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Blockade ring: occupational mode and information war



KOLTSO BLOKADA: OCCUPATIONAL MODE AND INFORMATION WAR

Work is presented by department of history of the St. Petersburg state architectural and construction university.

In article the characteristic of the occupational mode in the territory of the Leningrad Region in days of the Great Patriotic War is given, the main directions of fascist promotion among the civilian population of the occupied territories are analyzed. Importance of the edition and distribution of the printed materials by the occupational authorities externally similar to the Soviet pre-war newspapers and also use of religion for justification of anti-Soviet promotion is highlighted. The attention to a role of cultural actions, such as concerts, performances, excursions, sports competitions, exhibitions, in information war is paid.

I. Lapina

CIRCLE OF THE SIEGE: OCCUPATION REGIME AND INFORMATION WAR

The article characterizes the occupation regime on the territory of the Leningrad region during the Great Patriotic War; main directions of the fascist propaganda among the civil population of the occupied territories are analysed. The article emphasizes the significance of publishing and spreading of newspapers that resembled the ones published in the Soviet Union before the war and also using of religion in order to justify the anti-Soviet propaganda. Special attention is paid to the role of cultural events such as concerts, performances, excursions, sporting events, exhibitions in the information war.

The Siege of Leningrad - one of the most tragic pages of our history. Many researches are devoted to it. The last decade is marked by the appeal of scientists to combat operations in the external front of blockade. But what represented a ring of blockade? In what situation there were people on

the territory occupied by the enemy what information flow of enemy promotion and propaganda daily fell upon the civilian population? Many historians tried and try to answer these questions. On the basis of archive materials we will try to reconstruct events of military years.

The territory of the Leningrad Region from the first days of the Great Patriotic War became the arena of fierce fighting. To fall of 1941 from 72 areas of the Leningrad Region 51 areas were occupied by the enemy completely and 12 areas - partially [2, 5, l. 1; 690, l. 1]. According to Hitler's decree of July 17, 1941 the imperial ministry of affairs of the occupied east territories led by A. Rosenberg was created. The essence of Hitlerite occupational policy consisted in the following: occupation of the earth and natural wealth of occupied territories, general robbery of the population, evacuation of the population on a hard labor to Germany, elimination of the Russian national culture, destruction of local community, guerrillas, prisoners of war. Special attention was paid to destruction of the Soviet system, the maximum economic use of the occupied territories which were divided into two parts. The first to which the battlefield of ground forces belonged was under the power of command instances of Wehrmacht, and the second - in hands of political administration (civil management) - the imperial ministry of affairs of the occupied east territories. In the occupied areas of the Leningrad Region which were under the power of Wehrmacht, the cruelty of the occupational mode amplified the fact that in its territory the intense fights which were not stopping 2.5-3 years were developed therefore there was a continuous replenishment of forces of the enemy. On any other of the occupied Soviet territories there was no such number of enemy troops, as in the Leningrad Region.

Instead of bodies of the Soviet power the invaders created the local civil management acting through burgomasters, volost foremen, heads, police officers which is completely subordinated to the German commandant. For coordination of all actions with rural heads, volost foremen, chiefs of local auxiliary police discussions, meetings [1, by 651, l were regularly held. 9; 1295, l. 55] on which were instructed on work. Were carried out: a population census, each person aged from 14 years was entered in the list at certain number; certification, and in passports detailed signs of their owners registered (growth, a camp, hair color, an eye and so forth) and it was noted at what number they are entered in the list [1, 651, l. 2]. Circulation in settlements was limited [1, 131. l. 18 about.]. Movement from one settlement to another required special permission - the admission issued by volost management according to the petition of the head. In not put time of people shot for circulation without warning [1, 161, l. 36; 649, l. 7; 666, l. 1-48]. Round-ups for the purpose of identification of strangers (guerrillas, underground workers) were quite often carried out. The wide network of spies from among people, prisoners of war, deserters of the Red Army hostile to the Soviet power [1, by 162, l was created. 3]. In such conditions the civilian population in the occupied territory not only was afraid of communication with guerrillas and underground workers, but also preferred not to state even, a little openly, the attitude towards invaders [1, 161, l. 36 about.]. Some authors noted the loyal attitude of the population towards Germans, emphasizing the interest of people in life in Germany, their discontent with a totalitarian system to the USSR, desire to be unyoked "Bolshevism", Stalinism: "The Russian hospitality was former, despite deprivations of two last decades. On a table there was everything that was stored in closets and cellars... inquiries about the stranger for them the world began" about which they did not know almost anything. In September, 1941 when there passed just advanced parts of the opponent which made advances to the population, passing on cars served to peasants bread in loaves, suggesting "to try the German white loaf", for example, in the village of Yab-lonets of Strugokrasnensky district the population of occupied territories treated guerrillas badly: did not let them in villages, did not talk to them. But, when rear parts of the German armies came and showed

"real face" - began to select the cattle, at home, bread - the mood of the population sharply changed [1, 14, l. 52].

In archival documents there are numerous proofs that in the occupied territory of the Leningrad Region the impetuous robbery prospered. Seeking to support huge army and also to take out stolen to Germany, invaders especially exercised the wit in economic requisitions. In the summer of 1941 as a part of group of Sever armies "the economic inspectorate" on purpose as much as possible was founded to use the occupied areas for providing the troops with agricultural products. This inspection was placed in

Pskov. As a result of requisitions in the winter 19411942 the population of the occupied areas of the Leningrad Region, especially in the back of the 10th army, was completely robbed.

It is necessary to emphasize that according to instructions of the Reichsführer of troops CC G. Himmler of July 15, 1941 the occupied territories of boundary regions were subject to priority colonization that meant transition of all earth to hands of the German landowners and colonists, a full oneme-cheniye of the territory. The part of "the lowest social groups" was assigned to local community, the most part of locals was liable to destruction or exile. During war the germanization of the won lands was begun. To the territory of the Leningrad Region there arrived the German colonists. They had to take deep root here, the best earth and gratuitous labor - peasants of neighboring villages was provided to them. Were formed Adolf Beck, Kelner, Guttman von Vilderlinga's manor, the baron Rosen's background, etc. [1, 123, l. 43; 483, l. 2]. Colonization of northwest areas was carried out by powerful military police force. Management of the occupied areas was concentrated in the numerous military commandant's offices located in all cities and large settlements of area.

In the occupied territories the Hitlerites liquidated a collective-farm system, and all

laws and orders of the former Soviet government were declared invalid. According to "land reform" the charter of agricultural artel was repealed on February 15, 1942 and three forms of land use were entered: public farms,

agricultural associations and individual farms. All suitable horses were withdrawn from peasants, and Hitler's directive of April 11, 1942 obliged to replace horse work human more stoutly to use land area [1, 161, l. 29; 658, l. 3]. Seeking to weaken the peasantry resistance to the occupational mode, Hitlerites widely advertized "land reform", announcing its blessing Hitler to the Russian people, sought to revive private-ownership instincts of the peasantry, to create to itself a social support in the village. These aspirations grew in process of deterioration in martial law of Germany and strengthening of a resistance movement in the occupied areas. In private use distributed the earth in the form of an award and bribery to police, former fists, those who actively helped invaders. "Unreliable" the earth was not given, at "guilty" it selected. So, fascist newspaper "Severnoye Slovo" (externally full analog of the Soviet publication) of August 1

1943 wrote that in Tosno "the approximate peasant A.M. Kondakov received in a private property of 10 hectares of the earth" [1, 1295, l. 15].

Introduction of individual land use was followed by strengthening of tax policy and additional withdrawal of products at the population. Besides natural taxes there was a sophisticated system of monetary oblozheniye. Tax policy was regulated by nothing and not limited. Taxes went for the maintenance of various groups and teams bearing retaliatory or security functions.

The population of the occupied areas, since 14-year age, had to work for invaders: to construct roads, defensive works, to cultivate the land. Working conditions were unbearable. The working day was limited to nothing. To interest people in work, for working shops selling necessities [1, 649, l opened. 17 about.]. For absence from work beat or sent under arrest [1, 1284, l. 77].

From the very first days occupations of the territory of the Leningrad Region aggressors began to subject the civilian population to the strengthened brain washing. For this ministry, the Supreme command of Wehrmacht, special services and other organizations developed the main directions of propaganda activity in the occupied Soviet territories. All system of ideological influence was directed to etching from consciousness of the Soviet person socialist ideology. Alfred Rosenberg wrote what when gaining the Russian areas "the main idea is to cure the Russian people of the Bolshevism". As a part of the fascist troops intended to invasion into the USSR special parts for conducting psychological work were included: 17 companies of promotion were created. Journalists and other experts for collecting and use of materials in the anti-Soviet purposes were attached to the coming parts of Wehrmacht. The departments of promotion formed in each of three groups of the armies intended for attack directed all this activity. Aggressors had an opportunity to influence directly the civilian population. Groups of promotion were in advance equipped with necessary anti-Soviet materials and means of distribution. Posters were printed by mass editions of the leaflet, appeal, programs of broadcasts are prepared, movies, propaganda companies had at the order loud-speaking installations, special means for scattering of leaflets, it is a lot of other equipment, up to use of aircraft.

The general management of brain washing of the population of the occupied regions of our country was performed by the Ministry of Public Education and promotion headed by Y. Goebbels. At the ministry were

two departments are created: department of fight against Komintern and east department. At the General Staff of the German army, special management on promotion among the population of occupied territories worked. In group of Sever armies there was a special department of promotion subordinated to the chief of the rear area lieutenant general H. fon Roccu, and in armies - so-called companies of promotion. Brain washing of the population was carried out by not only army parts, but also the occupational authorities headed by department

And. Rosenberg. At commandant's offices, town councils, departments of promotion or departments "cultures and educations" worked. In rural areas among residents of villages and villages heads and other officials were engaged in political work.

Hitlerite command demanded that each serviceman and the official of occupational administration was a propagandist. In one of instructions of the German command it was said about propaganda impact on local community: "It is necessary to use each suitable case for moral impact on the population. All German institutions located in this area, officers, officials and employees of the agriculture organizations who are working at this place a long time and gained trust of the population have to be engaged in promotion". The bulk of printing propaganda editions was made by newspapers and leaflets. A significant amount of the newspapers issued by fascist aggressors in the occupied territory left in German. They were issued not so much for the population of the occupied areas as among it there were few people who are fluent in German, how many for the German administration. Through these editions the last obtained necessary information and the corresponding instructions for conducting work among local community. "The Hamburg newspaper", "The national newspaper", "Empire", "The German newspaper in the east" were issued,

"Marching newspaper", "Boundary watch", "Rhine provincial newspaper", "Secret service", "Revel newspaper", "Frankfurt newspaper" and others and also magazines, references [1, 137, 138, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 669, 670, 671, 1303-1313, 1722, 1723].

needs to be noted that fascists confiscated the Soviet printing editions, movies, works of the fine arts, a phonograph record, various museum pieces. The population was obliged to hand over immediately under the threat of execution in occupational authorities of the edition of works of K. Marx, F. Engels,

V. I. Lenina, books by the Soviet prose writers and poets, classics of the world literature. All libraries were closed. However Hitlerites considered a habit of the Soviet people to printing promotion. People received externally habitual printing product as invaders kept the Soviet names of newspapers, their format, a font, registration, but with absolutely other information filling. The Pravda newspaper issued in Riga on the registration was the copy of the Central body of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and strongly extended in the Leningrad Region, but with the real edition of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee had nothing in common [1, 133, 134, 658, 1293]. In. A bottom fascists published the Za Rodinu newspaper similar in registration to the newspaper of Political department of the Northwest front [1, 131, 649, 650, 1280, 1716]. The newspaper with the same name were published also in Pskov [1, 651, 652, 1286, 1288, 1717]. Besides, invaders issued in the Leningrad Region the newspapers "Gdovsky Vestnik", "Luzhsky vestnik", "Novoye slovo", "Pskovsky vestnik", "Severnoye slovo", "Trud i otdykh", "Dobrovolets", "Zarya" [1, 647, 648, 654, 656, 661, 663, 665, 1278, 1290], the magazines "Novy Put", "Volny pakhar", "Signal" [1, 657, 1277, 1291]. For rural areas the Pskov fascist publishing house Modern times issued the special calendar "New Europe" [1, 653, 1300, 1721]. Also fascists printed the "fighting leaves" in a form of the "Fighting leaf" which was issued political bodies of the Red Army, the brochure

posters [1, 667, 1297, 1720]. Along with the specified printed materials in the first days of occupation the fascist authorities published for the population of the occupied territories of the leaflet, after them replaced bulletins, appeals, orders, orders, announcements, decrees. Actually the policy of flirting with the population was replaced by the policy of rough management of the occupied territories, as found reflection in information war.

Generally fascist newspapers in the territory of the Leningrad Region began to be issued in 1941-1942, and only the few were founded in 1943. Later to invaders in general had no time for creation of publications. Fascist ideologists tried to convince the population that they issue truly Russian newspapers. In article "The Revived Word (the Russian Newspapers in the Freed Areas)" it was noted that "in all large Russian centers exempted by the German army from Bolsheviks there are Russian newspapers. Bolsheviks did not manage to strangle a free Russian word" [1, 658, l. 10].

The German command paid special attention to a question of distribution of the printed materials which are turned out by it. Of September 9, 1942 it was specified in the special relation of the chief of Strugokrasnensky district to foremen of volosts that each family has to have the daily fresh newspaper, it was required to provide a subscription of readers for these newspapers and timely delivery of these newspapers. The issue of distribution of newspapers was repeatedly discussed at meetings of rural heads and volost foremen. To them it was imputed a duty to distribute newspapers and to send behind them 2 times in a week of special people in regional managements [1, 719, l. 39]. Studying archive materials and other sources allows to claim that the organizations of distribution of the press the occupational authorities paid very much attention. It was the accurate system based on financial calculation and material interest of distributors by a percentage reward of representatives for distribution

[1, 651, l. 11]. Besides, for distribution of the fascist newspaper the award - 1 occupational German brand was provided. For its receiving it was necessary to submit the certificate with the signature of the head and the press of delivery of the newspaper [1, 649, l. 1].

The conducted research of contents of fascist newspapers allows to define the main directions in which information war was waged. The population of the occupied areas was tried to be convinced that the fascist army protects the Russian people from the Bolshevism, Jewries [1, 1284, l. 10]. The sermon of nationalism, anti-Semitism, distribution of the idea of racial superiority of the German nation are the main ideas of editorials of Nazis. Many articles were devoted to events at the front, to stories about the valid and imaginary victories of the German army, full defeat of the Red Army. Special attention was paid to the foreign chronicle. Events (naturally in fascist interpretation) which took place in Bulgaria, England, America, Australia, in Cyprus, etc. [1, 650, l were brought to the attention of the population of the occupied areas. 2; 1284, l. 1 about., etc.].

Contemporaries of events remembered what is especially sick, was to read articles devoted to Leningrad where residents of the area had relatives. Fascists wrote that in Leningrad hunger and the people eat cats and dogs that the population waits, will not wait for delivery of the city [1, 651, l. 6], articles about cannibalism in Leningrad [1, by 658, l were also published. 13]. Possibly, for Hitlerites it was very important to inspire in the population of the occupied territory uselessness of fight against "victorious" German army, uselessness of resistance. On November 2, 1941 in the fascist newspaper "Za Rodinu" (. The bottom) was printed the letter of heads of 19 villages of the Selishchensky Village Council of Porkhovsky district "As we liquidated guerrillas" [1, 131, l. 14 about.], and in article "Unless It Is Guerrillas?" it was told about what harm was done by revolution of the 1917th and the Bolshevism to the Russian people; guerrillas are called not differently as "vagrant gangs" [1, 131, l. 16, 16 about.] and "forest tramps" [1, 650, l. 1 about.].

It should be noted that fascist ideologists sharply criticized the Soviet social order, Bolshevik Party, Marxism, i.e. all that for years took root to the Soviet people ruling party and formed the basis of ideological influence on the population [1, 649, l. 14]. Here some names of articles: "Behind the scenes of the Soviet construction" (The mismanagement and theft absorbed millions of national money), "Where Bolsheviks put national money", "Stalin and the Bolshevism have to die that the Russian people could live!". Moreover, articles on behalf of "the Russian peasant" who complains of a hard lot and considers that everything that was done by the Soviet power "was madness" [1, 658, l were published. 4 about., 6 about.; 1286, l. 35; 131, l. 15]. Fascist ideologists constantly put into practice a thought that the Russian people have to be grateful to the German voi-us-liberators for disposal of mockeries of "the Kremlin gang", of "the devil Bolshevist power". The Bolshevik Party was represented by them precisely "lacking ideas gathering of people with membership cards" [1, 1280, l. 10; 658, l. 20 about.].

Along with it everything that was connected with Germany, its system, economy, progress, culture, science was eulogized, propaganda and recruitment of the population to Germany was carried on. In the fascist press the addresses to the Russian population were constantly published in the cities and villages, to women and girls. In them it was reported that account of residents of the areas freed from the Bolshevism is kept, and only single and unmarried, childless can go to Germany: men for work in agriculture and at the industrial enterprises, women as housemaids [1, 649, l. 15; 652, l. 20; 1280, l. 12 about.]. That who will go to work to Germany, it was promised to keep the house and property [1, 667, l. 1]. The research of archive materials allows to draw a conclusion on falsity of similar promises.

The occupational authorities carried out broad promotion of the idea of need of resettlement of inhabitants to the German back for safety [1, 1297, l. 41]. In the propaganda they did not differ in ingenuity, twisting actual facts and events. Even in a question of mobilization of women the Nazi ideologists used already habitual receptions: nationalism and sharp criticism of the Bolshevism. Names of articles speak for themselves. For example, "As the Bolshevism enslaved the Russian wives and mothers" [1, 1288, l. 49]. To the Russian women and girls it was constantly put some idea how it is bad it in Russia and as it will be good in Germany. In one of articles it is written that "Bolsheviks always surprised the whole world. And in this war they gave something absolutely new: woman at the front! Each people seek to save the women from danger, to keep the woman because the woman is mother, preservation of the nation depends on it. Otherwise Bolsheviks" [1, 1297, l think. 37]. Fascist newspapers almost daily placed invitations to women and girls to go to work to Germany closer to get acquainted with the German life. Right there letters home to the family of those who already works in Germany as to them it is good there were published: they are full, dressed, etc. [1, 649, l. 16 about.].

The occupational authorities repeatedly organized trips of residents of the occupied areas of the Leningrad Region to Germany to excursions. In the press articles about what impression was made on them by life in Germany were located. So, "The Gdov bulletin" published the letter of workers Pyotr Rodik and Pavel Silvestrov on their trip to Germany in No. 6 of July 25, 1942 [1, 647, l. 2 about.]. And in May, 1943 the trip to Germany of regional heads and burgomasters of the cities of Northern Russian areas was organized upon return they led discussions in the areas and told about good, full life in Germany that especially had to affect the hungry, exhausted people. The fascist newspaper "Severnoye Slovo" in No. 66 of June 9, 1943 also reports about a trip to Germany of delegation which structure included officers of the Russian Liberation Army (RLA). And on July 29 the newspaper publishes not only impressions of participants of a trip, but also the photo of those places where the Russian delegation visited: kindergarten near Berlin, a zoo, the Sangcuxi palace in Potsdam, etc. [1, 1295, l. 11 about.]. And all this against the background of what surrounded the Russian people in fact: the destroyed buildings without heating and the sewerage. Fascists inspired in inhabitants that it because of Stalin, Bolsheviks and the Soviet power they live so now. Fascist newspaper "Za Rodinu" (. A bottom) wrote that "by order of Stalin, all best constructions in the center Mr. Porkhov were destroyed, shops are plundered, houses are burned" [1, 649, l. 19]. The Za Rodinu newspaper appearing in Pskov also wrote to No. 26 of October 9, 1942: "It is rare where it is possible to find in the freed Russia the city without traces of Bolshevist barbarity now. Almost in all cities the best buildings Bolsheviks, leaving, blew up or burned. War, and most of all Bolsheviks destroyed so many national values that for restoration them improbable physical and material costs" [1, by 652, l will be involved. 5]. Fascists write that "the German army liberator came and recovery work" [1, 649, l began. 19]. It is natural that no we will find a word in the fascist press about that how many German "army liberator" of troubles in fact brought to the Russian people, how many a grief and deprivations.

It is necessary to emphasize that the element of truth in this German information, certainly, was. Proceeding from the directive SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of June 29, 1941, from the order of the Rate of the Supreme Commander No. 0428 of November 17, 1941, the Soviet troops had to destroy and reduce to ashes all settlements in the back of the German troops that the opponent could not use them and also take away with themselves all Soviet population. It is possible to establish the fact that not

always the Soviet troops managed to follow these instructions for a variety of reasons. We also know Hitler's instructions that before occupying the settlement, it should be subjected to the strengthened firing and destruction. Thus, all this led to the fact that first of all the locals remaining homeless, food, forced to move in the remained settlements, villages suffered.

In a number of fascist newspapers which were issued in the occupied territory of the Leningrad Region there were special sections: "The local chronicle", "On the freed earth" where it was reported about what occurs in various areas, settlements of area and also it was told inhabitants about how there live people in another, freed from the Bolshevism areas, about events in Odessa, in the Far East, in Ukraine, etc. [1, 1284, l. 4, 4 about.].

It is important to note that all policy of invaders was aimed first of all at providing needs of the German army therefore, considering social and economic actions of the German authorities in "the territory freed from the Bolshevism", it is necessary to consider that they were carried out first of all for involvement of local community on the party of Germans. In our opinion, would be incorrect to speak about original care of invaders of the population as it was constantly emphasized with German propagandists. From these positions it is recommended to estimate introduction in Pskov of grain cards for local community, creation of the special organizations of mutual aid, carrying out a charitable lottery in Opochka, creation of banks in Pskov, Luga, Gatchina and opening of bank cash desks in Gdov, the Bottom, the Island, Opochke, opening of hospital on 40 beds in Siverskaya, health centers and baths at Tosno, Porkhov, Pskov, Vyritsa, etc. and also veterinary stations [1, 652, l. 22, 24; 667, l. 2, 64; 1280, l. 5-6, 39 about., 42 about.; 1284, l. 15, 22, 57, 68, 77; 1293. l. 10, 12; 1294, l. 9, 12]. It was specified in the special heading "Doctor's advice" to inhabitants how they have to struggle with diseases. For giving of bigger reliability to "care" of health of the population conferences of the Russian regional doctors [1, by 1284, l were held. 20]. In addition, the occupational authorities constantly emphasized the friendly attitude of the German soldiers towards local community, photos where the German soldiers work side by side on fields with peasants were published. To peasants useful tips on housekeeping were constantly given and norms of delivery of agricultural products were immediately published, and it was emphasized that they are lower Soviet, and that peasants have to execute them first of all, and already then stock for itself. Germans claimed that "any war demands the victims" and therefore it is necessary to hand over products for the German army that "she could win" [1, 649, l. 3; 652, l. 17, 40; 667, l. 61; 1284, l. 8, 9 about., 15 about., 76; 1295, l. 7, 17, 51]. Really, norms of delivery of agricultural products were not above pre-war Soviet norms. But, estimating this fact, it is necessary to consider that in the occupied territory the number of male able-bodied population was sharply reduced and also inhabitants were deprived of draft labor.

In archival funds there are memories of life in the German occupation. Some researchers introduced the ideas that the country people producing food should not have starved. It is impossible to agree with these conclusions. The analysis of materials allows to claim that the country people in the occupied territory of the Leningrad Region really starved as, vegetables the enemy got the most part of a grain yield [2, 188, l. 2]. For use of the products from a kitchen garden of inhabitants beat with belt lashes, for day kept in barns [2, 670, l. 1, 2, 2 about.]. Not the best situation was also in the cities. According to the agronomist

N. N. Afanasyeva: "All meat was used, including cats and dogs" [2, 188, l. 2]. It should be noted that in the best situation there were persons who are in the service of the occupational authorities. The special strengthened ration [2, 670, l relied them. 3 about.]. Moreover, where the population treated the Soviet power badly, supported invaders, betrayed communists, Germans touched nothing - either hens, or eggs, for example, in the village Ka-lashnikovo of the Mishinogorsky Village Council Half of novskogo the area [2, 13, l. 54, 55].

For peasants exhibitions of agricultural products, the equipment were organized, exhibitions of seeds in Gatchina, Pskov, Island are open. Also meetings of regional agronomists were convened, various courses where not only scientific reports were made were organized, but the review of political events [1 surely was given, to 652, l. 33; 1280, l. 27 about.; 1284, l. 6, 9, 61, 124 about.].

Being covered with care of development of the Russian culture, the occupational authorities opened various cultural and educational institutions. The Russian drama theater and puppet theater in Gatchina were open; Ballet school, musical and vocal school and theater in Pskov; Gdov theatrical group; Porkhovsky drama group, etc. The occupational authorities organized tours of actors on areas of the Leningrad Region and even abroad. For example, famous Russian actor

N. K. Pechkovsky visited Vienna, Prague, Warsaw, Poznan, Riga, Kovno and other cities [1, 1284, l. 9, 11, 27, 57, 103, 119; 1288, l. 50, 72, 96; 1295, l. 5, 97]. All theatrical repertoire was under control of the German administration. A number of the facts demonstrates to it. For example, B. Maklakov wrote in one of articles that "the repertoire of theaters needs to be filled up with the modern plays of ostropolitichesky contents exposing "the Stalin-Jewish system"" [1, 1288, l. 78].

In the propaganda purposes the fascists used not only theatrical performances, but also movies. In Pskov, the Bottom movie theaters were open, worked a film recursor. Movies for display to the population were selected very carefully. They told about life in Germany, about troubles of the Russian peasants at the Soviet power and about "new,

free" lives [1, 1284, l. 13; 1288, l. 46].

Thus, "caring" for revival of culture on the occupied lands, Hitlerites for a minute did not forget about accurate ideological orientation of all cultural actions. The fascist program of moral and political spiritual suppression of the Soviet people provided destruction of the Soviet culture, elimination of a system of national education. All comprehensive schools were closed, all Soviet textbooks [1, by 57, l are destroyed. 11].

For re-education and training of children in fascist spirit the invaders opened not numerous "national" (initial) schools. Orders about compulsory education of children at schools that "children did not hang about" were published. Up to 40% the training at schools was paid. Fascists claimed that in fight against the zhido-Bolshevism not only its military defeat, but also ideological, i.e. "release from its poison of consciousness of people" is supposed. For this purpose also the new school which "can bring up useful people" [1, 649, l is necessary. 31; 651, l. 6, 25]. At a teacher's conference in Pskov on September 18, 1942 the burgomaster Cherepenkin emphasized that the main task of teachers - "to prove to children falsity of the Bolshevism and to enter them into the all-European family of the people" [1, 651, l. 9]. In December, 1942. Military management of Northern Army area developed and approved curricula and programs for elementary schools. The Pskov publishing house "Modern times" published textbooks "Native language", "Grammar and spelling". They were through imbued with fascist ideology. Books for reading included material of religious and moral contents that was not characteristic of the Soviet textbooks. The Scripture for "strengthening of moral education of younger generation" was entered into the schedule. New school training programs on the Russian, German languages, arithmetics, geography, natural sciences, needlework, singing and physical education were developed. Authors of programs recognized that elementary four-great school has to bring up the child and take to him the necessary more or less finished detour of knowledge as many children upon termination of elementary school will be engaged in country work, will go for production and in vocational schools [1, 668, l. 1-324; 652, l. 20; 1286, l. 116; 651, l. 60].

All teachers who remained in the occupied areas and were involved to work at "new schools" had to complete courses of retraining. So, in the appeal to teaching of Dnovsky district it was spoken that "the main thing not to teach children, and to re-educate them, to etch from children's souls mean Bolshevist spirit" [1, 649, l. 9]. In Porkhov, the Island, Siverska, the Conversation (Volosovo district), etc. organized advanced training courses, retrainings, developing the skills of teachers [1, by 1286, l. 16, 54, 98, 118; 1295, l. 13]. Meetings of teachers, conferences where it was specified by it as well as to what to learn children [1, 651, l were regularly held. 37, 43, 60; 1284, l. 50; 1286, l. 126]. Moreover, in the structure of delegations for acquaintance with life in Germany, included also representatives of national education. So, the inspector of schools of Seredkin-sky district P. Muravyev, the chief of national education of limits of field commandant's office Planes madam Monina Evgenia Nikolaevna visited Germany and, having returned to the areas, made before the population reports on good life of Germans [1, 667, l. 1; 1284, l. 4].

But not only through elementary schools the invaders tried to influence minds of kids. For this purpose also radio and the press were used. The Pskov broadcasting center regularly carried out children's transfers, and fascist newspapers practically in each number had the heading "Children's Mail" where various poems, fairy tales, stories, riddles, articles were published, it was told about carrying out children's holidays at schools, shelters, orphanages, photos where were represented German were printed

soldiers who play with the Soviet children and give them toys [1, 649, 652, 1280, 1284, 1286]. These and other demagogical receptions, deception were used to put some idea to children about gratitude to the German soldiers that they exempted the Soviet children from a Bolshevist mushtra and care for their education and development.

To the same purpose served also the church policy of the occupational authorities. For education of humility of inhabitants to "a new order" fascists used religion. In various publications it was told about persecutions on Orthodoxy in the USSR. Germans accused Bolsheviks of destruction of temples, churches, in speculation on belief of people and in every possible way emphasized the care of religious feelings of believers: vos?

Michelle Smith
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