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Category: History

The Russian fight "on opoyaska": genesis, equipment, terminology, classification


A.V. Alexandrov

Article is devoted to one of types of the zone fight having the names "Russian", "on opoyaska". Comes from fight in a grasp, but also came under influence from fight "on belts" and "for a neck". It is distinguished existence of the special tool — an opoyaska, feature of the successful fellow for an opoyaska in the course of a duel, broad existing (Urals, Western Siberia, Northern Kazakhstan). To the middle of the 20th century three blocks (social, archaic, economic) functions of fight lost the relevance. Deprivation of Russians of national and religious consciousness, destruction of traditional culture led to manifestations of national extremism. Revival of traditional holidays with elements of competitions will help to compensate psychoemotional pressure partly.

Today many researchers in Russia and the neighboring countries show keen interest in studying traditional competitive and applied culture of east Slavs. Up to the end of the 20th century the look of researchers was turned generally to studying traditional female culture; in a foreshortening of male culture there were many not studied aspects, including regional. In Western Siberia there are the regional features of competitive and applied culture demanding additional and detailed study. One of its special elements is fight on opoyaska. Opoyask is the weaved woolen belt which is a part of traditional clothes. It was put on over a shirt or outerwear. As opoyasky the belt or a strip of fabric about 20 cm wide and more than 2 m long, thrown through a shoulder, twisted on one side and tied around a waist served in festive competitions (fig. 1)1. Sometimes instead of an opoyaska used that came to hand. It could be details of a harness — "trace" [Potrepalov, 1995. Page 6], cheressedelnik, reins or belt and soldier's sword belt. One hand fighters held the strap thrown through a shoulder, another for twist or knot on one side (fig. 2). In the absence of the improvised tool replacing an opoyaska, the successful fellow did for a belt (a belt, a trouser pocket, clothes on one side, a leg to a knee, a trouser-leg) and a collar (a shoulder to an elbow, a sleeve, a pocket, a neck, clothes on a back or a breast) (fig. 3). If fought against a naked torso, fight took place in a grasp without obligatory coupling of hands "in the lock".

The first descriptions of fight on opoyaska appeared at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century F.K. Zobnin the first pointed to a way of putting on of an opoyaska through one shoulder and around himself [1894. Page 53]. N.M. Chukmaldin reported only the name — "under corbels" [1997. Page 95]. Field researches in the village of Kamenka of the Tyumen district allowed to specify that N.M. Chukmaldin's message was connected with festive exhibition events and the fight called by it "under corbels" represents, in fact, fight on opoyaska [PMA, the Tyumen district, 2002]. In 1924 the local press avariciously reported about fight in the village of Kamenka [A rural holiday. 1924. Page 2]. In 1926 the short mention of the name of fight — "Russian" appears, it joined in the program of carrying out the sports evenings recommended by party bodies [GUTO GASPITO. T. 21. Op. 1. 59. L. 55]. The following written message about this fight appeared only in the 90th of the 20th century A. Potrepalov recorded confessional accessory of the practicing fighters — "conservatives", their jealous relation to maintaining traditions, the name of fight — "rusky", a way of putting on of an opoyaska — through the left shoulder and that is especially important, a way of hold in hands for an opoyaska [1995. Page 46]. This message accurately indicates difference of fight of this type from others, recorded at Russians earlier. At the beginning of XX! century A. Suetin recorded and described fight on opoyaska in the south of the Tyumen region [2006].


Author of drawings A.V. Melnikov, senior teacher of department of modern and contemporary history of Institute of history and political sciences of TyumGU.

Fig. 1. Ways of putting on of an opoyaska

Fig. 2. Way of capture of an opoyaska

Fig. 3. A way of fight without opoyaska of the right handed fighter against the lefthander

These descriptions finish a circle of authentic written certificates on this type of fight. But there are bases to believe that about this fight the resident of Tyumen N.V. Kalugin wrote in the memoirs [2002. Page 54-55], local historian A.L. Yemelyanov [2002. Page 90], writer M. Oskolkov [1999. Page 132]. Perhaps, the same fight disappears under the name "fight in a grasp on opoyaska". It was recommended to clubs by the management of the County Council of Physical Education (CCPE) as one of educational tools of rural youth during the summer period [GUTO GASPITO. T. 9. Op. 1. 54. L. 95]. The similar description of fight in the 30th of the 20th century was left by A.I. Vishnevsky and A.A. Sokolov [Gorbunov, 1997. Page 53]. However the lack of additional information does not give to the author of article the chance to draw exact conclusions on this fight and the territory of its distribution.

Not numerous messages and lack of additional information, especially ethnographic, did not allow authors of descriptions of fight to characterize it in full and to give scientific treatment. B.V. Gorbunov considers this type of competitions a kind of fight "on belts" with capture of a belt on a waist and therefore did not include it in the classification table as the separate type of fight occurring at Russians. As a result the author draws a conclusion that in Western Siberia the "zone" fight which was a Turkic element in the Russian competitions [Gorbunov, 1997 sharply prevailed. Page 52-54, 59, 73].

Today only ethnographic researches are able to collect additional information on ways of fight on belts and its origin. At the end of XX — the beginning of the 21st century this type of fight was recorded in Sverdlovsk region by specialists in folklore of "The house of folklore" of Yekaterinburg, in the Perm region researchers of historical and ethnographic club Russian Field of Perm, in the Yalutorovsk district of the Tyumen region ethnographers of the Omsk state university, in Isetsky, Ishim and Berdyuzhsky districts historians from the Tyumen higher education institutions. The similar type of fight, but without special opoyaska recorded A.S. Tedo-radze in a number of settlements of the Tambov region [2002. Page 138]. During the expeditions of 20012007 the author of article managed to collect considerable field material on fight "on opoyaska" in villages of the South of the Tyumen region, Tugulymsky and Tavda districts of Sverdlovsk region, Shatrovsky district of the Kurgan region, regions of Northern Kazakhstan. New materials were collected by observation, poll, audio-, photo, video fixings. The methods of the scientific description, comparative-historical analysis, retrospective reconstruction, an experiment applied in work give the grounds for definition of problems of genesis, evolution, dynamics, classification, terminology and an area of this type of competitions.

In Western Siberia this fight had the following names: "on belts", "under corbels", "in corbels", "Siberian", "rural", "country", just "fight", "in an okhotka", "on the manumission", "on belts", "in manual", "amateur", "the Russian / ruskaya", but is more often "on opoyaska".

Similar ways and types of fight meet at the Balkan Slavs — "for ramen" [Mandzyak, 2002. Page 338], "at koshtats" [Mandzyak, 2005. Page 269]. They genetically go back to fight "in a grasp", known at Russians as "the Russian cross", "in a cross", at Ukrainians — "for krizh, at Belarusians — "at a hapka" [Gorbunov, 1997. Page 49, 50], at Serbians — "at krst", at Czechs, Slovaks — "zapas v obchvatu", at British and Scots — "kumberlendsky", "vestmorlendsky", "Scottish" styles, at Swedes — "gripa om", at Finns — "sylipaini", at Albanians — "krahash ose belash" [Mandzyak, 2005. Page 31, 35, 36, 79, 81, 270, 319], at Kabardians and Circassians — "bgyk1e be-ne" [Mandzyak, 2002. Page 163].

Transition from mutual connection of two hands "in the lock" on the opponent's back at fight "in a grasp" to connection of hands by means of the successful fellow for a belt was the beginning of origin of such fight. Perhaps, in parallel, there was a process of fixing of the successful fellow for a collar and the rival's belt that as practice shows to strengthen impact on corps of the opponent due to tough fixing of hands on clothes. Formation of the Russian fight "on opoyaska" probably went under the influence of other Russian types of fight — "for a neck" and "on belts". In fight "for a neck" rivals carry out the fixed capture by one hand for a collar of clothes and any captures for legs, hands and the case a free hand. In fight "on belts" hold in both hands for the rival's belt was fixed.

"on opoyaska" with other types of fight tell about relationship of the Russian fight not only some general names: "Russian", "on belts", "for a collar...", but also the return transformation in genetically related forms, even at preservation of an opoyaska (fig. 4).

Despite a number of common features with other types, the Russian fight "on opoyaska" is a separate type of fight. It is distinguished: 1) existence of the special tool — an opoyaska; 2) features of the successful fellow for an opoyaska in the course of a duel; 3) broad existing (Urals, Western Siberia, Northern Kazakhstan). In this area it practically replaced with itself fight "in a grasp", meeting purely extremely seldom. According to some informants, so fought also in Kursk region. But these messages demand additional data.

Fig. 4. Stages formation of the Russian fight "on opoyaska" and its transformation

A.S. Tedoradze explains transition to hold "for a collar and a belt with" climatic factors, i.e. difficulty of carrying out capture "in the lock" in the conditions of fight in autumn and winter clothes [2002. Page 138]. But in Siberia, according to us, fight during the winter period was organized quite seldom. Generally competitions suited since the spring and until the end of fall therefore we consider that the reason of use of an opoyaska is an expansion of tactical technical capabilities of the fighter. From fight "in a grasp" which is conducted closely with capture of hands "in the lock" it is distinguished by various work at three distances of fight (closely, near, average

(distance of outstretched arms)) and three sections of hands (brush, forearm, shoulder). In this fight the range of technical actions considerably increased, the dexterity factor amplified, movement skills which more met the basic need for safety in case of the conflict were formed.

That the opoyaska did not rub a neck, fabric (manufactory) bought soft. Colors, as a rule, were monophonic — white, blue, red, green. In a number of villages there were color preferences: for example, in the Tyumen district in the village of Kamenka of an opoyaska, bought at the auction, were red, and in the village of Salairka — blue, black. In other villages of an opoyaska could be different coloring. Except a manufactory used the embroidered towels, woven belts and belts. Some opoyask had inscriptions spiritual (fragments of prayers), parting, love contents or with the indication of a name of the owner. For example: "Yes God will revive...", "Whom I love, I give that...".

Usually in fight two opoyaska which purchase was paid by organizers of competitions were used. Before revolution it were prosperous men, merchants, heads of exhibition committees, later — representatives of the Village Councils. But quite often local fighters (б&орщики) came everyone from the opoyasky.

Before to tie the opoyaska shouldered around a waist, on one side previously did twist ("parcel handle"), svivy to an opoyask in one direction 3-4 times, or did single knot (fig. 1). It was necessary for convenient hold in a hand. Densely to record an opoyaska on a waist, on other side its ends were given up on a double knot one bow. The remained ends hanged down to knees. In the village of Kamenka of the Tyumen district preferred to do on one side twist, and in the neighboring villages Kuliga and Sorokina — single knot.

That it was convenient to left-handed fighter to fight against right handed, he could tie an opoyaska on the rival's body through the left shoulder, or just change capture, fixing hold in hands not for twist on one side, and for knot with a bow the left hand and for a belt on a back right, or to make heteronymic hold in hands for the case (fig. 3). Most likely, A. Potrepalov's informant was a left-handed fighter as described a way of putting on of an opoyaska through the left shoulder [Potre-palov, 1995. Page 46].

If the clothes were festive, it was taken off and the opoyaska was tied on a naked body if the clothes were strong, daily — that to an opoyask put on over it (fig. 1). During fight the rigid footwear was taken off not to cripple legs to the rival. Fought barefoot or in woolen socks if was damp — in soft leather teals (fig. 1), as a last resort in boots (brodnyakh), in the winter in valenoks (pim).

Competitions in fight were held to the holidays, everyday life, weekend and trade and exhibition days dated for the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar. The intensity of competitions changed in connection with carrying out seasonal agricultural works or weather conditions. In festive, exhibition and the days off fight was traditionally carried out in the same place, in the settlement or beyond its limits. Characteristic venues were: the central square on which were located church the shop or board, the intersection is expensive behind the village or in the village, a glade in a grove, the height, the river bank, lakes, a pond. In order to avoid injuries when falling tried to choose the dry sandy or grassy place. On weekdays the adults could organize competitions in the field during rest or near shop during long turn. In the cities the fight was carried out most often on Sundays and church holidays which were lawful weekend [Kalugin, 2002. Page 54-55]. Fight was arranged in the summer on lawns near pubs which were the ordinary place of gatherings of workers and served as clubs for the whole area [Mishin, 1934. Page 34].

Fight gained really mass character in villages only on sjezzhy patronal feast days when guests from different villages, villages and even the cities gathered, including dozens of the strongest hunters to fight. In a number of villages, for example the village of Kamenka, inflow of guests increased because of the auction held on holiday. After solemn service in the temple all gathered on the spacious and beautiful place. In "a lordly circle" fought, played others and danced under an accordion [Potrepalov, 1995. Page 6].

The national list of participants not always was uniform. Together with Russians the Germans coming to a holiday, malorossa, Belarusians, Zyrians, Tatars, Chuvashs, Kazakhs, etc. could take part in fight. Weight categories were absent, but there were divisions on age: teenagers, young men, adult guys and married men, old men. Around fighters the circle of "green hedge" from women, old men, children, men gathered. The heat and passion of a duel could be such,

that fans began suit rates on the winner. Sometimes fighters in a private order staked on themselves at the time of a descent on a duel with other borshchik — "I put a quarter that my victory!". If it lost, beyond it there could be his companion, disclosing — "I on вы-куп&а", "I fight on выкуп&а" or "стойм&я" that meant "I redeem it the rate" or "I get up for it". Women, as a rule, acted as the audience fans, but there were exceptions when they struggled with men as equals and won (carried away a circle). Old men acted as authoritative judges in final instance. Skilled famous fighters were organizers of all action and at the same time strategists, defining sequence of an exit of fighters of the party — "Well, Give You!". Representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (police officers, militiamen), if were present, controlled an order and tranquility. Chairmen of collective farms and state farms could perform their functions, they awarded winners. Before revolution of rural fighters prosperous peasants awarded if fight took place at a fair, winners were awarded by merchants and representatives of exhibition committees.

B.V. Gorbunov notes 6 signs of division into contradictory parties (territorial, professional, class, confessional, ethnic) and their combinations [1997. Page 62]. In Western Siberia the following principles of division prevailed:

— territorial — men of the different ends of the settlement ("the end for the end"), the village on the village, the Village Council on the Village Council competed;

— territorial and professional — fight of soldiers of different divisions and types of military forces, recruits from different cars;

— ethnoprofessional — fight of soldiers of different nationalities, for example Uzbeks with Russians;

— confessional — fight of Old Believers (conservatives, dvoyedan, quitrent, Kerzhakov) with Orthodox Christians (м&ирскими). This type of fight was characteristic of representatives of both religious trends of Orthodoxy.

— ethnoterritorial — Russians and Zyrians;

— territorial and ethnoconfessional — fight of representatives of the Russian and Tatar villages.

Fight was carried out to standing positions. Special requirements to a rack were absent. Hold for twist was stationary, the second hand could slide on an opoyaska and make defensive actions. Opoyask played a lever role. With its help the additional impact on the rival's design was created. At twist shift the options of tactical and technical actions increased by a stomach or a waist. Besides, fighters for more successful throw tried to use small slopes of the wrestling platform if those were available.

In the attack used the deceptive and holding-down movements, pushes, pressure, breakthroughs, pandiculations (including a thumb) (fig. 5), infringements. The last were carried out by means of the twisting, sawing, pressing actions by hands and opoyask. Receptions — the separate finished actions by a throw or dumping were the main technical action.

Receptions, similar in mechanics, united in groups. They had capacious figurative names:

1. "From withers" (with a holochka, holochka, bederka, through withers, a hip, a bederka to take on withers, a bederka, from a shovel, through edges) — throws through a hip, a back, podbiva and pickups by a hip.
2. "From a sock" (through a sock to take on a sock, to podshibat a leg, to line with a leg, to strike from a sock) — podbiva a manual part of the sole of legs of the opponent, dumping and pushes, throws with preliminary treading on a leg to the rival.
3. "From a hook" (from a hook, a hook, a hook, a footboard, from a footboard to take on a hook, to take from a hook, on a hook, a hook internal, external, top, lower, to braid, take the screw, to zakryuchit, zapetlit) — footboards, hooks a shin and foot, obviva, otkhvata, podbiva a shin, cuttings from within in a knee (foot emphasis), some subgardens.
4. "From a heel" (through a heel to take on a heel, to podshibat a heel) — hooks a heel, foot, a part of cuttings in a knee ("back cuttings in a knee" a foot emphasis).
5. "From a knee" (through a knee to take on a knee, through стегн&о) — throws a hip subgarden, through a knee with preliminary push-up of a knee of the opponent from within or outside.
6. "With it is nimble" (to take on верт&ок, верт&ок, on force, hands) — stalls of the opponent breakthrough or a press to the right/to the left or forward/back.
7. "From a circle" (a circle to take on a circle) — dumping of the opponent removal from balance by untwisting of the opponent in the horizontal plane, with use of centrifugal and centripetal force.
8. "To besiege" (an osazhivaniye, to put on a bum, to put on a korchazhka, to break a back) — dumping of the opponent on a back a press or a push.
9. "Through a back" (through themselves, under edges, from a shovel) — throws like "mill" at which the fighter rolls the opponent's trunk through shoulders are bright through a back, a shoulder, revolutions.
10. "Basement" (from the basement, a podvalets, on a head, through the head) — throws through a breast, the head in falling.

Fig. 5. Capture for a neck

The pushes and pressings by the head, a breast, fists crushing actions by the building, elbows, forearms and also infringements separately were not allocated and had no name. Captures of legs were rare. First, the style of fight did not assume initially such captures, secondly, there was a real danger to be hit accidental blow by a knee in a face.

A number of technical actions do not give in to classification due to the lack of accurate criteria of correctness of performance of any given reception. So, on the mechanics separate technical actions in group of throws "through a back" and "from withers" and also in group of throws "from a hook", "from a heel" and "from a sock" coincide. Not accidentally A. Suetin classifies throws "with the Piglet" and "from a sock" as a kind of "hook" of [2006]. It means that treated names conditionally as the task to estimate actions on points for effectiveness and technology of separate reception was not set, as in modern sport.

Names united fight in a system, systematized and classified knowledge of an image content, made available to understanding and development. Names were given:

— on association with a subject: withers — the highest part of pelvic bones of a cow; the sock/heel is the sharp/stupid, acting part of any thing; a hook the — the bent, sharp, acting, clinging part of any thing; it is nimble — a revolution; a circle — a circle, a round dance, the screw — twist, a korchazhka — the low sleigh, a stump, a pot;

— to characteristic action: to twirl, twist, cling, braid, (under) to bring down, (o) to sit down, to break, take, to podshibat, strike, line, urge forward, to take, on force, to untwist, give about the earth, to throw out, put, zapetlit, to zakryuchit;

— to associative action: it is nimble — pereverot, "to rake up the Lithuanian", "to mow", the basement — falling with a revolution, to zapetlit — to throw with a loop, to zakryuchit — to pick up on a hook or to turn, "to throw into prisiadka", "to pripechatat to the earth", from above to hlestanut;

— to a lever support place of application: under a stomach, edges, a stone, a knee, from a sock, a stomach, a breast;

— throw trajectories: through the head, a hip / stegno to throw before itself, to throw out for itself;

— to a way of falling of the opponent: on the head, a basin;

— to a way of application of force: put, struck in the earth (to give about the earth), to pripechatat, thrust, break.

two tactical systems of carrying out a duel Existed:

1) everyone for;
2) collective on collective (party on party, a wall on a wall).

As a rule, the duel began with a verbal priming and physical colliding by adults of kids to fight. Then impersonal verbal calls on a duel "Well followed, we will fight!", "Borshchik is!?" or personal calls like "Went to fight!", "Poborim-sya!?". The verbal call could be followed by a potryakhivaniye on an outstretched arm of the second opoyaska. At the end of a duel the winner under shouts "Hurrah!" removed the opoyaska and threw it up [Poe-trepalov, 1995. Page 6].

The duel was carried out by the principle "in private, on the winner". One or several couples at the same time competed. Fought so, "that opoyask cracked", "necks erased in blood", "week rested in bed". Losers did not leave to fight any more though exceptions to the rules met. The winner of a duel remained to fight against the following the fighter who contacted him, and so to the absolute winner. Therefore in the "collective on collective" system of fighters exposed in a certain sequence to exhaust fights of strong fighters of the opponent, saving the power of the on the final matches.

For a victory it was necessary to drop twice the rival (сг&алить), it is desirable on "back", "shovels", "to usalit on all shovels", "four bones", "four shovels" or on "three points" with falling on a knee, a hand, a basin. Time of fight is not limited. In case of the score 1:1 fought "on the winner" the third time. If both fell, the one who after mutual falling appeared from above the rival won. If when falling rivals the result was disputable, fought to a new throw. However there were cases when the fight came to an end ahead of schedule after the first throw: "... sometimes will so strongly throw that friends under hands brought out of a circle, even you cannot breathe".

Also local features are noted; for example, an indispensable condition was:

— to fight only to the first throw;

— to fight all three times even at the score 2:0 (the third fight is a duel revenge with the intriguing name "to mother-in-law's time");

— it is simple to press the opponent to the earth or to defeat him.

Sometimes victory conditions, especially at any disputes, made a reservation individually. So, the victory could be included only after the rival's throw in the small circle drawn on the earth or through a low fence.

Winners received opoyask of the fighters defeated by it. Some of fighters stored opoyask until the end of the life, occasionally getting from a chest that poshchegolyat in them during holidays to remind of themselves and the deserved victories. Before revolution, in certain cases — and later, before the Great Patriotic War, the winner could receive a decent cut of matter, a fur coat, several buckets of wine, put on lands, and even to win a race horse. The won party received approving praises of fellows villager and an opportunity to continue a holiday at the laid table. The lost guys left under reproaches and sneers of girls. In individual disputes б&орщик could win an accordion, the cart with a horse, the right of the first journey or pass on the narrow road, etc. Fight at the initiative of the girl the right of one of two guys who were pleasant to it to look after it could be solved. The right to call the village on the surname was an exceptional case. So, on a local legend, the dispute of pervoposelenets and founders of of Rechkin of the Tyumen district, a certain Rechkina and Choubina was resolved.

The strongest fighters gained a victory over 5-20 rivals in a row, but there were also glorified fighters gaining more considerable victories. For example, Frolka Potrepalov "obaryvat" 20-30 people [Potrepalov, 1995. Page 6], Antoshka Lazarev — 70 [Chukmaldin, 1997. Page 95]. Artemy Ivanovich Kobylnikov, the fighter of the village of Salairka of the Tyumen district, took on the village in droshky sitting in wattled decorated to a box and with joyful shouts "Artyusha, from me! Artyusha, from me!" brought glasses alcohol. The strongest fighters intentionally looked for equal borshchik, coming to other villages, villages, even from other counties, provinces, areas and solved a dispute an honest duel and honest recognition of personal defeat or a victory. As a rule, in each village said that their fighter was better, than the fighter of other village.

The glorified fighters held big authority and trust in the village. As a rule, their honest conducting business, force and sharpness were shown in work, the business and personal relations. Therefore fellows villager tried to nominate them to positions, important for all community.

The people did not set a task of deep theoretical studying fight. Therefore fight remained a competition with a set of individual applied skills which were enough for participation in duels and the solution of applied tasks. The model of a competitive duel was significantly transformed to situations of real fight. The fighter could break the opponent blow against the earth, throw on any subject, "to draw apart a backbone", to use improvised objects for striking blows, for example batog (stick) [GUTO GATO. F. and-74. Op. 1. 4391. L. 44; 4398. L. 92] to be enough, throw, to beat the opponent about a floor, having seized him by hair ("to give the bell ringer"), a beard, a throat [GUTO GATO F. and-74. Op. 1. 4396. L. 46, 63; 4390. L. 55 about.; 4398. L. 92; 4407. L. 9 about.] to beat and trample down legs [GUTO GATO. F. and-74. Op. 1. 4407. L. 9 about.; 4396. L. 7, 8 about., 9, 9 about., 19, 26, 63, 74; 4399. L. 15 about.] to hit with a knee into a groin, a face, the head "to Kalgan" in the face, a neck, a breast, hands, including blows by an edge of a palm "sekirky", "to hit into a flax (cervical vertebras)", "to cut a flax", "on a neck sideways", "on a throat", "to dry hands (biceps, a forearm)", "to beat calves (in a hand biceps)". At the same time wrestling skills were an essential part of the general skills of conducting hand-to-hand fight.

Fight accustomed since childhood. Main principles of training:

— presentation, i.e. copying of movements — "Repeat after Me", "Look and Do as I". At the same time there was a visual, acoustical, muscular storing of information. Originally boys participated in fight as observers. The bright example created general idea about fight: criteria of a victory, captures, terminology;

— activity, i.e. independent creative search during a duel: "Fight, and fight will teach you". Growing up, the child learned to interact with the opponent on a situation and to adjust technical actions and separate receptions;

— consciousness, i.e. judgment of personal and others' technical actions: "Watch how others fight", "Notice who has what ways". Observing, and then personally participating, teenagers learned to compare actions, to see similarities and distinctions, to mentally unite separate throws in groups, to notice the private successful moments in the general course of a duel, to exchange finds and to use them.

Methods of training in fight were:

1. Oral corrections of actions, i.e. hints as "Rake Up the Lithuanian, Went to Mow!", "Beat & #34; холкой" under a stone (femur), line you will dump!", "Untwisted, lifted, threw!".
2. Natural display in couple, i.e. an educational duel: "Let's go I will show how to fight!". The educational duel could pass at an initial stage in a giveaway chess to weaker, and in process of experience to become complicated to a duel half or full force.

Durability of assimilation of receptions and tactical actions was reached by repeated systematic duels with peers during rest or festive festivities. Practice prevailed over the theory that made national fight idle time, the most available to understanding, mass training and transfer since early age. Fight was a part of the unified information system of national culture. Even at big loss of the population information was saved within traditional collective, and fight was reproduced the next generation through practice.

One week prior to holidays of the man gathered in the convenient location and arranged preparatory duels during the whole week. The food allowance and intensity of work changed. "Inveterate" fighters athletes gained strength: worked less, ate more meat, fishes and bread if the church tradition allowed.

National holidays with church service, mass festivities, fight, carousels, round dances brought together all generations. They were institute of transfer of traditions to children, strengthened intercommunal, international, friendly, family relations, and together with the auction — and economic relations. At the same time the holiday performed function of ontologic communication good luck, detuning of consciousness, correction of behavior and a psychoemotional condition of attendees. Fight as a part of a holiday was one of symbols of male unity, united the rest of community: old men, women, children. Informants remember fight as the essential and bright element of a holiday attracting all to the scene of action.

B.V. Gorbunov notes two blocks of functions of traditional competitions:

1) social (military and applied, education and socialization, control of level of training, entertainment, spectacular and emotional, compensatory, communicative);
2) archaic (ritual and magic, ceremonial, socialization, common law) [1997. Page 78-108].

The relevance of these functions depended on individual basic needs of competitors. Into the forefront in various situations various functions acted individually. In our opinion, it is necessary to add to noted social functions, more precisely, compensatory improvement not only an emotional and mental, but also physical state. Some informants note that they fought only to warm up bones that fight, as well as measured work, strengthens an organism. In our opinion, communicative function provided not only unity of collective, but also development of international communications as representatives of various nationalities participated in Siberia in duels. Except military-political and social functions, competitions sometimes performed economic functions (earnings). The organization of competitions was interested both fighters and their parties, and merchants and exhibition committees. The strongest fighters and their party could win prize-winning horses worth 100-500 rub (at the cost of a working horse of 10-15 rub) [Oskolkov, 1999. Page 132]. Such prizes were paid by rich merchants and exhibition committees. Organizing a show, they were interested in inflow of buyers and sellers for receiving profit at the auction. At the same time the strongest fighters were employed for protection and protection against robbers of trade merchant and country wagon trains. A duel of fighters disputes between merchants were solved. Therefore fight directly and indirectly contributed to the development of local trade, growth of welfare, development of economic relations.

The relation of the authorities and the public to fight was ambiguous. In 1863. The Tobolsk governor general, forbidding fisticuffs in Tyumen, at the same time forbade also fight [GUTOGAT. T. 152. Op. 32. 269. L. 5]. At the Soviet power some public members demanded to forbid fight because of the happening injuries — dislocations of hands and legs [A rural holiday. 1924. Page 2], but in general the authorities recommended classes fight.

the Mechanism of destruction of traditional culture was started by

long before the revolution, during an era of the Synod period of Russian Orthodox Church. Officials and church administration, compromising itself in the opinion of the people, lost control over spiritual space. At the same time the intellectuals and commoners under the influence of the Western European thought the circulations in the people generated revolution in minds of his most active representatives. Having changed the attitude to throne, Church, the patristical doctrine about the person, belief, they set a vector of spiritual development of society in the plane of change of the horizontal physical world. Capture of spiritual space and psychoemotional destabilization led to a revolutionary revolt and creation of the state, new on ideology. In the 20th of the 20th century under the contract with the Soviet power for refusal to influence spiritual space the administration of ROC kept the status. The priests who did not refuse influence in the USSR were isolated or liquidated. Repressions concerned also old men of confessors from the circle of Old Believers. Books of spiritual contents were withdrawn from the believing peasants. And though the village continued to celebrate cheerfully holidays, and men — actively to fight on them up to the Great Patriotic War, it was already modified culture deprived of Christian ontology which main goal was a spiritual vertical, God-seeking in itself, a spiritual bond and spiritual standing "for the friend the".

From the second half of the 20th century the fading of national traditions amplified. Huge human losses in the Great Patriotic War in which the most active carriers of male traditions, the post-war hunger which interrupted festive life of the village and outflow of country people, especially youth, to the cities after issue of passports in 1962 perished affected. The views of rural youth changed, it began to join city fashion, music, entertainments. Connection between generations and mutual understanding were broken. Old men — carriers of traditions were left without successors. The traditional schedule of household and festive life was violated. Ancient holidays were replaced with new secular. Labor communal traditions were lost. The male population of the village hit in alcoholism, slow marginalization of the village began. Family relations, mutual aid weakened. Collapsing in the village, the community could not (vos) be created in the city. Poe-trepalov to political reasons of the power tried vospre-

to pyatstvovat to any informal associations. The similar situation was with the church community during Khruschev's fight against religion. The senior generation still remembers how after church service the combatants and militia arranged detention of parishioners. So old men and youth lost institutes of continuity of communal traditions without which there was no sense to arrange fight. And new sports, such as sambo, free-style, Greco-Roman wrestling, judo, began to compete with traditional fight as they met basic public requirements of time more. The above-mentioned reasons led to the fact that the Russian national fight completely lost the relevance and could not perform former functions. It concerned all traditional culture. In the national republics the traditional types of fight sometimes enriched by technique of sambo that could not be told about the Russian types of fight were cultivated. Russians as the cementing nation to fasten and dissolve other nations within community — "Soviet plank beds

Lora Claribel
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