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Category: History

Local government and the government in Russia 19th century.

LOBKO viktor


In article the historical context of formation of local government in Russia in works of outstanding Russian scientific XIXv is considered. N.E. Zabelina and HELL. Granovsky. The author proves need of effective interaction of the major public institutes — public administration and local government — during formation of local level of the public power.

The article shows some details of the historical context for the local government development in Russia through some works of the prominent Russian scientists N. Zabjelin and A. Gradovskij (19th century). The author proves the necessity of the effective interaction between the national government and local authorities for the development of the local level in the public administration system.

local government, local government, local level of management, city code (gorodovy situation), patriarchal character, decentralization, interaction; local authorities, local government, local level of administration, municipal code, patriarchal character, decentralization, interaction.

LOBKO Victor Nikolaevich is an applicant of department of political science of Northwest academy of public service

Analyzing the general-theoretical bases of development of local government in the modern world, it is impossible to bypass a question of development of this institute in various state systems, in territorial units of various scale. At the same time the researches devoted to the analysis of formation of administrative structures at the local level in a historical context and also the ideas forming the system of ideas of a concept "local government" about a role of local government, its value and influence on life of people are of particular importance.

Despite widespread belief that on the Russian soil the local government did not take root, and the high level of centralization of management process and authoritative domination as the main political paradigm never allowed this institute to take roots in Russia, in the political history of our country it is possible to allocate several periods in which the need for local government increased and was felt not only as society, but also the state. Respectively, in connection with this requirement the reforms directed to formation of local government and transfer to it at least parts of functions on the administration at the local level were carried out.

Process of introduction of elements of self-government in a control system of the huge centralized empire, naturally, was followed by numerous attempts to comprehend specific features of Russia as the states and the place and a role in this state of local level for the purpose of establishment of admissible powers which local level will be capable to realize independently and under own responsibility that makes essence of self-government, including according to one of the most significant documents in modern legal hierarchy in the sphere of local government — the European charter of local government.

In the course of the analysis of works of the Russian scientists of the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century — the period of carrying out territorial reforms, adoption of new city codes, implementation of real administrative activity at the local level a number of the features of their perception of institute of local government in Russia demanding account in the course of its formation and development more than in century is detected.

Irrespective of distinctions of approaches and interpretations of a concept local

go self-government, all authors as it will be shown further, meet in belief that the real local government in understanding of the theory of "free community" 1, i.e. with providing extremely wide political autonomy of local community, its independence of the government, cannot be created in Russia.

Among the main reasons there are existence of real obstacles to creation and development of institute of local government the Russian experts — historians, philosophers, jurists emit, first of all, deep layers of the Russian history (difference of Slavic grain-growers from much more mobile and vigorous nomad tribes, patriarchal life), later processes of formation of administrative personnel (sluzhily people), difficult mechanisms of functioning of the Russian society in the conditions of the late abolition of serfdom, etc.

Considering existence of rather long experience of development of local government in the European countries, many of researchers address experience of Germany, France, Great Britain that allows them to carry out the deep comparative analysis of self-government as most important phenomenon of the European political life.

Despite identification of difficulties and obstacles in the course of creation of most and administrative structures in Russia, all considered concepts underline importance and need of its development for advance of the country on the way of social progress.

The main conclusion which can be made as a result of studying rather big massif of literature comes down to establishment of the leading role of the state in the course of formation of the uniform control system designed to solve the most important problems for the benefit of society and also to need of inclusion of local level of management in the complete system of the power, with accurate scoping of its powers and resource base of its activity.

The famous historian of the 19th century I.E. Zabelin described paganism as a basis

1 About the theory of "free community" and other classical theories of local government see: G.I. Gribanova. Local government in Western Europe: comparative analysis of political and sociological aspects. — SPb.: Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia publishing house, 1998.

the Russian life in the most ancient times, emphasized close interrelation of ancient Slavs with the nature, marked out "essential differences between nomadic and aggressive tribes and Slavic farmers who kept harmony with the nature mother through many centuries" 2. It indicated the need of perhaps deeper diagnostics and development of flexible policy on change and simultaneous use of the Russian phenomenon of the patriarchal beginning of the power.

We are forced to recognize fidelity of conclusions of the outstanding historian also today and, moreover, to note that the native of such environment, receiving the power, in turn, is convinced that the right for preparation and decision-making belongs only to it or the higher administration. Thus, one of fundamental problems of society — education of independence and responsibility has to be recognized as a national task.

The idea, close to above, was formulated in article "Several Words about Political Education in Russia" of A.D. Gradovsky, one of the brightest representatives of the state theory of local government which appeared in 1862 in No. 97 of a newspaper leaf Kharkiv 3. The author introduced the idea that the best way of political education of the population of Russia are practical activities of his representatives within institutions local upravleniya4.

As one of subjects of the scientific research in later years it elected local management that was quite natural in the conditions of implementation in Russia of territorial reform.

Characterizing the state as "external expression of nationality and the highest expression of the power", Gradovsky arrived at an idea that "the first source of all institutions is the person" and "foundation of the state is concealed in needs of the person" 5.

Investigating the history of local management

2 I.E. Zabelin. History of the Russian life since the most ancient times. — M.: Eksmo, 2008, page 467 — 470.
3 Kharkiv were the tabloid "Kharkiv provincial sheets" which editor was Gradovsky — the graduate of the Kharkiv university.
4 V.A. Tomsinov. Introductory article / Gradovsky of A.D. Began the Russian of the state law. In 2 t. — M.: Zertsalo, 2006, page XII.
5 In the same place, page XIV.

in Russia in the doctoral dissertation which Gradovsky successfully defended in 1868 the scientist defended the idea about need of temporary use of the state and national unity of Russia. He wrote: "If local organisms have to meet requirements of the state unity, then in degree bigger still they have to be the work of national unity. In order that local organisms were establishment as monotonous as the state that they were continuation of the same uniform thought to which as the highest expression serves the state, is necessary that the classes of society were the work of the same culture, development of uniform elements. In the areas which are not representing such unity, self-government is incapable to give satisfactory results" 1.

Should emphasize

that similar "the patriarchal, pochvennichesky ideas" not always found full understanding in the Russian society. Often they sparked sharp criticism for neglect the "forms of political freedom" developed in Western Europe. Nevertheless A.F. Koni in the speech concerning the first anniversary of death of Gradovsky emphasized his big merits in assessment of reforms of the 60th — the 70th, belief in ability of the Russian society to sovershenstvovaniyu2.

One of the main ideas of Gradovsky was that "... between all state establishments of each country, the system of local establishments represents that field of management in which features of its historical development most of all are reflected. Meanwhile, as the systems of political establishments of the Western European states more and more approach the uniform type constructed on the constitutional beginning, the systems of administrative and mainly local institutions represent an extreme variety" 3. A conclusion that when forming local government in Russia features of the Russian life including those which were allocated follows from this statement

1 A.D. Gradovsky. The history of local management in Russia. T.1. — SPb.: furnace. V. Golovina, 1868, page 92.
2 Horses A.F., A.D. Gradovsky. Russian old times: print. - SPb, 1891, page 10.
3 A.D. Gradovsky. The systems of local management in the west of Europe and in Russia. - SPb.: type. V. Bezobrazova and Co, qualification. 1878, page 11.

I.E. Zabelin, have to be considered as the most significant.

The scientist called decentralization and self-government (A.D. Gradovsky's italics) the main slogans of the time inspiring the chief representatives of science about the state and the best practical deyateley4. At the same time the formulation of these principles sounds is exclusively modern.

1. Success of administrative activity of any state depends on perhaps bigger proximity of governing bodies to operated.
2. The necessity of decentralization is caused by insistent needs local naseleniya5.

But the issue of decentralization as it was clear already in those gody6, does not resolve still a question of self-government. According to Gradovsky, ".vopros would decide simply if all units had artificial character. But only large units are that. It is possible to find unit in each country the main. established from time immemorial. Our counties which passed to us from times Moscow are that. Even more naturally than unit drobnyya — city and rural communities. Here common interests are established by itself under the influence of joint residence on close space of the earth, general rights and duties. Thus, the area has "building", is an organism with the live parts" 7.

At the beginning of the XXI century in Russia this thesis is perceived as rather contradictory that is connected with almost full loss of historical experience of rural community and city "society" owing to their destruction during even pre-revolutionary "Stolypin reforms" 8, and further — during collectivization and industrialization in Soviet period. The organic basis of the Russian public life was deformed by various public processes that demands even more active role of the state as the only institute which kept

4 In the same place, page 14.
5 In the same place, page 16.
6 The considered work was published in 1878, i.e. in 14 years after the beginning of formation of territorial institutions.
7 Gradovsky, A.D. The systems of local management in the west of Europe and in Russia. — SPb.: type. V. Bezobrazova and Co, qualification. 1878, page 16.
8 P.A. Pozhigaylo. Stolypin program of transformation of Russia (1906 — 1911). — M.: ROSSPEN, 2007.

the role of "the father of the nation" created historically and also the power in all huge territory of Russia.

Gradovsky treated one of the most difficult questions about a combination of a territorial and functional basis in relationship between the state and self-government keeping the relevance for the modern state as a problem of need of close and continuous interaction of the state with self-government: "It was possible to touch all objects of internal management (finance, education, means of communication, etc.) and everywhere to find not only "common ground" between the state and local interests, but also communication, organic between them. Therefore also the difference between objects of nation-wide and local management is distinction not qualitative, but quantitative. The known share of this task remains in hands of the state, other share can and has to be transferred to the jurisdiction of local establishments. Of course, the state subordinates all industries of local administration to the known general rules; it keeps the right of supervision of activity of all bodies of administration in types of a protection of state interests and the rights of individuals. But within these conditions can and independent action of local establishments has to be allowed. Self-government institutions have to be invested and really clothe the rights of a double sort:

1) meetings and orders;
2) actuating of the accepted orders" 1.

Gradovsky's attention was drawn by the main systems of local government of foreign countries. Marking out the general principles as a basis of their structure and process of functioning, he pointed to the significant distinctions existing between them. As the general beginnings of the English system local upravleniya2 the scientist allocated the following.

1. The question of local management is, in effect, a question of distribution of the general national objectives between various bodies of the state.
2. Self-government is not only the opportunity given to public corporation to know independently
1 A.D. Gradovsky. The systems of local management in the west of Europe and in Russia. — SPb.: type. V. Bezobrazova and Co, qualification. 1878, page 19.
2 In the same place, page 28.

"own" affairs. Self-government consists in positive participation of communities and the public unions in public administration. in implementation of the state purposes through bodies of the local population.

3. Self-government institutions have to be the authorities in the state sense, i.e. be a part of local administration as its organic part, but not in the form of the special and parallel establishments competing with the authorities governmental.

Characterizing the French system, Gradovsky emphasized that the local administration was given by revolution of 1789 in a charge to the people; the elective beginning triumphed everywhere, but in ten years after the publication of these laws the first consul established such government centralization what was not known even by the old monarchy in France. The process described by A.D. Gradovsky not only it is substantial, but also chronologically it is substantially reproduced in the territory of Russia during 1990 — 2009

Pointing out distinctive features of systems of local government of various countries, Gradovsky at the same time marked out common features of self-government as organic element of a control system, modern for it, in the state.

Modern approaches to the organization of local government recognize need of high level of a variety of forms of its implementation in connection with a high variety of objects of management, this idea was formulated also by A.D. Gradovsky: "Self-government can have a set of the forms applicable to the most various public conditions, beginning from the most democratic and finishing the most aristocratic. The taking priority value have not the forms of self-government. and his general idea demonstrating that self-government then is only alive and it is useful when it is an element of the state. In order that the country developed, educated and grew rich, action of two forces — governmental and public is necessary. But in order that these forces worked fruitfully, they need to go together, but not separately, as protivupolozhny and often hostile organisms" 3.

3 A.D. Gradovsky. The systems of local management in the west of Europe and in Russia. — SPb.: type. V. Bezobrazova and Co, qualification. 1878, page 53.
Jean Adams
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