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Formation and development of theological seminaries of Russian Orthodox Church of the XVIII beginning of the 20th centuries

2010. No. 7 (78). Release 14

UDC 94(471.06/94(471.083



M.A. Adamov

This article is devoted to the history of theological seminaries of Russian Orthodox Church during the period from 1702 to 1917. This period can be divided into two main stages conditionally: 1) formation (1702-1867); 2) development (1867-1917). By consideration of each of stages the main problems peculiar to each of them were allocated and analyzed. As a result the conclusion was drawn that insufficient financing of theological seminaries was the main problem of the first stage. As for the second stage, the main problem should be considered leaving of pupils of theological seminaries on secular service.

The subject of history of domestic spiritual education acquires special relevance in the light of the heated debate which erupted in recent years about ways of further development of modern spiritual school. At the same time experience of the past can have for it practical value. The term "spiritual education" in scientific literature differs in a big variety of treatments that results in blurring of this concept. In this article the term "spiritual education" is understood as the system of vocational educational and educational training future sacred and clergymen, carried out within specialized educational institutions (spiritual schools). As for theological seminaries, during the considered period they were the main link of a system of spiritual education as in them had training vast majority of parish clergy.

Arisen for the 17th century. The Kiev board (since 1701 akademiya1) and Moscow slavyano - Greek-Latin academy had the main objective no training of future clergy. Emergence of the first specialized spiritual schools which became a prototype of theological seminaries should be referred to the first half of the 18th century. The system of professional spiritual education arises at the initiative of the state and is regulated by the state laws. Legislative bases of reforming of theological seminaries are fully stated in "Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire".

The history of development domestic theological seminaries during the considered period (1702 - 1917) can be divided into two main stages: formation (1702 - 1867) and development (1867 - 1917). Each of them had the features and specific problems. Let's address each of these stages in more detail.

I. The stage of formation (1702 - 1867) in turn can be divided into several stages: 1) initial (1702 - 1721); 2) dosekulyarizatsionny or Kiev (1721 - 1764); 3) sekulyarizatsionny or Moscow (1764 - 1808); 4) stage of implementation of reform of 1808 - 1814 (1808 - 1867).

1) Initial stage (1702 - 1721). Opening in 1702 of the first hierarchal school ep became a starting point. Dmitry Rostovskim2. After this they were
1 Diploma to preosvyashchenny Varlaam Yasinsky, metropolitan Kiev. About a nevozbraneniye to study in the Kiev academy to the Russians coming from other countries to people / / Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire (further - PSZRI). The first meeting. T. IV. 1870. SPb., 1830. Page 173-174.
2 Znamensk P.V. Spiritual schools in Russia before reform of 1808 SPb., 2001. Page 25.

are open in a number of the Russian cities: in Tobolsk in 1704 3, etc. Let's note that the first hierarchal schools were opened by bishops - natives of Little Russia and graduates of the Kiev board. Their initiatives answered plans of the government which needed politically reliable and theological educated clergy. The decree of January 15, 1708 ordered compulsory education of children of clergy in "Greek and Latin" shkolakh4. But these schools had no accurate registration yet, and their opening completely depended on an initiative of the diocesan bishop. The concept "seminary" was not used yet, but hierarchal schools became its prototype.

2) Dosekulyarizatsionny or Kiev stage (1721 - 1764). Entry into force became on January 25, 1721 its beginning. "Spiritual regulations" 5 which became a legislative basis for obligatory opening in each diocese of specialized schools for training of clergy. Distinctive features of this stage are: financing of spiritual schools only from local diocesan means; complete dependence of development of spiritual school from will of the diocesan bishop; violent nature of enrollment in spiritual schools; systematic use of pupils of spiritual schools for needs of secular service; leading role of graduates of the Kiev academy in the organization of spiritual schools; orientation of the program and techniques of training to the Kiev academy, including teaching all objects in Latin.

These features caused the main problems of this stage: insufficient financing that quite often was the reason of closing of spiritual schools; shortage of teachers; evasion of children of clergy from training at these schools that was caused by a number of circumstances. First, allogeneity for velikorossky dioceses of the spiritual schools created on a sample of the Kiev academy which arose in other sociocultural and political conditions. Secondly, lack of positive incentives to study. Thirdly, heavy material and household living conditions of spiritual schools.

At this stage the concept "seminary" is for the first time used. Originally it was used in "Spiritual regulations" 6. Into practice it began to be put in the 1730th as the name of the most developed spiritual schools.

3) Sekulyarizatsionny or Moscow stage (1764 - 1808). The beginning of the laicisation of church lands announced on February 26, 1764 g7 became a starting point for this stage. At the same time there was a change of church and administrative elite of Russian Orthodox Church. Arkhiyerei-malorossy as opponents of laicisation, were gradually replaced with members of the party Great Russia who supported the carried-out laicisation. In the main weight they were graduates Moscow slavyano - Greek-Latin academy. They began to play the leading role in development of spiritual education at this stage of its development.

Purpose of regular contents for all theological seminaries that allowed to reduce sharpness of problems of a dosekulyarizatsionny stage a little became the main feature of a sekulyarizatsionny stage. Originally the sum allocated on from -

3 Znamensk P.V. Spiritual schools in Russia before reform of 1808 SPb., 2001. Page 27.
4 Imenny announced from Monastic to the Military order. About definition of Popovskikh and diaconal children in the Greek and Latin schools, about not dedication in bottoms and deacons of those which will not wish to study at these schools, and about their neprinimaniye in any ranks, except military service//PSZRI. The first meeting. T. IV. 2186. SPb., 1830. Page 401.
5 Regulations or charter of Spiritual board//PSZRI. The first meeting. T. VI. 3718. SPb., 1830.

page 314-346.

6 Regulations or charter of Spiritual board//PSZRI. The first meeting. T. VI. 3718. SPb., 1830. Page 335.
7 About division of spiritual manors and about collecting from all hierarchal, monastic and other church peasants from each soul on 1 ruble 50 kopeks / / PSZRI. The first meeting. T. XVI. 12060. SPb., 1830. Page 549-569.

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efficient seminaries, made 2,000 rub 8 on December 18, 1797 this sum was significantly increased, and each separate seminary began to receive from 3,000 to 4,000 rub in god9. The funds allocated annually caused smooth functioning of spiritual school. But nevertheless there were not enough these means. At the same time the acute shortage of teachers was still felt. Besides the identity of the diocesan bishop played a major role in development of spiritual schools in each certain diocese. As marks out N.V. Lyapunov, "submission of spiritual schools to diocesan bishops did not allow to introduce uniform requirements to graduates of schools, teaching methods, manuals, to construct the system of providing spiritual schools with pedagogical shots" 10.

In addition, systematic use of pupils of spiritual schools for needs of secular school and service continued. So, the decree of January 25, 1787 reported that in connection with significant increase in regular number of pupils of medical schools the persons knowing Latin are necessary, but they are not enough. In communication as it it was recognized that "the uniform reliable and most convenient subject" is an invitation of seminarists and students of academies. Pupils of the top classes, necessary for needs of the church, were invited: rhetorical, philosophical and bogoslovskogo11.

the System of spiritual education was not structured by

on levels, each of which would have the accurately definite purposes and tasks. As for seminaries, in practice in different dioceses it were essentially various educational institutions: beginning from elementary schools at which trained in elementary Slavic literacy, the church charter and bases of Latin, and finishing schools with the full course including thorough and comprehensive study of divinity. As P.V. Znamensky, notes at this time: "seminaries recognized all in general main schools on dioceses though other such main school, for example, Voronezh, not having even Latin classes, stood incomparably below many the lowest in others dioceses" 12.

4) Stage of implementation of reform of 1808 - 1814 (1808 - 1867). It was directed to a complete solution of the problems considered above stages. The system of spiritual education was divided into 4 administratively coordinated steps with accurately definite purposes for each of them: spiritual academy; theological seminary; spiritual district school; spiritual parish school.

And from this point seminaries were allocated in the separate, having the purposes and tasks step of spiritual education. By the purposes of activity of seminaries it was declared: "1) education of spiritual youth to svyashchennosluzhitelsky and teacher's positions; 2) management of district schools" 13. Besides, graduates of seminary as provided the charter, could come to medikokhirurgichesky akademiyu14, that is use of capacity of theological seminaries for needs of secular service was legislatively enshrined in the main document regulating their activity. As the main source of financing

8 Imenny given Boards of Economy. About a sum holiday on the maintenance of the Pskov seminary and on an institution of schools in the Polotsk province//PSZRI. The first meeting. T. XX. 14894. SPb., 1830. Page 849.
9 Painting to the sums appointed in an increase to the maintenance of spiritual schools and to other expenses to a spiritual rank relating//PSZRI. The first meeting. T. XLIV. Part 2. Book of states. 18273. SPb., 1830. Page 59.
10 N.V. Lyapunova. Evolution of professional church education in Russia. Yew... Dr.s east. sciences. M, 2006. Page 124.
11 Sinodsky. About dismissal of seminarists in medical academy, for training in medical sciences, with certificates / / PSZRI. The first meeting. T. XXII. 16500. SPb., 1830. Page 801.
12 Znamensk P.V. Spiritual schools in Russia before reform of 1808 SPb., 2001. Page 537.
13 The approved draft of the charter of theological seminaries//PSZRI is most royal. The first meeting. T. XXXII. 25674. SPb., 1830. Page 955.
14 The approved draft of the charter of theological seminaries//PSZRI is most royal. The first meeting. T. XXXII. 26674. SPb., 1830. Page 955.

spiritual education income from sale of church candles was specified. Percent with allocated with the state summy15 became other source.

Besides administrative control, spiritual academies were engaged in preparation of pedagogical shots for seminaries controlled by them, district and parish schools. The similar task was set also for seminaries which besides the main objective - training of parish clergy - trained teachers for district and parish spiritual schools. It allowed to solve a problem of shortage of teaching personnel for spiritual schools.

From the very beginning of reform the central body for the management of all spiritual educational institutions was created that allowed to bring them out of the direct power of diocesan bishops.

The embodiment in practice of earlier stated principle of general education of sons sacred and clergymen became one of the main directions of reform of 1808 - 1814. At the same time creation of positive incentives to study in spiritual educational institutions became important achievement. Now, thanks to distribution by categories, further employment of the graduate of spiritual school depended on achievements in behavior and study essentially. The requirement of a certain educational qualification from future sacred and clergymen solved a problem of evasion of children of clergy from training in spiritual educational institutions. But here it should be noted that success of this reform in many respects caused itself a number of further material and household problems of spiritual school. Inflow of persons interested to study in them was so big that the means which are earlier provided for this purpose began not to be enough catastrophically for providing pupils at the appropriate level. The most sharply this problem became in Nicholas I's reign.

The difficult situation of spiritual schools found reflection in a large number of sources and scientific research at this time. It both archive materials, and works by graduates of spiritual educational institutions, such as well as. The village Nikitin16 and N.G. of Pomyalovskiy17, and works on the history of spiritual school. The graduate of the Kursk seminary bishop Evfimy Saratov (Belikov) remembered: "in Bursa they endured both cold, and hunger; because of an excess portion of some porridge, because of an excess piece of bread, pricked, happened, firewood for watchmen" 18. Observance at spiritual schools of elementary sanitary standards, providing pupils with necessary footwear, clothes and qualitative food became the most burning issue.

Further increase in the sum allocated for spiritual educational institutions became the first reaction. But it was not even possible with increase in means to improve materialnobytovy position of spiritual schools. And then restriction of number of their pupils by introduction of regular number of pupils in each spiritual educational institution began. For example, the normal number of pupils according to the instruction of the Synod in August, 1851 for the Kursk seminary made 340 people, namely: the highest office - 90 people, an average - 110, the lowest - 14019. But also this measure did not make success that caused need of research of new sources of financing of spiritual educational institutions.

We will note also a number of the transformations which were of basic importance which are carried out to Nicholas I's reign. It is, first of all, cancellation of Latin as language in which teaching in spiritual educational institutions was conducted. Now it became odes -

15 Imenny given to the Synod. About improvement of spiritual schools; about tracing of rules for formation of these schools and drawing up the capital on keeping of clergy. With the application of states of spiritual academies, seminaries, district and parish schools / / PSZRI. The first meeting. T. XXX. 23122. SPb., 1830. Page 381.
16 I.S. Nikitin. Chosen works. M, 1948. 315 pages
17 N.G. Pomyalovsky. Essays of Bursa. M, 1981. 210 pages
18 Spiritual schools of the Kursk and Belgorod diocese / / the Kursk diocesan sheets (further - KEV). 1894. No. 14. informal part. Page 286.
19 The state archive of Kursk region (further - GAKO). T. 792. Op. 1. 89. L. 274.

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to them from subjects. It allowed to develop domestic theological science in the native language and to bring closer the program of training in spiritual educational institutions to requirements of a sermon among a wide people at large.

Introduction to number of the objects of medicine taught in seminaries and rural hozyaystva20 became one more transformation. It was caused by the aspiration to bring together service of clergy with practical needs of the population of arrivals, first of all rural. This measure caused a protest of a number of the most famous church hierarches. So, the Metropolitan of Moscow Filaret (Drozdov) wrote: "The priest educated in belief reverential in a church service honest in life, zealously, philanthrophy executing affairs of the position for parishioners, will not be lower than them from the fact that there is not enough svedushch in agriculture, and at assigned a hand on rat (plow) often the book drops out of hands, and the perfection of the farmer increases stealing from perfection of the priest" 21. Subsequently the medicine and agriculture were excluded from the program of training in seminaries.

We will pass now to consideration of the II stage which we designated as a stage of development of theological seminaries (1867-1917). Here too it is necessary to allocate several stages: 1) reform of 1867 and its implementation (1867 - 1884); 2) reform of 1884 and its implementation (1884 - 1905); 3) revolution of 1905 - 1907 and preparation of new reform of spiritual schools (1905 - 1917).

1) Reform of 1867 and its implementation (1867 - 1884). Basic provisions of reform are reflected in the charter of theological seminaries of May 14, 1867 22 Special attention during its carrying out were is given to financing of spiritual educational institutions. The basic attention was paid to reorganization of buildings of dukhovnouchebny institutions, the state allocated for it 1,500,000 rub 23 Reform of Alexander II in many respects were directed to strengthening of a role of local government and self-financing. It found reflection and in a solution of the problem of financing of seminaries and spiritual schools. Additional resources for increase in number of pupils, etc. of need were dug up by collecting from diocesan clergy. The sum of collecting and their apportion on arrivals both separate sacred and to clergymen was approved by congresses of clergy of the diocese or its separate parts. Congresses began to convoke in 1867. So, the congress of clergy took place in the Kursk and Belgorod diocese on September 10, 1867 24 It allowed to solve pressing material problems of seminaries: to improve living and sanitary conditions, to provide pupils to the most necessary, etc.

We will note that reform of 1867 found the continuation in reform of academies in 1869. During these transformations the elective beginning was entered into election of the management of spiritual educational institutions, at the same time the system of dukhovnouchebny districts was cancelled. But in the same time in 1860 - the 70th the whole complex of problems which, on the one hand, were caused by a socio-political situation in the country, and with another, internal problems of the clergy was sharply designated. Many seminarists directed on civil service, among pupils of spiritual schools revolutionary moods increased. Here It should be noted that the first revolutionary circles among the pupil of youth arise in theological seminaries. So, V.V. Vyatkin notes that in 1860 in the Perm seminary found secret printing house and revolutionary-democratic kruzhok25.

20 N.Yu. Nalyotova. Formation and development of spiritual education in the territory of the Smolensk diocese in the XVIII-XIX centuries. Yew.... edging. ped. sciences. Smolensk, 2006. Page 98-99.
21 F. Drozdov. Meeting of opinions and responses. Soch. in 3 t. T. 2. SPb., 1995. Page 160.
The approved charter of orthodox theological seminaries//PSZRI is most royal
22. The second meeting. T. XLII. Office first. 44571. SPb., 1871. Page 498-511.
23 GAKO. T. 792. Op. 1. 141. L. 20.
24 In the same place. 138. L. 445.
25 V.V. Vyatkin. The history of the Perm diocese in the XIX-XXI centuries: forms and methods of church activity, state and church relations. Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Perm, 2005. Page 118.

In 1863 it was allowed to seminarists to go freely to the universities, the considerable number of seminarists seized this opportunity. According to G.I. Shchetinina, in 1875 53% all entered the universities were made by grammar-school boys and 46% seminaristy26. Literally in several years the acute shortage of shots for needs of the most spiritual department was designated. Besides the problem was aggravated with the fact that the best of pupils went to the universities. As a result in 1879 the access for seminarists to the universities was strongly ogranichen27.

The sharpness of this problem was caused by the fact that earlier it was welcomed by the state which felt the shortage of educated shots. Now the state with development of a secular education system did not need mass inflow of pupils of spiritual schools. All this developed against the background of involvement of pupils of spiritual schools in the revolutionary-democratic movement. It should be noted that idols of youth of that era N.G. Chernyshevsky and N.A. Dobrolyubov - came from seminarists.

2) Reform of 1884 and its implementation (1884 - 1905). Its basic provisions are reflected in the charter of theological seminaries approved on August 22, 1884 28 and directed to strengthening of administrative control over pupils of spiritual educational institutions. At the same time the elective beginning when electing their administration was cancelled, it was replaced with the principle of appointment. But these measures did not lead to the solution of the burning issues spiritual seminaries: aspiration of pupils to care on secular service and further strengthening in their environment of revolutionary moods. The taken measures only deferred the solution of these problems.

At this time in special the clarity designated interrelation of problems of the clergy and spiritual school. In this regard the metropolitan Eulogius (Georgiyevsky) drew the following conclusion: "Painful impressions of my early childhood forced me to feel still the child what is a social lie. Subsequently I understood from where in seminaries revolutionary mood of youth: it developed from the feelings of social injustice apprehended in the childhood. The downtroddenness, the humiliated position of fathers affected a rebellious protest in children" 29. The fact is that the spiritual school in Russia since the moment of the emergence began to be formed as class, in it took children sacred and clergymen. Originally it was caused by the fact that these persons were exempted from taxes and duties, and it was not favorable to state to expand clergy number due to involvement of persons from podatny estate. In the decree of July 9, 1744 it was noted that if "in church and in other ranks from the peasants put in a podushny salary at the request of them to accept and define, then never correct payment of subear money can be" 30. Subsequently it was fixed by the fact that spiritual schools were financed from means of spiritual department.

We will note also that made success of financial aspect of reform of 1867 besides positive and certain negative consequences. The local means of arrivals taken by means of diocesan congresses could be received only provided that vast majority of pupils of spiritual schools will be children of clergy. Besides training of children sacred and clergymen at spiritual schools was carried out on favorable terms. The best in progress and behavior could

26 G.I. Shchetinina. Students and revolutionary movement in Russia: Last quarter of the 19th century of M., 1987. Page 34.
27 The new law on an order of assumption of pupils of seminaries in the universities//KEV. 1879. No. 7. Official part. Page 303-304.
28 The charters of orthodox theological seminaries and schools which are Most highly approved on August 22, 1884 with the resolutions of the Holy Synod relating to them. SPb., 1908. 303 pages
29 Eulogius Way of my life (Of St. George): Memoirs. M, 1994. Page 19.
30 About not writing in a podushny salary left in a spiritual rank//Complete collection of resolutions and orders on department of orthodox confession of the Russian Empire. T. II. 677. SPb., 1907. Page 159.

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to contain at public expense. But even for those who studied at a paid basis nevertheless it was cheaper, than in a gymnasium.

3) Revolution of 1905 - 1907 and preparation of new reform of spiritual schools (1905 - 1917). In the 1890th the first revolutionary all-seminar organizations appear. 1905 for which revolutionary performances captured all seminaries of the country became peak of revolutionary activity of spiritual schools. In some, for example, in Minsk, disorders led to an open clash with the police. In a number of seminaries in 1905 - 1907 there were attacks on representatives of administrative structure which finished with wounds and death of data lits31.

The requirement of free access in the universities was the slogan, general for all seminaries. Since the beginning of 1905 Vladimir from where the appeal which agitated seminaries for submission of the all-seminar petition about opening of access to all higher educational zavede-niya32 was distributed becomes the center of the all-seminar organization. On December 14, 1905 the government granted permission for free arrival of seminarists in higher educational institutions. And here, as well as in the 1870th, the quantity going to the universities was so high that in 1908 access to the universities was strongly limited. As a result in 1904 - 1905 academic year the universities were entered by 467 graduates of seminaries, in 1905 - 1906 - already 674, and in 1906 - 1907-66733. Since 1906 the preparation for the Local council began. During it opinions of diocesan bishops were collected. The majority supported spiritual school, available to all estates. But this decision would demand a number of cardinal transformations.

First, it would lead to final destruction of isolation of the clergy. Secondly, the solution of a question of receiving secondary education by children of clergy was required. It was for this purpose offered to open special gymnasiums in which would study wishing to come to secular educational institutions and on civil service. But there was a question of the one who will finance these gymnasiums. Finally the matter in the time frames considered by us was not resolved. Solutions of the Local council of 1917 - 1918 which opened after the February revolution were not put into practice fully since in 1918 all theological seminaries were closed by Bolsheviks.

Summing up the results, it is necessary to tell that the main problem of spiritual schools at a stage of formation (1702 - 1867) were insufficient financing. Transformations of theological seminaries at this stage were to some extent connected with increase in the funds allocated by the state. At a stage of development of theological seminaries (1867 - 1917) it was succeeded to solve the acute material and household issues of theological seminaries. It was made thanks to reform of 1867 when on the one hand the sum of the public funds allocated for spiritual education was increased, and with another - through convocation of diocesan congresses of clergy additional resources from local sources were raised. At the same time the main problem of a stage of development of theological seminaries (1867 - 1917) should be considered aspiration of their pupils on secular service.

31 M.N. Obraztsova. The state and church relations in modernization process in Russia the beginnings of the 20th centuries Diss.... edging. east. sciences. M, 2003. Page 127-128.
32 B.V. Titlinov. Youth and revolution. L., 1925. Page 90.
33 The Vsepoddanneyshy report of the chief prosecutor of the Holy Synod for 1905 - 1907 SPb., 1909.

Page 155, 159, 163.



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This article is devoted to history of theological seminaries of the Russian Orthodox church from 1702 to 1917. This period can be divided into two basic stages conditionally: I. Formation (1702-1867); II. Development (1867-1917). The basic problems of each stage have been revealed and analysed. As a result, conclusion has been drawn that insufficient financing of theological seminaries was the basic problem of the first stage; as for the second stage, main problem was that students of theological seminaries left for secular


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