The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Activity of women's societies in Bashkortostan at the end of XIX beginning of the 20th centuries.



r. N. SULEYMANOVA

ACTIVITY of WOMEN'S SOCIETIES IN BASHKORTOSTAN at the end of XIX - the BEGINNING of the 20th century

The beginning of the XX century was filled with the rough events which became rotary in the fate of Russia - revolutions, World War I, - caused incalculable human losses, caused enormous material damage to national economy, on the one hand, and with another - caused unprecedented growth of social activity of the population and origin of national movements and mass organizations of various sense. In public life of Russia approximately in the 60th of H1H of century there was a women's issue, women's organizations began to arise. Issues of emancipation, release of the woman were associated with liberation of Russia during this period. They included requirements of granting to women of electoral rights and also rights to education and occupation of the state positions. But if in the European states in this case as primary the task to try to obtain granting electoral rights to women was set, then in autocratic Russia issues of female education and public work were put in the forefront. The social status of the Russian was defined by her place in the public relations which were based on the state legislation and the traditional right, her role in the system of the economic relations.

In regions of the empire, in particular the national, there was own specific feature of understanding of this pressing problem. The Muslim people have an important task of change of position of women in society and family was assigned to all-democratic national movements. There was a revaluation of moral and cultural traditions. During this period the progressive public, feminists concentrated the attention on problems of emancipation which main condition considered

History and present, No. 2, September 2009 199-208

training of women in the diploma and overcoming a number of the religious provisions touching honor and dignity of women, such as polygamy, their not equal rights in property and divorce proceedings, etc.

If in public life of Russia the women's issue, the arisen ideas of a new role of women in society, other than former patriarchal, fall on H1H of century, especially on its second half, then in the history of Bashkortostan the active understanding and understanding of need of change of views of it happens during the period after the first Russian revolution of 1905-1907. At this particular time the women's issue and the related problems of marriage, family, education of children, education and spiritual culture move to the forefront of public life of edge.

Women, generally representatives of influential and notable families, from the well-to-do, owning big states, living in big cities of the Bashkir edge and got a fine education stood at the origins of this movement. They voluntarily donated the funds for social needs, thereby created conditions for "invasion" of women into the fields of professional activity which are earlier closed for them before their association in special societies. The beginnings of the 20th century the activity for the benefit of women, all population of the region the whole group of wonderful women - philanthropists and a metsenatok entered the names in the history of Bashkortostan for ever. About some of them, there was also a wish to tell about results of their activity in article.

In one of issues of the Mir Musulmanstva newspaper for 1911 there was article under the symbolical name - "The Muslim in Public Life", signed Aisha-hanum. In it it was said that in a number of the cities of the country - Baku, Orenburg, Ufa and both capitals, Moscow and St. Petersburg, - the created ladies' charities actively work. The author of article notices: "Of course, while it in modest sizes, and the woman is necessary still hard fight, nevertheless, the movement exists, and time it so, then is not subject also to doubt that full liberation of the Muslim woman not far off..."

We will address the history of Bashkortostan of the beginning of the 20th century. Under the influence of occurring during that difficult period in internal political life of Russia and its regions of processes and events and also the ideas and events of the first Russian revolution history of women's movement in Bashkortostan begins with emergence of the first women's organizations which activity did not carry political overtones. In the region since 1904, year of establishment of the first amateur organization of women, the new stage in the history of development of collective consciousness of female electorate, a stage of registration of women's movement began. Unlike Russia in general where it originates approximately from 1860th, in Bashkortostan its sources proceed approximately from prerevolutionary years. During this period the women's issue, equality and release of women began to be perceived not as the isolated problem and as nation-wide. On pages of periodicals the hot debate on the main problems of reorganization of Russia, regions, future fate of its people among which there was also a women's issue was developed. Literally in the first postrevolutionary years on a wave of rise in activity of the Muslim population of the country by some of the first in Bashkortostan there were special women's organizations from among Muslims of edge.

For the first, initial, a stage of women's movement in Bashkortostan the lack of the general ideology, fair ideas of the future, an emphasis on educational charity were characteristic. Women did not put before themselves problems existing in society and family of their inequality yet, and tried to obtain only those rights for women who already had men - education, work, suffrage. The women who headed these societies and were their part, seeking for recognition of their civil and political rights saw ways of finding of these rights through education and access to free choice of profession.

As we noted above, public organizations in Russia and its regions massively began to arise on the eve of the revolution and revolutionary and also postrevolutionary years. Revolution shook the whole country, affected all population, gave a powerful spur to involvement in social and political life and fight of those layers and

classes of society and also the people which did not participate earlier in it at all. It is possible to carry the Muslim people of the country and female population to those. Approved as the emperor in March, 1906. "Provisional rules about societies and the unions" established a uniform order for emergence and a regulation of activity of all public organizations. They caused also mass emergence of Muslim societies and unions. By the beginning of 1912 in Russia there were 87 various Muslim societies from which were: 5 religious, 48 charitable, 34 cultural and educational. In Bashkortostan they were insignificant quantity. So, in the Orenburg province of these societies which arose soon after publication of the above-mentioned rules there were about 40. These legal societies and the unions participated in such spheres of public life as education, charity, etc. Among them there were also women's societies.

At the beginning of the 20th century when Russo-Japanese war events were developed, in Orenburg in February, 1904 there begins the activity Society of ladies of the Orenburg merchants in favor of wounded Russian soldiers in the Far East. It turned to work on production of things, very necessary for hospitals, and a whip-round. In a shelter at convent there was a ground storage of the prepared materials and things, donations were also accepted. Things and accessories for soldiers and officers society sent to the city of Harbin in the spring of 1904. Cares on the leadership in activity of society and work flow undertook I.A. Zaryvnov, O.N. Savinkov, Z.S. Bogachyov, Z.D. Kuzmin, A.G. and K.E. Seryakova. In hard time the society made a feasible contribution to sacred business - assistance to defenders of the fatherland.

As archival documents testify, at the beginning of the XX century a number of associations of the women who left a noticeable mark in public life worked in the Orenburg province: a ladies' circle of assistance to the needing pupils of city schools in Orsk, ladies' charity of local evangelic and Lutheran parish, the Union of women in Orenburg, society of the working women of Orenburg, etc.

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century in the province a significant amount of the amateur organizations arose and functioned. On

to calculations of researchers, only in the city of Orenburg from the 60th of the 19th century till 1917 36 charities, committees and other associations which had a main objective charity were registered. If to allocate only associations of Muslim women, then in Russia during their postrevolutionary period there were over 70.

In the Ufa province during this period there were also public organizations. Among them were also women's: ladies' office of Committee of department of Imperial philanthropic society, popechitelny about the poor, a ladies' pedagogical circle at management of the Orenburg educational district, the Toporninsky women's union, etc. Apparently from annual reports, their activity came out far beyond, limited in charters of tasks. The escalating and extending their activity (and activity of women in them) allows to look in a new way at a role and the place of the last in public life of Bashkortostan in critical time of the beginning of the 20th century of Society rendered the feasible help in simplification of position of the needing people and their families, rendering regular or lump sums to them, definition of ways for contempt and education of children, development of female labor and assistance to sale of the made needlework. They helped the population during the periods of the hardest hungry years, opened for the starving population and children, patients, the aged and distressed inhabitants nutritious points and dining rooms. Also they directed the activity to research of means and their use for needs of charity and improvement, in particular on the device helpless in charitable institutions and assistance needing out of these institutions.

The women's societies which arose at the beginning of the 20th century put before themselves the solution first of all of issues of education of women, its availability to them, and as showed time, in this direction they made much. The first special association of Muslim women in Russia arose in Bashkortostan during the period after the First Russian revolution. The charter of the Ufa Muslim ladies' society was registered at presence, provincial on cases of societies, on December 12, 1907 on permission of the governor count A.P. Tolstoy who was taking up a position. In it there were definite purposes which society regarded as of paramount importance the

activity, - cultural and educational, moral

educational and trudovspomogatelny. For this purpose it assumed to open women's schools of different types, to care for improvement of setting of educational and educational business, to give material support to teachers and pupils, to take measures for receiving out-of-school scientific and professional education by adult Muslims, to open libraries and reading rooms, to organize public lectures, for training in crafts and classes to arrange workshops, to open houses of diligence, to fight against corruption of customs all legal measures, to open clinics, out-patient clinics, shelters for girls, etc.

As founders of ladies' society women from rich influential families acted: noblewomen S.M. Sultanova, F.M. Ba-simova, M.T. Sultanova, S.S. Dzhantyurina, Z.M. Sultanova, the wife of the major general of M.-P. S. Sheykhaliyev, the Bashkir of the village of G. Klyasheva S.-A. Kamaletdinova, etc. on January 25, 1908 in the house of Maryam Ti-mirbulatovna Sultanova, the famous philanthropist, the meeting of the Ufa women took place. In the welcome message of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims in its address it was said that creation of the first among the Russian Muslim women of such society is welcomed and it has to serve as an example for all international community, for Muslims of the country and women and also that this society has to become the leading advanced organization. At this meeting the board which chairman unanimously elects M.T. Sultanova is formed.

Considering activity of this society, it should be noted, as on it, as well as on other women's societies, influence of events of the rough beginning of the 20th century was reflected. In charters of the women's groups created during this period it was written down that act as the main objectives assistance to education of the women living in the province and in the city, the organization of schools for education and education of girls as "in the Ufa province is not present somewhere more or less correctly, from the pedagogical point of view, the put educational institution". In this regard ladies' society literally at once started the organization of women's educational institutions in the city. In 1908 the shelter for 25 Bashkir and Tatar was open

orphan girls from notable families. Soon society opened in the city library for women. In 1913 it had 7 educational institutions from which 2 were like averages with 440 schoolgirls and 14 teachers. In 1912-1913 academic year in them finished a full course of training of 17 schoolgirls who are completely prepared for teacher's work. In the report for 1912 the board of society noted that it supports 5 initial mekteb in which 430 schoolgirls studied. In two years 7 schools where studied were under its authority and took a course of needlework of 517 schoolgirls. To society there was a feasible help, but special support was given by the founder, the Honorary Chairman Maryam Timirbulatovna Sultanova.

In general education of women, in particular Muslims, Tatars and Bashkirs, in the development took place in Bashkortostan long, difficult and sometimes a hard way. The Muslims put by religious canons and dogmas in special dependent and powerless, situation in family and society, had no right to education. They could only receive literacy elements, studying at wives of mullahs, at abystay. This training, without differing from training of boys in contents, spirit and methods, gave to girls only diploma bases, skills of reading as training in their letter in reasons of generally religious character was considered unnecessary. Prohibition to train them in the letter it is possible to note as characteristic in education of Muslim women. The author of the work on national education which came out in the mid-thirties in Bashkortostan Sh. Abzanov about it wrote: ". it is possible to assume that it became to warn a possibility of written communication with men, for protection of chastity from defect". Brain washing of girls, their preparation for performance of future roles of the wife, mother and the hostess in the house, family in the spirit of requirements of canons of Islam was the main task of education, and therefore for them studying Imansharta ("Belief bases") and Aftiyak (seventh part of the Quran) was considered sufficient.

The situation in the sphere of national education, in particular women's, began to change only in the last quarter of the 19th century that was directly connected with bourgeois reforms of the 1860-1870th, on -

tortures of modernization of Russia. Reforms laid the foundation for bourgeois, progressive evolution of national education in the country and its regions. The first attempts of reforming of Muslim school education are connected with them. As a result of the wide social and political movement - Jadidism - in mekteba and madrasah secular objects were entered, teaching began to be conducted in Tatar, the religious scholasticism was overshadowed. It was a serious step to demolition of school of old type and creation of the secular national educational institutions brought to life by critical time.

The first novometodny schools in Bashkortostan appeared already at the very end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. Then the public, the provincial authorities discussed an issue of secular education of women. And in 1897 the region's first Jadid women's school in the city of Orenburg opened on private means. Everywhere similar schools begin to open in Bashkortostan in the main ambassador of events of the First Russian revolution in the cities of Ufa, Sterlitamak, Belebey, etc. In 1916 in Ufa there were 10 women's schools, including 7 initial and 3 average types. The pedagogical collective in them was small, only 35 people from whom there were 29 women. The number of schoolgirls at schools reached 850 people, on a social origin generally it were children of merchants, noblemen and clergy. So, a half of the Ufa schools contained on means which were sacrificed merchants, and Muslim ladies' society contained other half.

As we see, all activity of society was directed to education of girls, future mothers, housewives in the spirit of morals and moral values of that time, to distribution of literacy among the Bashkir and Tatar women. Of course, it cared for a narrow circle of women, but opening of schools, libraries, certainly, promoted distribution of literacy of Muslims in general, in them, though it is a little, girls from poor families studied. Questions of fight of women for the equal rights against men in social and political life, very relevant during this period, ladies' society, in fact, was not engaged. But also that insignificant charity of members of society devoted to generally cultural and educational work

it is possible to consider as the positive phenomenon. It was the first step of inclusion in social and political life of Muslim women of Bashkortostan, the first attempts of fight for education and cultural development of women in difficult conditions of that time. At all shortcomings and worse points these schools acted as conductors of cultural and educational work among Muslim women, distribution of literacy, awakened interest in knowledge, understanding of by full and full-fledged citizens in society and family.

The bright trace was left by the activity by Maryam Timirbula-tovna Sultanova. Her name was widely known to all Turkic world of Russia and the abroad. We know of it little. Maryam Timirbulatovna Sultanova, in Akchurin's girlhood, - the daughter of the large Simbirsk manufacturer Timirbulat Kuramshevich Akchurin. The father gave to the children fine education. Having married the son of the head of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Russia mufti Mu-hamedyara Sultanova Arslanggali, she lodged in Ufa. Sultanov' family lived in house No. 29 on Voskresenskaya Street (nowadays - Tukayev Street, the house perfectly remained). Maryam Ti-mirbulatovna made a hajj and carried an honorary title of a hadzhiya. Being the chairman of the Ufa Muslim ladies' society, she made many personal investments in the maintenance of shelters for the Bashkir girls and orphans, elementary schools for girls, several initial madrasahs and libraries. After completion of training she was engaged in the further device of the pupils. Maryam Timirbulatovna rendered the feasible help to educational institutions of the city of Ufa and the province. She went to a better world in March of І928 g

Despite difficulties and difficulties of a boundary of the 19-20th centuries, women's societies, their members, regarding as of paramount importance the activity improvement of the situation, involvement in public life, transformation of women into full members of society, played an important role in education and liberation of the Bashkir women, giving to sacred business - development and prosperity of the people - not only means, but also particles of the soul.

Literature

Gasyrlar of an avaza. 2000. No. 1/2.

Utlara cauldron. 1984. No. 10.

Makhmutova, A.H. 2006. Are time to light also to us freedom dawn! (Jadidism and women's movement.) Kazan: Tatar prince publishing house.

Mercy and charity in the Russian province. Theses of reports of the All-Russian conference, on March 22-23, 2002 / under the editorship of M.E. Glavatsky. Yekaterinburg: Center "20th century in fate of the intellectuals of Russia", 2002.

World of Moslem. 1911. No. 11.

World of Islam. 1913. T. 2. Issue XI.

ON UNZ RAHN. T. 66. Op. 1. Unit hr. 26.

I will give the account on activity of Society the Orenburg merchants in favor of wounded Russian soldiers in the Far East. Orenburg, 1904.

Rakhimkulova, M.F. 1996. The Orenburg merchants (on the Tat. language). Orenburg.

Tairov, N.I. 2002. Akchurina. Kazan: Tatar prince publishing house.

Ufa: last, real, future. Ufa, 1999.

Miller Ronald
Other scientific works: