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& #34; Our Houses to a takozhda need this art..." (economy and finance of the St. Petersburg educational house)



e. M. Kolosova,

director of the museum of history of the university

"To our HOUSES THIS ART of TAKOZHDE NUZHNO..."

(economy and finance of the St. Petersburg educational house)

Presently very sharply there is a question of financing of educational institutions. But this question is not new. How solved financial and economic problems in the St. Petersburg educational house, this article narrates.

In 1763 on command of the empress Catherine II in Moscow the Educational house for children foundlings and illegitimate was founded, in 1770 its branch in St. Petersburg is open. Since 1780. The St. Petersburg house becomes independent. In 1797 it was taken under protection of the empress Maria Fiodorovna and its structure significantly changes. The house turns into a complex of teaching and educational institutions: a number of pedagogical classes which in 1837 will be transformed to Orphan institute comes off; are created petty-bourgeois office for the girls wishing to receive a profession of the teacher or seamstress (Aleksandrinsky orphan house), chest office, obstetric school, school for nurses, teacher's seminary, school of deaf-mutes. These institutions became a prototype of Pedagogical Institute which in 1991 is certified as the Russian state pedagogical university of A.I. Herzen.

But then, in the 60th of the 18th century, the creator of the Educational house I.I. Betskoy, probably, also did not think of what his child will turn into.

And here the question of financing of new institution disturbed not only it, but also the empress. The empress Catherine II allocated five thousand rubles "for kind undertaking". Also other notable persons, for example, A.S. Stroganov followed its example. I.I. Betskoy deposited the personal funds for creation of the House and persuaded to make the same the large mine owner P.A. Demidov. In memory of patrons at an entrance to the Educational house two marble plates were established.

But not only "beneficial" persons could "vspomoshchestvovat" a generous handout: was offered to everyone to help the House who than can (edibles, materials, things, etc.). There were not enough these means therefore I.I. Betskoy offered, and the empress approved a number of provisions on the basis of which the House was freed from a billeting, did not pay any duties when signing the contracts or conducting judicial proceedings, could buy and sell villages, at home, lands, support own pharmacy and the druggist, to get manufactories, "how many it is necessary for training", on the capitals to carry out lotteries and to gain from them income. In favor of the House the fourth part of income from all public representations was deducted: operas, comedies, merrymakings, balls. Especially protection of the capitals of donations was stipulated by I.I. Betsky: issue of special tickets, representation from tutorial council in court, discharge from a position of the plunderer and a refund guarantee to the investor. If "circulation is forbidden to coins", then the Educational house guaranteed to the investor exchange of money without prejudice to it.

I.I. Betskoy raised a question not only directly of finance, but also of the economic principles of creation of the House. In the work "General Institution about Education of Both Sexes of Youth" he devoted to "economy improvement" in the Educational house a whole chapter. In it Ivan Ivanovich proved rules of economy: "— it is necessary to pay the first only for what is necessary", the second — "to pay no more as how many that costs"; at the same time it is impossible to be both avaricious, and wasteful. Important rule: if economy supports education, then and education "is obliged to give it the help". Thus, according to I.I. Betsky, education and economy, interacting, will bring benefit to mankind. These thoughts of I.I. Betsky, probably, were close to many progressive people in Russia. It is remarkable, that 15 June 1765 in the house the column

G.G. Orlov in whom one of buildings of the Educational house (building 2) was placed after a while the constituent assembly of the first Russian scientist "patriotic society for promotion in Russia of land management and economy" took place (Free economic society). Its meetings took place up to 1773 there

On the new, progressive principles also the board of the House was under construction. The safe treasury was created. Proved her I.I. Betskaya's creation so: "Everyone knows that behind different dangers to keep the manor, the considerable sums of money from civil on this time could leave in foreign banks, and through that to own Fatherland in a fit of temper and direct patriots place can take not power of attorney, and moreover the Russian citizens can plunge the Fatherland, therefore and themselves, into some imperceptible impoverishment" [1. S. 293]. On to opinion

I.I. Betsky, the guarantee of the made contributions from confiscation and other danger in safe treasury will be useful not only to everyone, but also the empire. That was plunders less, all data on the arrived sums, charitable works and on children were published in special news. Whether "Is in whose these announcements of a handout and name will not be, that has the right to complain about that to Tutorial council, or the most important trustee" [1. Page 126]. The safe treasury was equated in the rights to the state boards. The philanthropists who placed money in treasury had the right in case of any oppression to address directly the empress. The house acquired the "taking priority" right in payments, in the section according to obligations of debts, to receive exact references from state structures by the inquiries.

Except safe treasury, opened widow treasury — "for disposal of poverty of widows and orphans" and also loan treasury — "to the aid of all need in money having and in that need usurers utesnenny" [1. Page 293]. The widow treasury gave guarantees for receiving pensions after the death of her investor: it was directed to fund-raising of ordinary people, and not just rich. The educational house at the same time "not self-interest looks for, but helps sufferers in poverty" [1. Page 298]. From loan treasury on the security of gold, jewelry, personal estate it was possible to borrow money from 10 to 1000 rubles for 3, 9 and 12 months, under 6% a year or 0.5% a month. If the thing was not demanded, then it was sold at specially organized auctions. It was possible to obtain also a loan on the security of the real estate. The same treasury adopted wills from persons who deposited the funds for development of the House. Thus, pawnshops were created. This income allowed the House to create the capital.

Income of the House was replenished also at the expense of own enterprises. In 1798 in the village of Aleksandrovsk the lnopryadilny factory (Aleksandrovsky manufactory) was open on commercial bases. For the first time in Russia on it began processing of cotton paper and preparation of fabrics from it. Originally on a manufactory pupils worked At home, but settlements Big Fishing, Ust-Izhora which supplied a manufactory with additional labor are acquired later. After a while, to a manufactory bought still lands on Shlisselburgskaya Road: the village of Murzinka, the village of Aleksandrovskoye and Kurakinu giving (nowadays — Nevsky district). As a result parts of a manufactory made: spinning, weaving, metalwork, hosiery mill. All income from a manufactory went to fund of the House. The board of a manufactory included, except heads of the House, large industrialists — "merchants and manufakturist". It is curious that peasants of the attributed settlements paid a certain quitrent for use of the earth.

Since 1766. The house was granted the right to brand playing cards and to receive all income from their sale and use. The senate decided: "To begin collecting from the publication in three months (therefore, since November 7, 1766). To brand foreign cards in three places: St. Petersburg, in Arkhangelsk and Riga why also to import cards from foreign lands into Russia to allow only through these three ports". For use of nekleymeny cards the penalty of 50 kopeks for each game was collected. The reward was necessary to the same who will report on non-compliance with this law: half of the sum of a penalty. Gradually Educational house acquired the exclusive right to dispose of card matter in the empire. March 4, 1798. The right to brand and sell cards on all space of the Russian Empire was forever appropriated to the educational house, and since 1801 the import of foreign cards is forbidden in general. Since 1819. The house to become the full monopolist on cards playing, fortunetelling and childish sports on cardboard. Since 1783 the cards began to brand a special stamp: on a red ace the bird pelican with the inscription "Without Feeling Sorry for Itself Feeds Baby Birds" was represented. It is indicative that, for example, from 1799 to 1815 the income from card operations increased by 180% [4. Page 417].

For receiving income the Educational house built also special buildings for delivery them in hiring (rent). For example, on Gorokhova Street, 20 (nowadays it is the 211th school) in 1871 the building for the room of the Aleksandrovsky female gymnasium and the Children's shelter in Catherine, Georgy and Maria's memory (the died children of the trustee of the Educational house of prince P.G. Oldenburgsky) was built [6].

Within five years (1903-1908) the destiny of the house on Kazanskaya Street, 3 [7] was decided. The building was built at the expense of the architect Voronikhin as compensation for construction in the territory of the House of a lattice and the device of the square opposite to Kazan Cathedral. In the building took place: on the first floor — office of Orphan institute and office of the inspector by a medical part, on the second and third floors — apartments of employees. Tutorial council decided that such situation is accompanied by significant damage of money as the building is located in very favorable place: "Is evident walking on the left side of Nevsky Avenue already at turn from Mikhaylovskaya Street". Council made the decision: the big apartment for the manager of a teaching department "is in burden therefore it is more expedient to it to give lodging money, to provide to the manager of an economic part a part of the apartment of the doctor, and to move the doctor to the apartment of the deacon, and to the last to appoint lodging money". Besides, to the persons which lost apartments defined additional payments: zavkhozchastyyu — 1200 rubles, to the manager of a teaching department — 1000 rubles, and to the deacon — 450 rubles (will be so far on

service). Thus, the issue of use of the building "coming to very fashionable and central in the neighbourhood with the main artery of the city the street and representing thereof very valuable site" was resolved. Income of the House due to delivery of the building on Kazanskaya Street, 3 in hiring increased not less than by 15000 rubles, and costs of the structure of shops and offices in rooms paid off in the first year of operation.

In 1893 in the square before Kazan Cathedral two profitable pavilions were built: a greenhouse and shop at it (on the right) and the photographic pavilion of Levitsky (at the left). The photographer To. The bull just also imprinted these not remained buildings on Kazanskaya Street, and now it is even difficult to present that the fine Voronikhinsky lattice could be seen only from the square at the present 6th case (i.e. from the yard) [8].

The state subsidies for the Educational house increased also all the time. For example, in 1780 they made 35 thousand rubles a year instead of initial 20 thousand rubles. The empress Maria Fiodorovna, having taken under the protection the House in 1797, at once allocated 9 thousand rubles in favor of children from personal means and further always allocated the personal capitals for the maintenance of the House and its institutions. Also the subsequent patronesses of the House followed its example.

The expense of means was strictly controlled. The additional capitals went to adoptive parents for education of children who were sent to villages, on a reward of tutors of children from 3 to 7 years. At a marriage the Educational house gave to graduates girls 25 rubles on a dowry, young men were provided with the house, a ground and money for purchase of instruments of labor and 18 more rubles cash.

If in the House repair or construction was appointed, then in this case council announced the bidding which was organized by the principle of auctions: the price of the assumed construction works or materials which should be put then contractors bargained among themselves appeared. Contract was awarded only to the one who appointed the smaller sum, than that which he called at the auction, and this difference became its property therefore contracts were favorable. Tutorial council reported about results of the auction personally to the empress. Often construction was conducted on personal donations. For example, the architect Brenna, working on the project of reorganization of church for the sake of the apostle Pavel (she accommodated in the main building), allocated money and for its construction. Personally on this construction welcomed means and the empress. For construction used also kruzhechny collecting, personal donations, the capitals of the died pupils and employees.

Tutorial council had the right for delivery "to the expense which is not put on the state or most highly approved schedule" if it did not exceed 15000 rubles silver. If the sum was more, then it was necessary to ask the highest permission.

Stating the opinion of economy and education in the Educational house, I.I. Betskoy did not ignore also the question "about need to teach children to art to keep count merchant, called accounting": "To all children has to absolutely learn to keep on a trade ceremony accounts books (therefore to a ceremony which at Germans in houses of Gausgalteringy is ordinary observed). Though all this at us not everywhere is used; but it is not necessary to despair that education of ways because to all required the beginning did not enter usage from those. This is made by arithmetics and the letter. One and another serves as the tool to this action and gives a way to observe an order in arrivals and expenses, reason and mature time judgment in this exercise work incessantly. The government, the house notable, the house rich, factories, manufactories, the house merchant or artists great will gain advantage when are operated in such a way the accounts" [1. Page 229].

"This is perfection to which the pet in the art mentioned here can reach up to 14 and 15-year age. It is easy to understand, how great for all above-shown places there will be an advantage of children raised on this basis; also it is very desirable for our prosperity that everything, as for before economy, was operated by graceful this rule.

Our houses to a takozhda need this art. If in this way the order will be arranged in them: in many respects we will receive knowledge not only useful, but also pleasure when once we find taste and pleasure in this exercise. Thus we will enrich reason of data on some part of a political condition of our Fatherland..." [1. Page 299]. I.I. Betskoy specified that think of D. Locke that knowledge it is necessary not only in order that it is reasonable to spend but also to multiply income, it is necessary to use also at us. But as "the custom included abuses", to enter it very hard. Besides, according to I.I. Betsky, all savings are spent for livelihood and content of a large number of employees, and all this leads to squandering.

To start economic education objects were entered: art to keep accounts books, rules of the civil life managed by laws of the Fatherland, a manufactory, factory, commerce, a sadovnichestvo and "other arts before economy belonging". These sciences have to study both boys, and girls. Unfortunately, further studying these disciplines was dissolved in courses of arithmetics, geography and natural sciences as the House began to expand, and its teaching and educational institutions received a pedagogical profile.

For example, in 1808, classes on training of tutors to private houses are established. Their preparation was carried out at the expense of percent from the capitals brought by individuals. So, the prince A.B. Kurakin enjoined to support 6 pupils over the state. In 1837 on the basis of these classes the Nikolaev orphan institute which is letting out teachers of music, language, a kallisteniya was created. In 1870 at institute 650 pupils studied. Training was paid. And 60 "boarders" contained at the expense of the emperor, 165 — the empress and members of an imperial surname, 20 — at the expense of philanthropists, 355 — were dependent on tutorial council with a payment of 85 rubles 72 kopeks, the others paid from 200 to 300 rubles a year [5. Page 19]. Money which was paid initially for pupils were postponed in safe treasury and after training were issued personally to pupils. At release from institute each girl who ended a pedagogical class in the candidate's rank received on equipment from treasury 300 rubles, with the supervisor's rank — 200 rubles. Besides, they received textbooks by which they used, exempted from expenses on initial acquisition of manuals. It should be noted that over time these rules and the sums changed.

In 1864 at the House the teacher's seminary in which training of children was conducted at the expense of the sums of the charitable capitals opens. The most capable pupils of seminary were sent on further training to private schools and workshops at the expense of means of zemstvoes, by Societies of care about pets of the Imperial house, etc.

Even very the overview of financial and economic activity of the Educational house and its structures allows to draw a conclusion that it is necessary to study in more detail the matter because it is possible to find something useful in this experience and for contemporaries.

Literature

1. I.I. Betskoy. General establishment about education of both sexes of youth konformirovanny Eya Imperial majesty of 1764 of March of the 12th day. SPb., 1764.
2. Imperial S. - the St. Petersburg Educational house. The report for 1913. SPb., 1914.
3. The materials which served to drawing up Regulations of Admission of children to Imperial Educational houses of 1890. SPb, 1891.
4. Monographs of institutions of Department of the Empress Maria. SPb., 1880.
5. S.'s fiftieth anniversary - the St. Petersburg Nikolaev Orphan institute. 1837-1887: Historical essay. SPb., 1887.
6. RGIA, t. 758, op. 9, 566.
7. RGIA, t. 758, op. 20, 358.
8. TSGAKID St. Petersburg, t. E 4808, E 4809.
9. Fund of the museum of history Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia.
Amy Susan
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