to rural areas, and from RSFSR - to city settlements as it were generally industrial shots.

Other feature of migration processes during the considered period was that the North Caucasus did not deliver, and absorbed the population from the region. It was connected with the fact that after restoration in 1957 of autonomy of the Chechen and Ingush people their return to the Homeland began. Intensively there was also a return of Karachays, Balkars, Kalmyks, parts of Greeks, Meskhetian Turks, Crimean Tatars, Poles, Koreans, Germans of the Volga region. Besides, from the middle of the 1950th Latvians, Estonians and Lithuanians began to come back to the republics of the Baltics. About scales of this process it is possible to judge by the following data indirectly. For May 1, 1949 in the Akmola region 110,092 evicted persons, in Kokchetav - 91,634, in North Kazakhstan - 45,314, in Kustanay - 78,778 persons were settled. At the same time it is necessary to consider that a considerable part of special immigrants remained to live on the new Homeland.

Thus, the combination of high natural increase and a powerful migration flow provided sharp increase in the population of Northern Kazakhstan. These tab. 3 demonstrate to it [11, page 82].

Table 3

The number of actual population of Northern Kazakhstan in 1939 and 1959, the people

Areas Year

1939 1959

All on areas 1,610,696 2,753,136

Kokchetav 331,751 493,319

Kustanay 371,751 710,690

Pavlodar 221,707 455,013

North Kazakhstan 362,996 456,999

Tselinograd 322,779 637,115

Apparently, during the intercensus period the population of the region grew more than by 70%. Concerning rates of increase in population Northern Kazakhstan won first place in the Soviet Union. Besides, Northern Kazakhstan was among the few regions of the country in which the absolute number of country people for 1954-1962 was not reduced, and raised. So, the country people in 1959 in comparison with 1939 grew in the Kokchetav region by 32%, in Kustanay - on 62, Pavlodar - on 72, in North Kazakhstan - on 11, Tselinograd - for 34%. During development of a virgin soil the highest rates the population of the Kustanay, Pavlodar and Tselinograd regions increased. Increased density of population of the North Kazakhstan and Kokchetav regions which are already developed by earlier resettlement population much more slowly.

BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES AND NOTES

1. M.H. Asylbekov, A.B. Galiyev. Social and demographic processes in Kazakhstan (19171980). Alma-Ata: Gyly, 1991.
2. In the same place.
3. Results of the All-Union population census. M.: Statistics, 1959.
4. TsGARK. T. 1479. Op. 3. 36. L. 1.
5. M.H. Asylbekov, A.B. Galiyev. Decree. soch.
6. TsGARK. F.698. Op. 14. 340. St. 90. L.5.
7. Counted on materials of a statupravleniye of the former Virgin lands region.
8. The national economy of Kazakhstan in 70 years: to become. sb. Alma-Ata, 1990.
9. M.H. Asylbekov, A.B. Galiyev. Decree. soch.
10. According to a statupravleniye of the former Virgin lands region about the natural movement of the population for 1959-1963
11. The geography of productive forces of Northern Kazakhstan is the Population. M.: Thought, 1971.

of SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XX CENTURY (BY THE EXAMPLE OF NORTH KAZAKHSTAN)

A.M. Zharkenova, PhD in History, Associated Professor of the Department of Kazakhstan History, Eurasian National University named after L.N Gumilev

The article summarizes the dynamics of population growth of northern Kazakhstan in the second half of the twentieth century, shows the natural demographic growth rate, as well as influence of various economic, political and social changes on it during the studied period. The author presents the analysis of statistical data, which is reflected in the conclusions.

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