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Geographical description of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line

s. R. Muratova


Work is presented by department of a historiography and source study of the Bashkir state university.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor R.G. Bukanova

In article on the basis of the analysis of historical documents and literature the geographical contour is recreated and the description of the Tobolo-Ishimsky defensive line built in 17521755 for the purpose of protection of steppe space ме^ду by the Tobol Rivers, Ishim and Irtysh is given.

In the article the geographical contour is reconstructed on the basis of the historical documents and literature analysis. The article describes the Tobol-Ishim defensive line, which was one of the parts of Siberian strengthened lines built in 1752-1755 for guarding of the steppe between the rivers Tobol, Ishim and Irtysh.

The Tobolo-Ishimsky defensive line was an important link in a chain of the Russian strengthened lines in Siberia, known under the general name - the Siberian strengthened lines. In historical literature it is accepted to call it the New line. It was constructed in 1752-1755 instead of the former Ishim line which owing to the curvature and oblongness demanded big expenses of means and forces for its contents.

The appeal to a problem of reconstruction of a geographical outline of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line is dictated by aspiration of reconstruction of borders of the Russian Empire of the end of the 18th century Besides, a research of history of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line today, as well as in general the Siberian lines, allows to clear up the history of settling and osvoye-

niya of the South of Western Siberia, emergence of settlements, formations of sociocultural image of this territory.

It should be noted that the subject of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line is studied insufficiently though in a subject research at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century the big contribution was made by officers and officials Siberian Cossack voyska1. In the middle and in the second half of the 20th century N.V. Gorban, A.F. Palashenkov, D.N. Fialkov and A.D. of Kolesnikov2 dealt with this problem.

Attraction of new archival sources allow to meet the available lacks in the history of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line. It should be noted that the first descriptions of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line, as well as other sites of the Siberian lines, appeared as a result of their inspection on a task

8 6

the governments only at the end of the 18th century: by this time geographical contours of the strengthened line were finally created. The main document according to which it is possible to give the consecutive description of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line is the result of inspection executed by the conductor

I a class Kovalyov under the direct guide of the general lieutenant Tuchkov therefore the geographical description of the line needs to be bound by the time of drawing up this document - 1785 3

The geographical description of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line is given by us in the direction from the West on the East as, beginning from the easternmost tip of the Orenburg line in South Ural, it logically continued the line of defense of the Russian state in the south of Western Siberia.

The space on which there passed this line represented sublime and almost bezlesy plain on which middle the Ishim River flew. Almost on all length of the line, from Ishim to Irtysh, from "the Kyrgyz side" a number of the fresh, salt and bitter lakes which were called Ka-myshlovsky on the Kamyshlovke River connecting many of them between soboy4 extended. In the geografo-physical description executed in 1780 it was said: "Between Ishim and Irtysh there is one hollow which lies lengthways on the line from South side and stretches 10 versts wide and more across the steppe. It consists of dirty to silt and is covered with prileska. On this hollow there is a set of small and big lakes which connect streams and swamps and make the so-called lake Kamysh-lovo... However, the lake Kamyshlovo everywhere solono, however is not identical". In the spring and in the summer this area turned into impassable swamps which blossomed and did air intolerable. From fetid evaporations of the drying-up swamps and lakes, from bad water people were ill, horses perished. The Russian officers serving on the line complained that they should thaw snow in the winter to give to drink loshadey5.

The Tobolo-Ishimsky line was divided into three distances: Tobolsk, Ishim and Tarsky. On the line 11 fortresses from which 2 were shestiugolny-m, and 9 - quadrangular were constructed; 33 redoubts and 42 lighthouses. But in 1753 according to the decision of the Senate the Alabuzhsky redoubt and Zverinogolovsky fortress were transferred to the Uysky line of the Orenburg province. Thus, on the New line remained hexagonal fortresses - 1, lighthouses - 416.

At the Tobolsk distance was

5 fortresses, one of which - Senzhar-Skye - by 1785 was abolished and was registered as redutny strengthening. Water in the lake Pre-sno-Senzharskom and in the winter, and was bad in the fall that was the cause of constant escapes of sluzhily people from lines. Perhaps, this circumstance became the main reason that at the end of the century we find instead of fortress quadrangular redutny strengthening, the area in
20 sazhen. Senzharsky redutny strengthening was in 18 versts 250 sazhens from Bolotokolodezny reduta7. Other fortresses - Presnogorkovskaya, Kabanya, Presnovskaya and Stanovaya - had an appearance of a regular quadrangle with four grounds and redant instead of bastions. All fortresses were strengthened by the horizontal ditches in 5 feet covered with a glacis. The lack of wells in fortresses reduced their defense capability. After survey of 1785 it was recommended to dig out wells in all fortresses.

The Tobolo-Ishimsky line originated from the Sandy redoubt which was out of the blue at distance

21 sazhens from the lake of the same name from which inhabitants could eat water. Approximately in 22 versts (21 versts 450 sazhens) from the Sandy redoubt there was a fortress Presnogorkovskaya. On the middle of this piece of the line there was a lighthouse where guard met during traveling. Around much the pine and birch forest grew, were hay pokosy8. Presnogorkovsky fortress was built on a ditch -

the number the place between lakes Fresh and Bitter which were from each other at distance 200 sazheney9. From the first lake, water could be eaten. Fortress was surrounded earth ukrepleniyem10. It "was taken away zaploty in columns around, with two travel gate and on some from the steppe party the tower is covered with a lathing, for zaploty slingshots and posts, in posts your gate with zakidny slingshots, the battery not a moshchena" 11.

At distance of 22 versts 250 sazhens from Presnogorkovsky fortress, also between lakes, out of the blue there was a Presnogorkovsky redoubt. In it officer front rooms, soldier's barracks were constructed. Strengthening was strengthened by posts from a pine: the pine forest was dostatochno12 around. From the Presnogorkovsky redoubt at distance of 22 versts 400 sazhens at the fresh lake Kabanyem, out of the blue, at distance of 38 sazhens from the high coast the fortress of the same name was put. It was constructed in 80 versts from Tsarev Ancient settlements. Be near, in

13 versts telezhny roads ran that created conveniences to transportation of provisions, goods and development economic svyazey13. A line piece between the Kabany fortress and Presnovsky fortress had additional protection: out of the blue, in 8 sazhens from the Fresh lake there was a redoubt of Presnoizbnyy14. On the high and flat place, at the same lake Fresh, from the birch wood it was put Presnov-Skye krepost15. Water in the lake in summertime blossomed and therefore around there was a close air.

The following strengthening - the Bolotokolodezny redoubt - received the name from the marsh lake near which it was constructed. At the end of the century the redoubt was postponed for other, higher place which was in 192 sazhens from an old redoubt. The old redoubt was enclosed wooden zaplotom16. Behind the Bolotokolodezny and Senzhar-sky redoubt, there was Stanovaya fortress. It was constructed "of birch

the wood on the high and flat place" between two fresh lakes: in 22 sazhens from the Stanovy lake of willows of 21 sazhens from Ubinno-go. In three versts from fortress on a path towards Ishim there was a salt lake where in the droughty summer ashore it was possible to get sol17. The space between fortresses of Stanovaya and Saint Peter was protected by two redoubts - Gagary and Skopiny. Both strengthenings were at fresh lakes and represented square redutny strengthening with a parapet and one banquet. From the outer side the redoubt was strengthened by a ditch in 10 feet, covered with a glacis.

At the Ishim distance also two quadrangular fortresses and also redoubts were built one hexagonal: Flat, Bear, Clean, Losev and Volchiy18. In the middle of the 18th century at this distance was

10 redoubts: Marsh, Flat, Between - lake, Chainkin, Nadgorny, Bear, Clean, Tarsky, Losev and Kolenoozernyy19. In 1759, 1760 - 1761, 1764 redoubts of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line - Irtyshny, Steppe, Dubrovny, Pustoozerny, lighthouses Bitter, Half, Solenoozerny, redoubts Tarsky, Gankin, the Kamyshlov lighthouse, redoubts Mezhduozerny, Marsh, Krivoozerny, redoubts dubrovny, Klavdinsky, Pervopresna, Vtoropresny, Seven-lake, Birch, Fresh - because of unfitness of lands for further accommodation and development were postponed for new places, and some of them unichtozheny20.

Hexagonal fortress of Saint Peter was constructed of the pine forest and was on the high mountain on the right side at the Ishim River. It was surrounded with shaft in 12 feet and a ditch. Fortress had the "regular" strengthening consisting of six grounds and ravelins. The profile of the building was presented by a parapet with two banquets and a horizontal ditch of 7 feet in depth, covered with a glacis. Fortress two low grounds, one surrounded them which was opposite to the river. The arrangement

was a big shortcoming

proviantsky shops out of fortress. They were in a retranshement, in 112 sazhens. Also in 107 sazhens from fortress there was a dangerous hillock from which the enemy could get the shots defending. Because of the small sizes of bastions and meanness of a shaft the enemy on a hillock was nedosyagayem21.

Opposite to Saint Peter's fortress through the Ishim River the ferry went. Under the mountain at the river it was constructed lazaret22. According to the official description of 1755 the fortress and a redoubt were enclosed with wooden walls, and slingshots and posts are put around. This fortress was main on the New line and served as the place of storage of weapons for all line. The location chosen for this fortress was convenient for the trade intercourses. Nearby there passed the caravan track from Central Asia. After construction of fortress this way appeared in safety from attacks of nomads. Therefore Saint Peter's fortress soon became the main point of barter with Khiva, Bukhara and Tashkent. The meadow side of the Ishim River gradually was populated with the bukharets who moved in borders of Russia, tashkentets and the Tatars who ran from the internal provinces of Russia. Russians originally made only military group. The number of inhabitants quickly grew, trade extended. Soon at Saint Peter's fortress the boundary customs was founded. By the end of the 18th century the main border check-point on trade of Russia and Siberia with Central Asia and by the sizes of the trade turnovers being inferior only to Kyakhta was formed here. The cattle driven by enormous herds from stepi23 was the most important branch of trade.

Fortress Midday stood at the fresh lake of the same name. Serf strengthening, of 34 sazhens, was regular, consisting of four grounds without krutin, like redanny strengthening - that is, instead of bastions were used redany24. Buildings in fortress were from the birch wood, nakhodivshe-

gosya in 15 versts from kreposti25. The interval between Saint Peter's fortresses and Poludenna protected a redoubt Flat of the 32 sazhens and having same building, as well as other redoubts on this line.

In an interval between fortresses Midday and Swan in the middle of the 18th century 4 redoubts were put: Gankin, Mountain, Bear and Clean. Unsuccessfully chosen place for the first two redoubts, became the reason of their abolition in the 60th of the 18th century. In winter time water was carried from other fresh sources here or kindled snow. The redoubt Bear had the same shortcomings. Besides it was constructed on the saline soil that did not give the chance to use well water. Therefore used melt water in the winter, and in the summer - water from the fresh Bear lake which blossomed at this time and let out various smells. But, unlike the first two redoubts, near Bear there was enough wood and hay mowings. The same can be told also about a redoubt Clean near which the well with fresh water was dug out. The last at this distance strengthening - fortress Swan of 31 sazhens - was at the lake of the same name and in the building was completely similar to Midday krepostyyu26.

Two quadrangular fortresses belonged to the Tarsky distance: Nikolaev and Pokrovsk; and also Kurgan, Steppe, Mill redoubts. Other redoubts in 1764 as it was noted above, were abolished.

The area on which the Nikolaev fortress was constructed was not rich with the wood. Generally here the birch which was used as construction material grew. The fresh lake, a pure only source, was in four versts from strengthening. Everywhere salty reservoirs were near. In the 60th years of the 18th century it was decided to move fortress to more favorable place. On more favorable site - at the Clean lake where around there are a lot of dews front

the wood - fortress the Cover - Skye was located. In a forshtadta, in 38 sazhens from fortress, dug out a well in which was fresh voda27.

The distance from the Pokrovsk fortress to the Omsk fortress was covered by several redoubts: Pustoozerny, Kurgan, Dubrovny, Steppe, Mill and Irtysh-nyy28. All of them as it became clear subsequently, were put on the marshland where water was not suitable for consumption. Wells with drinking water were at some distance from strengthenings. The redoubt Steppe was enclosed wooden zaplotom29 around. In the Kurgan redoubt constructed in 1761, some buildings belonging to garrison were placed behind slingshots. It induced to enclose them with a timbered fence and a row of slingshots. Here the posts made of three rows of columns from which averages were higher than extreme were used a special sort and connected to them cross brusyami30. At the end of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line at the Irtysh River, opposite to the Omsk fortress, the dugout enclosed with posts and slingshots was put. Here 8 Cossacks making guard traveling from the river to the lighthouse served ashore there were a ferry and boats.

Total length of the line from a redoubt Sandy to the Omsk fortress was 509 versts 200 sazhens (549, 9 km). Strengthenings on the line were located in the following order: Sandy redoubt, fortress of Pre-

snogorkovsky, redoubt Presnogorkovsky, fortress Kabanya, redoubt Presnoizbna, fortress Presnovskaya, redoubts Bolotokolodezny, Senzharsky, Dubrovny, fortress of Stanovaya, redoubts Gagary, Skopin, Saint Peter's fortress, redoubt Flat, fortress Midday, redoubts Bear, Clean, fortress Swan, redoubt Losev, fortress Nikolaev, redoubt Wolf, fortress Pokrovsk, redoubts Kurgan, Steppe, Mill, fortress Omsk.

So if on the card to designate contours of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line, then the straight line connecting the Tobol Rivers, Ishim and Irtysh in their average current will turn out. The line consisted of separate strengthenings of various power and the fortification units (fortresses, redoubts, lighthouses) located between them between which sluzhily people bore guard duty, making traveling. The majority of strengthenings of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line were located in the places not suitable for accommodation: there was not enough fresh water, the livestock often suffered from diseases and various epidemics, and the field and a meadow - from a drought. The exception was made by only the few settlements located along the Ishim River (Peter and Paul), and those which were on the trade ways (Nikolaev, Swan, Presnovsky, Presnogorkovsky). Despite this, inhabitants of the Tobolo-Ishimsky line courageously served on protection of the Russian borders.

1 F. Usov. Statistical description of the Siberian Cossack army. SPb., 1879. N.G. Putintsev. The chronological list of events from history of the Siberian Cossack army since settlement of the West Siberian Cossacks in the territory occupied nowadays. Omsk, 1891. G.E. Katanayev. The short historical review of service of the Siberian Cossack army since 1582 on 1908//the Tobolsk chronograph. Sb. Issue 3. Yekaterinburg, 1998. Page 89-136.
2 Gorban N.V. From the history of construction of fortresses in the south of Western Siberia: New and Ishim line of fortresses//geography Questions: sb. No. 31. M, 1953. Page 206-227; A.D. Fialkov. The bitter line of military strengthenings//Notes on study of local lore of the Omsk region. Omsk, 1972. Page 52-61; A.F. Pa-lashenkov, S.R. Laptev. Trips across the Omsk region//News of the Omsk department of the Geographical Society of USSR. Omsk, 1963. Issue 5 (12).
3 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 93. NN. 1-14.
4 F.F. Laskovsky. Materials for the history of engineering art. SPb., 1861. Part 3. Page 137.
5 Gorban N.V. From the history of construction of fortresses in the south of Western Siberia//geography Questions. Sb.31. M, 1953. Page 207, 216.
6 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 78. L. 7.
7 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 74. L 4; RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 93. L. 4;.
8 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 93. Ll 1-2; RGADA. T. 248. Op. 113. 1584. L. 1294 about; RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 74. L. 1 about.
9 RGADA. T. 248. Op. 113. 1584. L. 1296 about.
10 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 93. NN. 1-2.
11 Gorban N. B. Decree. soch. Page 214.
12 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. L. 3; RGADA. T. 248. Op. 113. 1584. L. 1298 about.
13 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. L. 2 about. - 3; RGADA. T. 248. op 113. D. 1584. L. 1300 about.
14 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. NN. 3-4.
15 RGADA. T. 248. Op. 113. 1584. L.1304 about; RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 74. L. 3.
16 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. NN. 4-5.
17 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. L. 5; RGADA. T. 248. Op. 113. 1584. L. 1310 about.
18 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. NN. 7-11.
19 RGVIA. T. 424. Op. 1. D. 41; RGADA. T. 248. Op. 113. 1584. NN. 1313 about.-1319 about.
20 Gorban N.V. Decree. soch. Page 216.
21 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. 78. L. 7.
22 RGADA. T. 248. Op. 113. 1584. L. 1313 about.
23 A.A. Kuznetsov. Short historical essay of Petropavlovsk of the Akmola region. Petropavlovsk, 1913. Page 3-4.
24 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 78. L. 8 about., 9.
25 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 74. NN. 5ob.-6.
26 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. NN. 9-10; RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 74. NN. 6-6 about.
27 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. L. 12.; RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 74. Ll.7-7 about.
28 RGVIA. T. 424. Op. 1. D. 41.
29 RGVIA. T. 349. Op. 1. D. 93. NN. 13-14.
30 F.F. Laskovsky. Decree. Soch. Part 3. Page 139.
Charles Bryant
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