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Party and state structures and the social and political organizations in the solution of national problems in the 1920th - the beginning of the 1930th years

UDK 331.105. 44 (470.62)


© 2010 S.A. Chuprynnikov

Kuban state technological university, Kuban State Technological University,

Moskovskaya St., 2, Krasnodar, 350072, Moskovskaya St., 2, Krasnodar, 350072,

Political activity of the Soviet party and state structures, labor unions on ethnic minorities in the first decade of the Soviet power on the example of Kuban is considered. It was carried out from positions of internationalism and was directed to realization of a most favored nation treatment to ethnic minorities. Studying historical experience of the solution of national problems in the Soviet state is of interest to the analysis and formation of national policy of modern Russia which is his successor.

This article examines the politics and activity of soviet party-and-state structures, trade unions in relation to ethnic minority in the first decade of soviet power with Kuban as an example. It has been accomplished from a position of internationalism and was directed to the realization of the most-favored regime towards the ethnic minority. The examination of historical experience of solving problems in soviet country is of interest for the analysis and formation of national politics ofpresent-day Russia which is now its legal successor.

Problems of national policy in the modern Russian state are not just important and relevant from scientific positions. Not only existence of Russia as uniform sovereign state in the current process of globalization, but also the thought-over formation new, and, above all, a living arrangement form, peculiar for it, depends on ways of their statement and methodology of the decision. Experience of the solution of national problems in Soviet is in this regard reasonably useful from the historical point of view

the state which successor is the Russian Federation and which national policy in modern scientific, educational literature for some reason is defined as policy which "completely discredited itself" [1, page 8]. The specific region in the national relations was the North Caucasian edge and in particular Kuban.

From the first days of establishment of the Soviet power in Kuban the party bodies and the social and political organizations begin to carry out tselenaprav-

lenny work with ethnic minorities. The last in bigger (if not in suppressing) the part supported or at least were kind to the Soviet power [2] (what could not be told about the local Cossack environment). The Armenian and Greek diasporas were most active and consecutive in this regard. The Soviet power reciprocated when carrying out national policy from positions of "internationalism", especially in the first years of the New Economic Policy. During an early Soviet era this approach and in the political plan, and at the scientific-theoretical level unconditionally was recognized only as right.

Genesis of the party and state structure which was carrying out work on the solution of national problems is represented interesting.

At once after establishment of the Soviet power at regional party committee of Kubano-Chernomorsky area the international department is created. At the end of April, 1920 the activity of one of its sections - Muslim - is transferred to the jurisdiction of the secretariat of an oblastkom of RCP(b) [3, l. 13 about]. In June, 1920 the department is renamed into department of work among the people of the East (the name "department of work among east people" also occurs in archival documents), and already in full strength functions at KubCheroblastkom's secretariat of RCP(b) [3, l.61]. Let's emphasize, at "secretariat", but not at bureau. This fact says that paramount significance was attached to national problems. It is confirmed also by the fact that on 1 - y a regional party conference (October, 1920) in the agenda the single question introduced the report of the chairman of department of the people of the East of t. Napoleon. At department two sections were approved: Armenian and Muslim. Let's pay attention: one section is created on national sign, another - on religious. Level of scientific and theoretical readiness of the party management of that time is available. However, we will carry it on growth costs. Especially as in the fall it was corrected. In November, 1920 it was renamed by the decision of RCP(b) KubCheroblastkoma bureau into department of work among ethnic minorities (on November 2, 1920) [3, l. 158; 4] it is also poured as section in agitpropotdet an oblastkom with three sections - Armenian, mountain and Hungarian [5, 6]. Similarly everything was made on places.

Further work increases: in January, 1921 at the agitpropotdel the Estonian section, and in February, 1921 - mountain, in May, 1921 - German is created at an oblastkoma [6].

In May, 1921 the 1st regional party conference of workers of ethnic minorities was held and after it the organization of regional department of affairs of nationalities at regional executive committee [7] began, i.e. at public authority. In February, 1922 the bureau of regional party committee suggested regional executive committee to form department of ethnic minorities with three sections: Armenian, Greek and nationalities of the West. The head of department was reco-

mendovan the prominent trade-union worker of Kuban of that time Ya. Georgiadi [8, l.28 about]. In the same time the creation of separate Polish section "in view of the small number of Poles in KubCheroblasti" was recognized "impossible" and "undesirable", and "to point out Polbyuro of the Central Committee unproductiveness of expenditure of funds for a parcel of instructors on places where there is almost no Polish population" [8, l. 36].

On a similar vector such work, i.e. reorganization, improvement (both qualitative, and quantitative) department of work with ethnic minorities was carried out and subsequently, throughout all 1920 - the first half of the 1930th. In August, 1925 section the ethnic man at the Kuban district committee of RCP(b) according to the order of SevKavkray-koma of RCP(b) was liquidated and instead of it komsektion are created: Ukrainian, Greek, Armenian, German [9]. However in March, 1926 national board of agitprop Kubokruzhkoma of RCP(b) made the decision on the organization of section the ethnic man at agitprop again [10, l.1]. Subsequently in October, 1930 after elimination of districts at city committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) the section the ethnic man [11] in number of 9, and then 11 people was organized, the non-staff instructor of a city town committee of party [12] is approved, and in the Krasnoye Znamya newspaper the decision of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Group took away "the special corner devoted to issues of work among ethnic minorities" [13, l.33].

The essence of national policy of the Soviet power of the first postrevolutionary years consisted in elimination of the actual national inequality. This policy was caused by specific circumstances of the place and time. It brought success while corresponded to the objective reasons until circumstances changed.

However at "correctness" for formation of the Soviet society in general and for Bolshevik Party in particular (the party received a powerful social resource for deduction of the power in a "national" format) the national policy from positions of internationalism led from some ethnic minorities to requirements, say, of the "overestimated" character.

The information report of the chairman of the Armenian section of section the ethnic man of t is indicative in this regard. Melikova at the North Caucasian regional meeting of the Armenian sections in March, 1925. In it, in particular, such offers requirements were heard: 1) to organize at section the ethnic man of agitprop of the North Caucasian regional committee of RCP(b) regional Armenian bureau; 2) similarly at the Central Committee of RCP(b); 3) to enter staff employees at other organizations, including at labor unions; 4) to raise a question of unloading from the general partrabota of the Armenian communists for more expedient and full use at work among the Armenian masses; 5) to ask regional committee of RCP(b) to redistribute the budget of sovorgan on places so that it covered needs the ethnic man, including Armenians it is proportional to their quantity; 6) to enter into the office of executive committees of instructors

ethnic man; 7) at re-elections of the Village Councils to enter representatives the ethnic man; 8) at political schools to organize the Armenian offices; 9) to organize at the Rostov sovpartshkola workers' faculty and the Kuban agricultural technical school the Armenian regional offices; 10) to organize the Armenian teacher's college in the region (it is allocated a bus - S.Ch.); 11) to supply with the Armenian literature of library, reading room, to establish the firm library catalog; 12) to increase networks of schools I and II of a step and to open schools of country youth and political pro-svetuchrezhdeniya for Armenians; 13) to enter Armenian as an obligatory subject into those schools where Armenians make 10 percent of total number of pupils; 14) the meeting categorically speaks against teaching objects at the Armenian schools in the mixed languages (on Russian and Armenian); 15) to petition for investment with the earth in suitable areas (it is allocated a bus - S.Ch.) the refugees wishing to settle on the earth; 16) to insist categorically before KK RCP(b) about allocation of special fund for the edition of still regional daily magazine on Armenian with gradual transition to the daily newspaper. To start issue of the magazine immediately. To develop a question of the edition of children's literature; 17) to achieve professional distribution of all unions of the sums coming to cash desks to cultural needs of members of the unions in the corresponding number of the Armenians united by this union [14, l.11]. _

And these requirements offers moved forward in spite of the fact that in Kubokruge of the Armenian population there were only about 19,700 people (from them in Krasnodar - 12,848 people from which 1800 people - working, and other dealers, small handicraftsmen, handicraftsmen) [14, l. 2].

Ambiguous and besides, in our opinion, far-fetched was carried out in 1920 - the beginning of the 1930th process of so-called "Ukrainization" which was supported and considered as a certain part of Party members and government employees as "naturally" peculiar for our region (moreover at t-verzhdalos that it is the question "it is necessary to force") and under which the Lenin theory of national policy was brought. Though, at the same time it was noted that "the begun work (on an Ukrainization. - Page of Ch.) often throw, without having finished, consider it business minor or even insignificant". Offers (their substantial component) on its realization remind proposals requirements of the Armenian diaspora. They were stated in the memo addressed to the secretary Krasnodar to All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Belyachkova Group in November, 1931

In particular, it was offered that "the leading party, Soviet and public organizations and institutions discussed this business, that:

1) the districts of the former Kuban district occupied mainly by Ukrainians culturally gravitate to Krasnodar economically and; 2) Ukrainian and the Ukrainian culture are mighty means of a raising of cultural level trudyashchikh-

sya country masses; 3) in Krasnodar there are already now considerable shots of the Ukrainian proletariat whose growth goes mainly at the expense of natives of the Ukrainian villages; 4) The Krasnodar higher education institutions gather the contingent of the students mainly from areas of the former Kubano-Chernomorsky area where most of the population Ukrainians and the list of students in them (higher education institutions) in large part Ukrainian (a doubtful statement. - Page of Ch.); train workers mainly for the North Caucasus where there are 3,106,000 Ukrainians (figure "from itself". - Page of Ch.); separate higher education institutions ukrainizirutsya already, and for others this essential business (about the relation of students to it is a bit later); 5) Krasnodar is one of the centers of education and formation of party shots in the Ukrainian national forms (sovpartshkol) already now. In it the Ukrainian North Caucasian research institute is open; 6) in the city there is a library with all Ukrainian Soviet book products for the last 2.5 years" [15, l. 187].

It was claimed that the above-mentioned allowed to put and to positively resolve an issue of Krasnodar as of the main thing at this stage of an Ukrainization the center of development of the Ukrainian Soviet culture in the North Caucasus. And further a number of practical measures for implementation of this statement was offered:

a) the party organization of Krasnodar in general to master Ukrainian, to study socio-political and historical living conditions of an Ukrainization of the areas of the North Caucasus adjacent to Krasnodar;

b) to perform party management of development of the Ukrainian culture in Krasnodar;

c) to involve in active work and to put forward the Ukrainian party shots first of all from workers;

d) systematically to explain to the proletariat of Krasnodar need to learn Ukrainian and culture and to take direct organic part in its development. Not to ask at all so that to force the Russian workers to refuse Russian and culture and to consider Ukrainian and the Ukrainian culture;

e) To "A red Banner" to print a number of articles of authoritative party, Soviet, trade-union workers on subjects of Lenin national policy and practical questions of an Ukrainization. To gradually ukrainizirovat the newspaper, having begun with the Ukrainian corner, then the page (the last was realized also at the level of regional newspapers subsequently);

e) to allocate the Ukrainian section of Natsmen club to "The house of the Ukrainian culture" and to provide financially;

g) to define degree and rates of their Ukrainization concerning each higher education institution, technical school and workers' faculty;

h) to determine the same rates for schools;

i) PSE (pleasure and spectacular enterprises) to provide long stay in Krasnodar of the Ukrainian troupes and to begin preparation of creation of constant Ukrainian troupe in Krasnodar;

j) to movie theaters to enter pictures with the Ukrainian text;

k) to the public and public institutions to explain to the employees need of learning Ukrainian. To city department of education to organize the central evening school of an uk-rainovedeniye [15, l. 187a].

Such optimistic and exacting offers statements were not confirmed by practice of everyday life. The population relation to an Ukrainization in the first half of the 1920th is indicative. In the report of agitprop of Bryukhovetsky of RCP(b) for April, 1924 it was noted: "The population is negative to an Ukrainization as Ukrainian is unclear to the majority (it is allocated a bus - S.Ch.) the population. Children are not sent to school because there they "will be deformed" than will learn more. The number of children at the Ukrainian schools everything decreases" [16].

Negative attitude to an Ukrainization in the early thirties (especially in the student's environment) was strictly stopped by party bodies. The Krasnoye Znamya newspaper reported: "Students of teacher's college Tyuterev and Shershnev repeatedly raised a voice against an Ukrainization of pedagogical higher education institution. In particular, Tyu-terev said: & #34; Ukrainian is not necessary to me. As a last resort I will leave higher education institution and I will cease учиться". The Communist Party meeting expelled both [17] from party.

Public organizations, including the labor unions which were carrying out it generally through clubs "Natsmen", "Profintern", the Jewish and Polish clubs [18] also were connected to work among ethnic minorities). At all clubs of ethnic minority had to be served in their native language for what it was decided to prepare club workers from representatives the ethnic man [19, l. 5].

In the 1920th when process of formation of trade-union movement in Kuban was at an initial stage, work among ethnic minorities did not differ in systematicity and thoroughness. Almost completely there was no communication with the periphery, masses the ethnic man were not organized, there were no organizational structures, there were not enough not only qualified, but also just conscientious shots of workers. The main attention was paid to performance of party "fighting" tasks, expansion of activity of international clubs, creation and the organization of work of committees of assistance to schools. Besides not all labor unions participated in work with ethnic minorities. The assessment of this work given in the report of cultural department of Ku-bokrsovprofa for 1924 - 1925 is characteristic: "The main work is conducted in club & #34; Нацмен" in which about 900 members are registered. The club receives regular grants and the one-time help. Work is conducted on four unions: food industry workers, mestran, builders, skinners. But, in general, work among the ethnic man is extremely weak" [20]. By the way, the Natsmen club was in a difficult situation at this time: in it also residents accommodated. The question of their eviction or of other room for club was solved both in the 1920th, and in

the 1930th (in November, 1930 it was not solved yet) [13, l. 33].

The weakness of trade-union work among ethnic minorities was defined by the attitude towards her of school desks bodies which more quite often just "chattered" it. The information report is indicative in this regard (more precisely the deciding part it) Ust-Labinsky RCP(b) for April is May, 1925. "About work among ethnic minorities", made on a plenum: "Noting an unsatisfactory condition of party and social and political work among ethnic minorities, the plenum charges to a district committee and cells to handle on places this issue on party, Soviet and professional lines and to hold all necessary events for strengthening and development of party, Soviet and professional work among ethnic minorities, having created them a situation and conditions of the same active participation and having taken in return measures to involvement of those in work of both Soviet, and other public organizations, considering their national and household and cultural and political features and needs" [21]. The highest party and bureaucratic pilotage. And party standards and technologies for labor unions of that time - already the law as they it is unambiguous "driving belts".

In the second half of 1920 - the beginning of the 1930th the trade-union organizations of the Kuban district assisted in education and increase in professional level to representatives of ethnic minorities. In Kuban it was first of all the next Adygea. So, in July, 1928 the presidium of KOSPS (Kuban district sovpro-f) considered the question "About Accommodation of Adyghes in the Industrial Enterprises of Kubokruga for Obtaining Qualification" at the meeting. It was solved, "despite unemployment and a difficult situation of the industry of the district, to recognize as expedient accommodation of Adyghes in number of 300 people in the industrial enterprises working all the year round (the food industry, chemical, metalworking, railway workshops and depot)" [22]. And Kubokruzhky of the union of chemists in the same time made the decision: "At enrollment of pupils in FZU school to consider expedient obligatory enrollment of pupils of teenage workers of Adyghes, having established the order: mylzavod - 2 persons; the hydroplant - the 5th persons; creamery - 7 people" [23].

Work on formation of skilled workers of shots and executives from ethnic minorities was carried out not spontaneously and sociable, and systemically and purposefully. The resolution of presidium of the Krasnodar gorsovprof adopted on January 20, 1932 "About a condition of introduction in the industry the ethnic man and natsional for 1931" is characteristic in this regard [24]. In it it was offered "to reconsider shots of natsional, revealing their qualification and to plan the prospect of their promotion for the leading economic and trade-union work". Razrabaty-

fall actions for 1932 "on introduction of Adyghes in the industry by a personal task to each plant".

For fast training of qualified personnel from the list of Adyghes the factory committees and administrations of the enterprises undertook "to carry out the organization of courses and to attach to crews of ethnic men of masters of shops and technical officers". In a zavkoma it was appointed regular responsible for a condition of national shots.

The cultural sector of a gorsovprof, factory clubs had to "develop mass and cultural, political-education work among Adyghes by involvement them in circles of the current policy, courses on preparation in higher education institutions, technical colleges, workers' faculties, in all types of cultural life of the plant".

The gravity and thoroughness of this work was fixed by a request to city prosecutor's office to make responsible the economic enterprises which refused to accept Adyghes according to the order of human resources departments.

In the 1920th - the beginning of the 1930th work on training of children the ethnic man was purposefully conducted. For them schools which activity was defined and controlled by party and Soviet bodies opened. So, at a meeting the ethnic man of board of agitprop of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) the decision was made on April 19, 1926: "1) to consider it necessary to assign by drawing up the budget for national education certain sums on all to articles for needs of education the ethnic man it is proportional to population number; 2) to include the schools the ethnic man financed parents in the local budget;... 7) to consider necessary opening of one more Armenian school, transfer to other (best) premises of the Tatar school, not to allow closing of the Ukrainian school at all;. 10) to consider it necessary to hold besides district and regional conferences of national teaching" [19, l. 2]. Such practice took place and in the 1930th. So, for example, when in Krasnodar in 1930 the premises of the Polish school were selected, and Polish children were placed in other school and appointed the Ukrainian's teacher therefore parents ceased to let children to school, All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Group the ethnic man charged to section to create the commission for inspection of schools the ethnic man and provisions of ethnic minorities in the Russian schools, and to allocate to fraction of the City Council and a city board of education the regular instructor at a city board of education [13, l. 34].

During an initial stage of mass collectivization in 1930 even collective farms were organized on national sign: On November 27, 1930 at a meeting of bureau Krasnodar All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) Group in the offered resolution on the question "About Immediate Tasks of Work among the Ethnic Man" (the question was removed) was noted weak work of collective farm "Labour Armenia" of Kanevsky district from which elimination of collective farmers [13, l was observed. 34].

At the same time party bodies together with Soviet and trade-union put into practice and such decisions: "To hold antireligious meetings of workers the ethnic man, where to raise a question of closing of a synagogue and a church and transfer of rooms under club" [13, l. 34]. However, you should not consider this decision as infringement on national sign. So, in the same time (1929) in Krasnodar it was closed and remade under White Cathedral club.

Thus, in the first years of formation of the Soviet power in North Caucasus region the policy of party bodies for an ethnic question was carried out from positions of internationalism and was directed to realization of a most favored nation treatment to ethnic minorities. On the one hand, this breakthrough achievement of the Soviet mode which allowed the small people to be lifted to qualitatively higher level of culture and promoting formation "new historical community of people - to the Soviet people" - perhaps, the most remarkable doctrine of the Soviet era on the strategic creativity. And on the other hand, the foundation for formation of a national deprivation and the subsequent hypertrophied heightened sense of national consciousness was laid.

And in conclusion, proceeding from the aforesaid, some conclusions of broader character. Today the tradition of an early stage of Post-Soviet reforms - the conclusion of special contracts with territorial subjects of the federation revives (for example, with the Republic of Tatarstan). Thoughtless continuation of national policy in a format and contents of the first postrevolutionary years, i.e. increases of national consciousness, overcoming inequality can lead also to disintegration of Russia today as this "increase" and "overcoming" resulted in the sad fate of the Soviet Union. Besides it is nowadays possible not without the bases to speak about real threat of disappearance of Russians as the nations. They were the world's largest divided people, foreigners in the Fatherland to which they provided a sinergitichnost and in which are exposed to replacement and discrimination (especially in the sovereign republics). The question of "the national outskirts" turned into a question of "a national core".

Today judicial authorities make decisions on recognition extremist publications (brochures) with a formulation that they have "pronounced pro-Russian character". (With such formulation on November 11, 2008. The Soviet district court of Ivanovo on representation of the prosecutor of the Ivanovo region M.A. Kabaloyev recognized as extremist brochures by the member of the Russian Writers' Union A.N. Sevostyanov "NDPR - party of the Russian people" (M., 2005) and "Nationalism truisms" (M., 2002) [25]. "The pro-Russian orientation" of works of the Russian writer - is forbidden by modern court! And how then to be with Pushkin Poltava, lermontovsky Borodino, sho-

dumb "Quiet Don", Tvardovsky "Vasily the Tyorkiny", etc.?

Moreover, today at "naturalness" of decline in population the greatest part is the share the Russian Federation of Russians, and from a position of representatives of modern Russian liberalism at the time possible was to say also that "Russia as the state of Russians has no historical prospect".


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3. In the same place. 7.
4. In the same place. Op. additional 1. 2. L.1.
5. In the same place. Op. 1. 10. L. 51, 79.

Came to edition

6. In the same place. 91. L. 1, 16; 170. L. 4.
7. In the same place. 132. L. 2.
8. In the same place. 216.
9. In the same place. T. 8. Op. 1. 91. L. 144.
10. In the same place. 304.
11. In the same place. T. 1072. Op.1. 19. L. 8.
12. In the same place. 24. L. 24.
13. In the same place. 26.
14. In the same place. T. 8. Op. 1. 172.
15. In the same place. T. 1072. Op. 1. 78.
16. In the same place. T. 8. Op. 1. 65. L. 3.
17. Red Banner. 1932. On Apr. 20
18. In the same place. May 11; On Dec. 20
19. CDNI KK. T. 8. Op. 1. 304.
20. In the same place. 141. L. 23 about.
21. In the same place. 114. L. 60.
22. State Archive of Krasnodar Krai (SAKK). F. R-226. Op. 1. 203. L. 37.
23. In the same place. F. R-340. Op. 1. 10. L. 26 about.
24. In the same place. 13. L. 6.
25. Strange verdict//Soviet Russia. 2009. July 9.

On November 3, 2009

Mark Samuel
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