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Local and cooperative industry of the Baikal region: dynamics of development and structure of problems (1941-1945)





During reorganization of work of the local industry of the Baikal region on a military harmony it was necessary to solve problems of development of new types of products, supply with raw materials and materials, uses of local raw material resources and many others. The majority of the economic and social problems existing at the enterprises of the local and cooperative industry of the region in military years took place and during the pre-war period. From the beginning of war these problems became aggravated, gained specifics peculiar to wartime.

At the enterprises of the local industry there was not enough production equipment, means of mechanization, manual work prevailed that could not but influence development of products of defensive value. Such difficulties, in particular, arose at the Irkutsk shoe factory where there were no necessary materials, the new equipment for release of special orders, at the same time still it was required to train workers who had to start production for needs fronta1. Also the felting and felt factory of Ulan-Ude, other enterprises regiona2 had similar problems. Considerably idle times because of interruptions in supply with the electric power complicated work, deficiency of spare parts to cars, etc. 3 Interruptions in supply with raw materials and materials often were the main reason for failure to follow production plans, idle times of workers and the equipment. From the beginning of war many economic communications were broken that led to considerable deterioration in supply of the local enterprises with the materials necessary for production. The received sub-standard raw materials directly affected quality of the made products. The local industry lacked the sharpest such materials as iron, timber, leather, chemicals, sheepskins and drugiye4.

In conditions when the centralized supply practically stopped, the local industry could function, having only carried out transition completely to local raw materials. For performance of these tasks the range of products was reconsidered, internal raw material and human resources were found, specialized artels on collecting and processing of junk were created. One of the directions of this work the population which received the name davalcheskogo5 had a purchase of raw materials.

At the same time it should be noted that, despite an acute shortage of consumer goods, the enterprises of the local industry often could not sell the products to consumers. It was connected, first of all, with poor quality released by the local industry and cooperation of goods, and also with not operational work of trade organizations. Only at the enterprises of the Irkutsk Oblmestprom by the end of August, 1941 accumulated unrealized products for the sum of 180,619.85 rubles of 6

During the considered period there were difficulties in providing the enterprises of the local and cooperative industry with fuel. It was possible to satisfy the need for it only due to development of local fuel resources. The Ir-kutskmestugol trust was created that gave the chance to open mines local znacheniya7. In this regard in the region, measures to search of deposits of coal were taken, coal mining widely began to be applied in the economic way, the enterprises opened own mines.

Transport belonged to the main problems of the local industry in the years of war. The lack of vehicles was felt at all local enterprises of the region. On places started construction of the melkotonnazhny fleet, organized repair of the available means, tough account was adjusted

© YuA. Fomina, 2006


available vehicles. However even the available motor transport was not always used because of deficiency of liquid fuel. This problem in the years of war by means of production of motor fuel from sapropelit and coals was solved. For this purpose in the Irkutsk region mines began to be developed and at them the plants running liquid fuel on the basis of small and medium installations were under construction. In 1942 were constructed the sapropelitovy mine to Budagovo and the plant of liquid fuel in Usolye-Sibirskoye8.

Except the designated problems the lack of the new equipment, directive planning when local authorities led up plans seriously constrained development of the local industry and cooperation, without taking the available resources, production potential, presence of qualified personnel into consideration. All this directly affected as the range of the made products, and its quality. In reports of representatives of authorities following the results of inspection of the local industry these problems were constantly noted, it was pointed out poor quality of such products as barrels, tubs, furniture, spoons, carts and also different types remonta9.

Development of the local industry was impossible without solution of a complex of problems of social character. In many respects depended on the solution of these problems security of the enterprises with labor. It was of especially great importance in relation to artels, being far from the regional centers, transport communications and having heavy conditions truda10. In such conditions especially great value got research of additional power supplies as workers of the local industry received bread and other food on the minimum norms. In particular, the standard daily rate of delivery of bread on the worker was 300 grams, employees received 200, and dependents of 100 grams hleba11. At the same time not all enterprises had table, and some even received bread with big interruptions.

For the purpose of improvement of food at the enterprises of the local industry began to create departments of working supply which formed the hunting crews which are engaged in shooting of wild animals, fishing on the available reservoirs, collecting wild-growing

berries, mushrooms, ramson, berries. The additional food received thus were passed to public p-taniye12. At all shortcomings and difficulties of the organization of the decentralized supply it gave significant addition to a food allowance of workers.

Supply was carried out also due to creation at the enterprises of network of subsidiary farms. Subsidiary farms of the ogorodnoovoshchny and livestock direction existed at some enterprises in 1941, but they gained the greatest development in military years. Cabbage, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, beet and oats were the main grown-up cultures. Despite low productivity and high labor input, thanks to subsidiary farms of the enterprise of the local industry received necessary additional food which allowed to improve a food allowance at the enterprises local about-myshlennosti13.

The organization of collective and individual truck farming was one more direction in the organization of the decentralized supply. On April 7, 1942 there was a resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and SNK USSR "About allocation of lands for subsidiary farms and under kitchen gardens of workers and employees". Local councils allocated to the enterprises and institutions the land plots, provided gardeners with tools, organized plowing of the earth.

The solution of the problem of shots at the enterprises of the local and cooperative industry was complicated also by a housing problem. Not all local enterprises of the region had hostels that interfered with involvement of labor from other areas.

Thus, in the years of war a number of the social and economic problems taking place at the enterprises of the local industry of the Baikal region had important impact on their production activity. The gradual solution of these questions promoted successful development of new types of products, performance of planned targets, increase in labor productivity.

1 GANIIO. T. 159. Op. 6. 304. L. 11, 12, 14, 18.
2 NARB. T. 1-p. Op. 1. 4525. L. 168.
3 GANIIO. T. 159. Op. 6. 348. L. 81.
4 NARB. F. r-248. Op. 20. 210. L. 1.

IGEA 2006 news. No. 5 (50)


5 GANIIO. T. 127. Op. 1. 626. L. 11, 12.
6 GAIO. F. r-1292. Op. 1. 60. L. 3.
7 GANIIO. T. 127. Op. 1. 749. L. 98.
8 GANIIO. T. 127. Op. 17. 275. L. 290ob; Op. 1 748. L. 83; GAIO. F.r-1292. Op. 1. 74. L. 8.


graduate student

9 In the same place. 300. L. 105.
10 In the same place. 297. L. 220.
11 GANIIO. T. 127. Op. 17. 324. L. 32.
12 In the same place. Op. 1. 749. L. 98.
13 GAIO. F.r-2717. Op. 1. 4. L. 10, 11.


1937 finishing the second five-years period became year of formation of the Irkutsk region. He put a peculiar end in the history of edge and gave start new undertakings including in the field of national education.

In 1937 — 1953 the school was faced by a problem of attraction of the maximum number of citizens to education (at least initial). This trend received the name in a historiography "implementation of a general compulsory education". Solving an objective, the soviet leadership had to create optimal conditions for a general compulsory education: construction and adaptation of school buildings, material equipment of school, preparation of pedagogical shots for work at schools.

Significant increase in number of comprehensive schools and pupils in them became the first step of the Soviet power on the way of implementation of a general compulsory education. In comparison with 1937/38 academic year in 1952/53 academic year the total number of schools increased by 1.4 times, i.e. from 1427 to 1934 respectively. And the number of pupils in them increased by 8 times: from 27.2 thousand people in 1937/38 academic year up to 218.3 thousand people in 1952/53 godu1. Growth of the contingent and higher education institutions, both technical schools, and normal schools was from 16 to 50 (by 3 times) and according to pupils from 5165 to 46,225 people, i.e. 9 raz2.

Disproportionate growth of the contingent of pupils and school construction aggravated a problem of shortage of school rooms. In Irkutsk and area till 1935 it was not constructed any school (all buildings were adapted). The situation with school construction and adaptation of buildings is presented in tab. 13.

Apparently from the provided data, for the specified period the number of schools increased only by 4.7 times whereas the contingent of pupils grew almost by 11 times. Therefore, a problem of school construction at vyso-

ky indicators of building and introduction of schools to operation before war it was not solved.

Table 1 Network and the contingent of schools of Irkutsk in 1937-1941

Year Quantity schools, piece Quantity places at schools

the general again on- the general entered

quantity stroyenno quantity in operation

1934 30 - 5,040
1935 36 - 9,120
1936 66 16,020
1937 108 42 35,760 19,740
1938 136 27 50,360 14,600
1940 141 7 53,520 3,160

In the field of development of national education the war had the greatest impact on plans. It aggravated a deficiency problem of school rooms even more. In the years of the war in Irkutsk 30 hospitals worked, 18 of them were located in buildings shkol4.

Despite war, the attention of the central authorities to school affairs did not weaken. In 1942 work on revision of the curriculum and school programs was resumed. In the years of war a number of Government decrees concerning school was also adopted ("About involvement in schools of all children of school age and use of school buildings not to destination", "About rules for pupils", "About introduction of a digital gain score of five mark systems and behavior both the gold and silver medals studying", "About strengthening of discipline at school", "About introduction of examinations on the school-leaving certificate", "About reception of children in the first class since seven years" and others).

For 1930 — the 1940th years sharply there was an attraction problem in schools of children and is young zhi which due to various reasons did not attend class and did not get an education. The problem was complicated by material difficulties of many families, shortage Inter -

© E.G. Delegeoz, 2006

Mattie Smith
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