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To the fiftieth anniversary of the first flight of the person in space



k to the FIRST POLET'S FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY of the PERSON IN SPACE

On April 12, 1961 forever will remain in memory of mankind. This day for the first time in the world the flight of the person in space was made. The citizen of the Soviet Union Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin (fig. 1) made this flight. The first astronaut of the planet was born on March 9, 1934 in the city of Gzhatsk (now - Gagarin), the Smolensk region. The cloudless childhood of future conqueror of space open spaces was interrupted with the begun Great Patriotic War. On September 1 little Yury went to the first class Klushinsky incomplete high school, and already on October 12 studies were interrupted - Hitlerite troops occupied the village. On April 9, 1943 the Soviet troops freed the village, and lessons at school were recommenced. In May, 1949 Yury Alekseyevich ended the sixth class of the Gzhatsk incomplete high school, and on September 30 the same year came to the Lyubertsy vocational school No. 10. Along with study in school, was admitted to the Lyubertsy evening school of young workers which seventh class ended in May, 1951. And a month later the former-founder with honors graduated from a vocational school majoring in. Gagarin was proud of the working profession all life. Except study and a work practice, a lot of time was taken away by Komsomol work, sport. Those years he was fond of aircraft and on October 25, 1954 for the first time has come to the Saratov aero club.

The come 1955 became year of the first considerable progress of Yury Alekseyevich. In June he with honors graduated from the Saratov industrial technical school, in July - made the first independent flight by YAK-18 aircraft, on October 10 - graduated from the Saratov aero club. On October 27, 1955 Yury Alekseyevich was called by the October district military registration and enlistment office of the city of Saratov in ranks of the Soviet Army and sent to the city of Orenburg for study in the 1st Chkalovsky military and aviation school of pilots of K.E. Voroshilov. Having hardly put on a military uniform, Gagarin understood that all his life will be connected with the sky. It was that path to which his soul aspired.

On December 9, 1959 Gagarin wrote the application with a request to enlist it in group of candidates for astronauts. In a week it was caused to Moscow for passing of comprehensive medical examination in the Central nauchnoissledovatelsky aviation hospital. At the beginning of the next year one more special medical board which recognized the first lieutenant Gagarin as fit for space flights followed. On March 3, 1960 by the order of the Commander-in-chief of the Air Force K.A. Vershinin it is enlisted in group of candidates for astronauts, and since March 11 started trainings. They were 20 young pilots who should prepare for the first flight in space. Gagarin was one of them. When preparation began, nobody could even assume, which of them should open the road to stars. It then when flight became a reality when terms of this flight became more or less clear, the group of six was allocated

"He called all of us in space".

N. Armstrong about Yu. Gagarin.

people who began to be trained on other, than the others, for the program.

And in four months prior to flight practically it became clear to all that Gagarin will depart. None of heads of the Soviet space program never said that Yury Alekseyevich was prepared better, than others. The choice of the first was defined by many factors, and physiological indicators and knowledge of the equipment were not dominating. And Sergey Pavlovich Korolev who watched closely preparation and the heads of Defense department of the Central Committee of the CPSU supervising space developments, and heads of the Ministry of the general mechanical engineering and the Ministry of Defence perfectly understood that the first astronaut has to become the face of our state which is adequately presenting the Homeland on the international scene. Probably, these reasons also induced to make a choice for Gagarin, a kind face and which open soul submitted all with whom he had to communicate. And the last word appeared for Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev who was during that time the First secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. When brought it photos of the first astronauts, he without hesitation chose Gagarin.

Risunok1. - Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin

The Soviet scientists and engineers created the single spaceship intended for flights on Earth orbit. In this first flight the major problems connected with flight of the person in space were solved.

Issues of vigorous activity of the person in the conditions of space flight at long influence of zero gravity were studied, tests of systems and units of the ship were carried out. The East ship consists of the lander of spherical shape in which makes the astronaut, and an instrument compartment with the onboard equipment and the brake propulsion system weeds. The astronaut in a space suit accommodates in the catapulted chair. Ship-handling in flight is exercised automatically and the astronaut. The life support system allows

to make flights lasting up to 10 day. The East spaceship weighs 4730 kg, the lander - 2400 kg (fig. 2), diameter of the lander - 2.3 m

Figure 2. - The lander of the East spaceship in Memorial Museum of Astronautics (Moscow)

The spaceship was started by means of the three-stage carrier rocket and put to orbit with the minimum removal from the Earth's surface of 181 km and the maximum removal of 327 km. Flight continued 108 minutes. The first flight of the person in space confirmed high reliability of the ship and its systems, showed that the person can successfully transfer conditions of space flight, keeping working capacity at vigorous activity [1].

When development of the East spaceship and training of the first astronauts began, physicians practically knew nothing of influence of conditions of space flight on a human body. There were only guesses based on experience of aviation medicine. Some claimed that space flight differs from flight by plane a little and you should not show any special requirements to astronauts. Others claimed that the astronaut, having appeared in zero gravity, will just go crazy. Physicians argued, but to a consensus could not come in any way. All understood that before the first flight of the person the answer has to be found surely. Then decided that when carrying out test flights onboard the ship there have to be some animals. At the solution of a question of the one who will depart the special disputes were not. Already for many years on geophysical rockets dogs flew, and the wide experience which should be used was accumulated. Besides, it was necessary to make sure of reliability of all systems of the ship as human life depended on them. And it was necessary to make sure not on models or exercise machines, and in actual practice. Anyway, the program of flight tests of the East ship was made so that to receive answers to two questions at issue: whether the rocket in space of the person will be able to deliver and whether the person will be able to transfer space flight. Preparation of flight of the person went in the conditions of a rigid limit of time. The presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU set for designers a task of such start before Americans. Therefore also flight tests were planned so that right after two successful flights of dogs in space, the person started.

At the end of 1959, along with enrollment in human group of astronauts, there was enrollment in dog group of astronauts. Here requirements were not such rigid as people, but too had a number of restrictions. Dogs were taken

not purebred, no more than 35 centimeters in height and weight not exceeding 6 kilograms. Parameters were defined by spaceship opportunities, and here breed, more precisely its absence, was taken from the previous experience. Mongrels were fine "material" for physicians and biologists. They were not such whimsical as their thoroughbred relatives, they were clever, kind. Generally, the first dog space group was gathered in the next gates. Prepared them almost like people: twisted on the centrifuge, placed in baro- and surdo-the cells, accustomed to stay in the closed space.

And there came the moment when both the equipment, and "pilots" were ready to flight. The first ship satellite started on May 15, 1960. It was not absolutely yet that ship by which less than in a year Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin started. Many onboard systems were not checked in work, the ship was deprived of the heat-shielding screen which provided return of the astronaut to Earth. A lot more work was necessary, but on many questions this flight had to give answers. As combustion of the ship in the atmosphere of Earth was supposed, on its board the living beings were not. It was a pity to send to certain death of dogs with which all involved in preparation managed to fall in love. So, the ship satellite successfully started.

The name "spaceship" was born that day. Those years it was accepted to compose communiques which then for the whole world were read by Levitan after successful start. So was and this time. The communique were composed by Sergey Pavlovich Korolev, Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, Alexander Yulyevich Ishlinsky and Lev Arkhipovich Grishin. Which of them suggested to call the satellite "spaceship" - there is no mention, but the name was pleasant. Korolev told: Why not? There are sea, there are river, is air, spaceships will appear now!". Communiques printed and transferred to Moscow.

And the first ship satellite which received such exotic name continued the flight on Earth orbit. Previously descent is decided to be carried out on May 18. The team was transferred to the settlement moment aboard the ship satellite: "on descent". However the navigation system incorrectly chose the direction of a brake impulse and the turned-on brake engine directed the ship not towards Earth, and in the direction of Jupiter. The ship was thrown from an orbit in 320 kilometers on height of 690 kilometers and till September 5, 1962 made the flight before it burned down in the atmosphere. At many designers the jimjams passed when they presented what will be if in such situation there is a person. And some zealous western newsdealers assured that onboard there were people who became "captives of the Universe".

At the following ship satellite the lander was protected by thermal insulation. In practice of space flights it for the first time had to return from space with live dogs. Onboard them was two - the Seagull and the favourite Koroleva red Chanterelle. The ship was prepared much better, than his predecessor. All possible situations were worked carefully out not to make a mistake during the choosing of the navigation system and issue of the command for descent from an orbit.

On July 28, 1960 the rocket started. On the 23rd second of flight there was an accident. Rocket blocks scattered on the steppe, dogs died.

Accident showed, development of the system of rescue of the lander directly from the place of start is how relevant. Death of Chanterelle and Chaika stimulated development of the system of emergency rescue. And on Baikonur began to prepare the third ship satellite for flight. It was already the full-fledged satellite with a big set of the equipment for carrying out scientific research. Studying features of activity of animals in the conditions of space flight, action of space radiation, check of operability of a system of regeneration of waste, food, water supply and sewage disposal was provided. Except two dogs onboard in a hermetic cabin there were two white rats, a great number of white and black mice, seeds of various plants.

On August 16 the rocket was taken out on start, and its start-up was planned next day. Unexpectedly on the carrier rejected the main oxygen valve, and it was necessary to postpone start. The new valve was brought a special flight from Kuibyshev. The rocket with the ship satellite started on August 19, 1960. In general, everything passed safely, though during this flight there were moments which forced to worry enough designers. Everything was, and on August 20 the lander returned to Earth. Dogs felt excellently.

11 October, 1960 the government of the USSR made the decision to make the first flight of the person in space in December, 1960. The first piloted flight had to take place after two in a row successful starts in space of the ships satellites. The first successful start took place in August, the following flight was planned for November. So, at favorable combination of circumstances the flight of the person could take place in December. But such succession of events was interfered by tragic circumstances which happened in October on Baikonur. At first two attempts of missiles launch towards Mars ended with failures. And on October 24 there was one of the most terrible tragedies in the history of the Soviet rocketry. On Baikonur by preparation for start of the R-16 rocket (not space, but fighting) there was an explosion. As a result of the arisen fire more than 100 people died. And though all these accidents had not a direct bearing on the program of flights of the ships satellites, indirectly they influenced it, having postponed the time of the following start.

The following start of the ship satellite took place on December 1, 1960. On it in space dogs the Bee and the Front sight started. At first everything went normally, time of return to Earth came. The command "on descent" was aboard given, but the brake engine worked less estimated time, and the trajectory of descent of the ship was such is that it quite could land somewhere outside the territory of the USSR. In order that the state secrets did not fall into hostile hands, by the ship the system of the emergency blasting object (EBO) was placed. This system worked and destroyed the ship, having turned it into a cloud of small fragments. Dogs died. Together with dogs also the hope died

to make flight of the person in 1960.

The following experimental launch of the ship satellite took place on December 22, 1960. Dogs the Pearl and the Alpha, mice, rats and other living creatures went to flight by this ship. But on the site of work of the third step there was a refusal, and the command for office of the ship arrived. The lander landed in Yakutia. Joy of designers when they learned that dogs survived was big. In actual practice it was succeeded to check work of a system of emergency rescue.

The new start of the ship satellite could take place only in two and a half months. It was done everything possible and impossible that troubles of 1960 did not repeat. On March 9, 1961 the ship satellite with Chernushkaya's dog and a dummy onboard started. Flight took place according to the odnovitkovy program similar to that which was planned for flight of the person. All stages of flight passed normally, and the lander landed in 260 kilometers from Kuibyshev. On March 25, 1961 the last ship satellite with a dog the Asterisk and a dummy onboard was started. Good luck, but a day before start Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin, then still just one of candidates for flight had to fly to space, told: "We are people not superstitious, but good luck also will not prevent us". Good luck was christened the Asterisk. Under such name it also became history. Flight of the ship satellite in accuracy repeated previous. Having made one round, the lander landed near Votkinsk. Anything else did not prevent flight of the person in space [3].

At a working meeting of the State commission the decision is made - the first Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin will go to flight, G.S. Titov and G.G. Nelyubov will be substitute. Before a ceremonial meeting of the commission the head of training of pilots of astronauts Hero of the Soviet Union Nikolay Petrovich Kamanin tells Gagarin and Titov the decision which will be announced officially tomorrow. After that the ceremonial meeting of the State fee which was charged by documentary film makers took place, and it was shown to the whole world by parts in process of increase in a limitation period.

12 April, 1961 at 9 hours 07 minutes the powerful rocket with the East spaceship came off a launching table. On a public address system rushed well-known gagarinsky "Went!".

>. During leak check the sensor showed that the hatch cover through which the astronaut got into the ship was allegedly closed not densely. In the sharpest deficiency time group of testers, having turned off 30 nuts from the locks locking the hatch corrected the special electric contact of a clip of a cover signaling about its normal closing. Worked so quickly that exchanged with Gagarin only views, returned a cover on the place and after leak check confirmed readiness for start-up.

At start of the ship, unlike the accepted practice, the personnel were not evacuated from the second platform on the eighteenth kilometer. S.P. Korolev went for this violation of safety rules, apparently, psychologically to support the astronaut by demonstration

confidence in the successful result of start.

Whether Yu.A. Gagarin worried? All noted his excellent, equal mood in day of start. But here what showed the measurement of pulse at different stages of preparation, start and flight to some extent connected with an emotional condition of the astronaut. In four hours prior to start - pulse of 65 beats per minute, in five minutes prior to start - 108, on the site of removal - at the end of the first minute - higher than 150, by the end of the site of removal - again about 108. At the time of turning on of the brake propulsion system and at the beginning of atmospheric entry - 112. During flight in zero gravity the pulse rate was 97 beats per minute.

In the course of removal on the first seconds of flight there was a temporary small failure in communication which forced all to worry enough. Communication was reestablished.

Final speed of removal was slightly more rated therefore Svyatoslav Sergeyevich Lavrov who entered special support group being located in S.P. Korolev's office, at once started calculations to assess the consequences of this mistake. Calculations showed that without turning on of the brake propulsion system, return of the ship will take place on a limit of its opportunities on stay term in an orbit. The brake impulse was given in time. BPS (brake propulsion system) fulfilled 40 seconds before full fuel use that dispersed from the regular program of landing at which shutdown of the engine would have to come from the command of the integrator (on reaching the assigned speed of braking). Further according to the program of descent at ten o'clock 25 min. 57 seconds were necessary separation of an instrument and modular compartment from the lander in which there was an astronaut, however, division happened only in 10 hours 35 min. All this time was observed rotation of the device with a speed up to 30 degrees a second. After division of compartments at the entrance to dense layers of the atmosphere the orientation of the lander stabilized in settlement situation. At the same time the astronaut kept self-control though knew that division after completion of work of TDU had to happen in 10-12 seconds.

The astronaut had several communication channels with Earth which he actively used. In two minutes of rotation Yu.A. Gagarin tells to Earth on a short-wave communication channel that TDU worked normally, and reported by phone that division did not happen, a key reported "VN" - everything normally.

Descent of the ship took place on a ballistic trajectory. Overloads reached 10 units, the lander was "отцентрован" so that overloads worked in the breast back direction. At the height of seven kilometers the astronaut

catapulted from the ship and landed on the parachute.

Landing happened because of untimely termination of work of TDU and a delay of division of compartments near Saratov that, in own way, was also symbolical. Exactly here Yu.A. Gagarin for the first time rose into the sky by plane, exactly here he had parachute training before flight in space.

In the report of the State commission Yu.A. Gagarin reported everything very scrupulously. For example, that during descent on the main parachute the satchel spare revealed, but its dome was not filled that WES (wearable emergency stock) fixed on a separate line came off. Certain difficulties arose when opening the valve of breath in air. It turned out so that the ball of this valve when dressed the astronaut, got under the unmasking cover - the well-known orange overalls. Everything was so attracted by a suspended system that Yu.A. Gagarin could not get it minutes six, then undid the unmasking cover and by means of a mirror pulled out a rope and opened the valve. Before in air it disconnected block ОРК&а (the integrated socket oxygen), opened a glass blind of a space suit, already being on Earth. So Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin's flight came to the end.

To triumph of residents of our country there was no limit, people crowds brought down on the street, everywhere there were spontaneous demonstrations. The whole world was delighted with this fulfillment. All understood, a new era - an era of flights of the person in space began. It seemed improbable, it concerned and awoke the most courageous imaginations. People of the senior generation have more to feel never such joy and pride of the country [2].

In 2011 the whole world will celebrate the 50 anniversary of the first flight of the person in space. For Russia this event became really national triumph which rallied and united then all people. The main actions will take place in the places which are historically connected with the first flight in space. It is about the Smolensk, Kaluga, Saratov regions, about Korolev, Baikonur, Moscow. At the same time, considering value of anniversary, the programs covering practically all regions of the Russian Federation are provided. To anniversary in Russia the meeting of materials will be declassified. According to the deputy CEO of "Central Research and Development Institute of mechanical engineering" Oleg Klishev, the transcript of conversations of Gagarin, documents on creation of a rocket will become public.

In the conclusion it would be desirable to cite Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin's words:

Literature:

1. Space: photos, researches, development, news. - [Electron. the article] - the access Mode: http://www.fotokosmos.narod.ru/index.html,
2. Kupriyanov, V.N. The first flight in space / V.N. Kupriyanov. - [Electron. the article] - the access Mode:

N.N. Vanyukova

http://cosmosravelin.narod.ru/r-

space/Gagarin2004/GP.html,

3. The first flight of the person in space. - [Electron. the article] - the access Mode: http://www.rtc.ru/encyk/gagarin/main1 ^Мт1.
Taylor Brian
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