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Dalkrayispolkom's activities for performance of the state tasks of development of export (1926-1930)



sergy BEZGIN

Dalkrayispolkom's activities for performance of the state tasks of development of export (1926-1930)

A certain ratio with one of the most important areas of work of administration of Khabarovsk Krai at the beginning of the 21st century - ensuring export growth of products of the forest and fish industry - has experience of activity of regional authorities in development of export of the Far East region (DVK) in the second half of the 20th of the 20th century

The beginning of the reconstruction of the national economy of the USSR connected with declaration of a course towards industrialization in the Far East coincided with significant political transformations. There was a transition from the bodies of the Soviet and party power appointed by the center to the bodies elected on the place that increased their responsibility for the state of affairs in the region.

In the structure of management of the export industries of production which developed in the early twenties in the Far East there were no changes to transition of the power from revkom to electoral councils. Implementation methods of actions of the regional power in the spirit of the new economic policy pursued by the government continued to play the leading role. The principle of stimulation on the basis of granting tax and other benefits, characteristic of the majority of resolutions of the regional power demonstrates to it.

The publication of the chairman Dalplan M.I. Tselishchev "Economic essays of the Far East" gives an idea to of a condition of economic development of edge in the mid-twenties. The author gave the most outstanding place in characteristic of the national economy of DVK to the export industries - forest, fish and coal. The area of the wood in the Far East, according to the estimates of Tselishchev, was 66% of the territory of the region without Kamchatka. The author highly appreciated quality of the wood. The DVK fish resources were rich and in 1923 took the 2nd place in a catch of the USSR. The ratio of participation in fishery in external waters of industrialists looked so. The leading role was played by Japanese (77%), and among the Russian 11% made private, 5% - cooperative and 7% - state before -

acceptance. In internal waters of edge the ratio was in favor of private Russian producers - 40%, and 25.1% and 34.9% respectively fell to the share of cooperation and the state in internal waters. According to the chief regional economist, the coal industry had broad prospects. At the subsoil of Primorye there were all types of fossil coals which for 83.58% were not explored. The great value was played by orientation of the coal industry for export which, according to Tselishchev, was forced meroy1.

To the middle of the 1920th in the Far East the main problems of economic development of edge were bared: isolation of the region from the center of Russia and dependence on the foreign capital, prevalence of the extracting industries in structure of economy, the shortage of working hands and a backward condition of fixed capitals. The solution of the imminent problems contemporaries seemed in strengthening of intervention of the state in economic processes for the purpose of speeding up of development of the main productive forces. Performance of the state tasks on export depended on selling abroad of the main products of edge, and the regional power should make every effort for development of the forest, fish and coal industries.

Export tasks of Moscow came to the region in two directions - as the organization of management of export industries in the region and direct correction of receipt of income from operation. In the first case the central bodies of the Soviet power (Central Executive Committee and Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and RSFSR and also Council of Work and Defense and the Economic Meeting of RSFSR, separate national commissariats) approved regulations on the organization, streamlining and change of management of export industries. In the second case of the resolution central party and the government regulated receipt of income, establishing norms, an order of transfer and distribution of a non-tax income. On the place the resolutions answering were accepted

1 M.I. Tselishchev. Economic essays of the Far East. - Vladivostok: Book business, 1925, p. 36-37, 49-50, 70-71, 78.

realization of the purposes planned by the center. What events were held by the regional power in the field of development of the export industries and realization of the state export tasks; how did export of DVK to the studied period develop? Forest, fishing and coal industry were under authority of the Dalsovnarkhoz (DSNH). Forest and fish DZU was engaged in the organization and the direct management in farms. These organizations subordinated to DKIK and higher departments of SNK RSFSR and USSR (Tax Code of agriculture and Economic council), held the main events concerning export productions, regularly reporting on the activity at meetings of DKIK and Dalkraykom of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). The state trusts - Dalles, Dalryba and regional (since 1928 state) trust of coal industry Dalyugol remained the main export enterprises. An important role in regulation of the export industries was played by Dalplan subordinated to DKIK and State Planning Committees of RSFSR and the USSR which activity consisted in development and drawing up various development plans for farms.

At the approval on November 16, 1926 of the operating plan of DZU drawing up plans taking into account modern operation of the wood, use of lesoochistitelny fund for the intended purpose, holding actions for artificial planting of the wood in treeless areas and to prevention of wildfires and also strengthening of forest guards was planned. For reduction of consumption of a cedar in domestic market and its holidays for export since 1928 the determination of percent of cutting of less valuable coniferous breeds was carried out (fir-trees, firs, larches).

The five-year development plan for Dalles trust was approved on February 24, 1928, in it export growth of the wood and its materials for 105%, with increase was provided in structure of a share of the Chinese and European markets. In the resolution of DKIK on the report of the Tax Code of Workers' and Peasants' inspection "About division into districts of forestry and the forest industry of DVK" of December 12, 1929 the increase was provided in the export contingent of a share of the processed products. The lowest control link in forestry was concentrated in

the forestries and logging enterprises created since 1928. For the export logging organizations "rates" (taxes on the equipment) periodically decreased, the delay in production of popenny payments (collecting from a certain quantity of the cut-down trees) was established while for producers on domestic market they only povyshalis1.

On May 25, 1926 merging of the state and cooperative fishing enterprises in one organization with granting the right it was approved to it independently to speak at foreign markets. The main directions in development of the fish industry consisted in expansion of subjects to fishing, in transition to fishing in the high sea, in mechanization and rationalization of production, in cultivation of valuable fish breeds. Vigorous measures were taken for centralization of supply of fishery managers including private, food and the equipment, for the purpose of prevention of their illicit import. And on April 1, 1930 the post of the extraordinary representative for fish affairs which was held by the vice-chairman of presidium of DKIK P.T. Mamonov was founded. Fishery of DVK in the late twenties was more profitable than forest, and rates of passing collecting from fish increased, turning fish collecting into a budget revenues basis kraya2.

The extraction of coal concentrated in the south of Primorye developed less successfully. Measures for development of coal industry had extreme character. Originally the regional authorities saw the solution of problems of production and sale of coal in increase in working capital of coal trusts on the basis of their association. Privileges in taxation of timber and the passing payment from coal which made by September 4, 1928 10 kopeks from ton, and bank loans under low interest became the next events. However in the winter of 1928/29 the Dalyugol trust began to stop nerenta-

1 GAHK, t. R-58, op. 1, 81, l. 296-297; Protocol No. 76 of February 14, 1928//Minutes of meetings of the second convocation No. 38-112; Protocol No. 79 of February 24, 1928//In the same place; GAHK, t. R-137, op. 4, 7a, l. 325.
2 GAHK, t. R-58, op. 1, 81, L. 95-96; Protocol No. 6 of April 15, 1927//Minutes of meetings of the second convocation No. 1-66; Protocol No. 9 of April 26, 1927//In the same place; Protocol No. 29 of July 12, 1927//In the same place; GAHK, t. R-137, op. 4, 10, l. 138 (about).

belny works. To change situation compulsory methods appeared it is impossible. On October 1, 1929 DKIK suggested Dalyugol to start rationalization actions and to provide the list of the necessary equipment. In the resolution of the IV Plenum of DKIK of February 10, 1930 "positive shifts" towards increase in coal mining were noted, and it was planned to try to obtain increase in funds from the center for exploration works. The secretariat of DKIK made on June 25, 1930 the decision to found coal inspectorate on Dalyugol mines "for high-quality acceptance of coal". Financing of inspectorate was put into dependence on level of production of Dalyugol1 trust.

Regional export in the second half of the 1920th developed quite intensively. In 1925/26 economic year it made 18.5 million rubles, and a share of the wood, fish and coal in it - 14.9 million rubles (80.5%). In 1926/27 the volume of export was 23 million rubles, and the share of forest, fish and coal products made 20.5 million rubles (more than 89%). The nomenclature and its volume looked as follows: the wood - 12.6 million rubles (about 61.5%), fish, including canned food, - 6.4 million rubles (more than 31%), coal - 1.5 million rubles (more than 7%). In structure of export the wood share making over a half of all volume prevailed. Due to the increased export and need of further increase in the currency plan of a task of the center for the directive letter of the Central Committee by the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of October 31, 1927 were increased.

On the place the regional power had the right to raise tasks of the center. However in 1927/28 the failure to follow the export plan when increase in export in comparison with last year was 51% that was 9% higher than the NKT USSR task was noted, but tasks of the regional power are 6% lower. The share of sawn forest products in export of that year increased by 415%, and fish

1 GAHK, t. R-58, op. 1, 81, l. 116, 247; Protocol No. 64 of January 21, 1927//Minutes of meetings of the first convocation No. 1-77; Protocol No. 39 of September 9, 1927//Minutes of meetings of the second convocation No. 38-112; Protocol No. 45 of October 18, 1927//In the same place; Protocol No. 52 of November 18, 1927//In the same place; GAHK, t. R-137, op. 4, 4a, l. 428 (about), 500 (about), 509 (about); 3, l. 306 (about); 7, l. 44, 107 (about), 226-228; 7a, l. 248-250, 359-360; Preliminary drafts of offers of Presidium of DKIK to the IV Plenum of DKIK of the 3rd convocation. - Khabarovsk, 1930, building 1521; GAHK, t. R-137, op. 4, 10, l. 240; t. P-2, op. 1, 200, l. 37.

canned food for 253%. In December, 1928 the task for 1928/29 was planned of 48.3 million rubles, and in May, 1929 was changed up to 59.14 million rubles 1

The weakness of working capital, low level of hardware, dependence on the foreign capital, small study of natural reserves and a lack of labor continued to remain current problems of economic development of DVK in the 1920th. By the end of decade external problems were added to problems of internal development: adverse conditions of the international market in connection with world crisis and armed conflict in Manzhouli. The coal industry of the first among the export industries felt difficulties. Problems of natural character - annual floods, since 1927 were added to the designated problems of this industry. In the summer of 1928 the difficult situation of the coal industry, and since 1929 - failure to follow the plan of production for 19% and decline of labor productivity by 15% was for the first time noted. The critical situation developed on logging in the winter of 1929/30. By March 10, 1930 the deforestation made 64%, and export to the place of realization - 49% of the plan which should have been executed by the beginning of a spring impassability of roads. By 1929 the Japanese citizens (71.5%) generally were engaged in fishing, the share of private Russian fishing made 11.6%. The considerable capitals from export of products of the fish industry of the Far East flowed away abroad. However at the X Regional party conference (May, 1930) it was planned to implement the five-year plan in the field of the export industries in three goda2.

The aspiration to maximize profit on operation of the export industries was reflected in the vigorous solution of problems of forest, fish and coal productions by direct participation in them of the most high-ranking heads who were personally responsible for performance of export tasks before the public and party authorities.

1 GAHK, t. P-2, op. 1, 15, l. 104; 43, l. 153; 86, l. 239, 349; 132, l. 434.
2

In the same place, 85, l. 421; 140, l. 174; 205, l. 13, 285; Essays of history of the Far East organizations CPSU (1900-1937). - Khabarovsk: Book publishing house, 1982, p. 268.

In the conditions of reconstruction of the national economy of the USSR when operation of the export industries became one of the main sources of financing of industrialization, along with unresolved problems of regional economy impossible it was sharp to increase DVK performance. The solution of problems of local economy was entirely assigned to the regional power which representatives could not but see an exit from the situation only in increase in financial injections of the center to the region as possibilities of the foreign help and internal resources of self-development were in many respects exhausted.

Actions of the regional power in stimulation of development of the export industries were quite contradictory. The attempt to combine tasks of Moscow with satisfaction of needs of edge was unsuccessful. Problems in implementation of export plans threatened financing carried out in the late twenties - the beginning of the 1930th of industrialization of the USSR. However during the studied period the solution of the most burning issues of economic development of the Soviet Far East in many respects was planned. Questions of implementation of export plans at meetings of DKIK took the priority place in work. Only in 1926-1928 the issues of development of the export industries at meetings of DKIK made nearly a half of all discussed issues. But by the beginning of the 1930th the low assignments from income on export for internal regional needs and possibilities of use of financing of the center for development of productive forces of edge tended to a bigger decrease that in many respects reduced activity of the regional power only to performance of installations of Moscow.

Sergey Vladimirovich BEZGIN is the graduate student of department of political history of the Far Eastern State Humanitarian University

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