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Chemical and metallurgical groups of metal of sintashtinsky culture



KHIMIKO-METALLURGICHESKIYE GROUPS of CULTURES SINTASHTINSKOY METAL

A.D. Degtyareva

Article is devoted to studying the chemical composition of non-ferrous metal of sintashtinsky culture of the beginning of the II millennium BC on materials of burial grounds the Curve Lake, the Stone Barn 5, Sintashta 2, Gerasimova 2. Data of the atomic and issue spectrometer analysis recorded use of binary alloys and also difficult three-, four-, five-component bronz with a ligature of arsenic, tin, lead, zinc, antimony. The leading metallurgical group were binary alloys copper-arsenic (about 80%); taking into account multicomponent alloys at which there is an arsenic the share arsenical bronz reaches 93%. The area of sintashtinsky metal is brought closer to various trans-Ural groups of fields: Tash-Kazgan, Nikolskoye, Thieves' hole, Ishkininsky, Gayevsky, Ivanovo. For melting arsenic-nickel-containing deposits of the Southern Trans-Ural region were selected as oxidized (malachite, cuprite), and.

Sintashtinsky culture, Southern Trans-Ural region, bronze era, color metal working, metallurgical groups.

Studying separate aspects of sintashtinsky metalproduction in terms of typology, the direction of communications, studying production wastes was carried out by a number of authors. More complete approach to assessment of a condition of development of sintashtinsky metallurgical production found reflection in E.N. Chernykh's works [SIegpukI, 1992; Chernykh, etc., 2002] in which the general chemical and metallurgical characteristic of metal of Sintashtinsky of the burial ground and settlement is given, products are attributed within the initial stage of the Eurasian metallurgical province, the most probable sources of metal in Tash-Kazgane whose ores differed in the increased arsenic content are established. The proximity of forms of abashevsky and sintashtinsky ceramics and metal, often even their identity, led E.N. Chernykh to creation of a hypothesis of existence of the extensive abashevo-sintashtinsky archaeological community caused, according to him, by a syndrome of steppe cultural continuity [2007. Page 75-79]. Besides silver or billonovy jewelry, E.N. Chernykh distributes the analyzed abashevo-sintashtinsky metal on two groups, in a quantitative sense approximately equal: the MT group (the pure and polluted by other additives copper) and arsenical copper of natural origin. The last group of metal is directly connected with excavations Tash-Kazgan, at the same time the natural nature of this copper was emphasized. If in the western regions MT copper (east of Ural Ridge it was not recorded), then tash-kazgansky metal dominated in the Trans-Ural region dominated and got on the West up to the basin of Don [In the same place. Page 80-83].

V.V. Zaykov on the basis of analytical data of laboratory of natural science methods of RAS news Agency allocated the same chemical and metallurgical groups, as E.N. Chernykh [1995]. According to V.V. Zaykov, in the territory of the East Ural mining and metallurgical center the main sources of raw materials were numerous arsenic - and nickel-containing copper arsenide - nye the fields which are present at the ultramain breeds of ofiolitovy zones like Ishki-ninsky, Dergamyshsky, Ivanovo mines [Zaykov, etc., 2008 ampere-second. 405]. It surveyed pits on mines the Thieves' hole, Dergamyshsky, Ivanovo, Ishkininsky. Considering the fact of detection of sintashtinsko-Petrovsky ceramics in the pit of the Thieves' hole which is in 40 km from the settlement of Arkaim, the researcher found possible extraction of ore of this field [Zaykov, 2007. Page 32-38].

Characteristic of the land heattechnical constructions connected with the metallurgical processes coming from the settlements of Arkaim Sintashta and the Mouth was reflected in S.A. Grigoriev's articles [2000. Page 456-460]. As the main criteria for allocation of metallurgical heattechnical complexes served typological signs of designs and detection of metallurgical slags. On the design they were subdivided into single-chamber and more difficult, consisting of the furnace connected to a well the small blocked channel

further single-chamber with a horizontal flue at a well or without the last, in isolated cases bilocular with a melting cavity and deepening with bellows. S.A. Grigoriev considers that furnaces on sintashtinsky settlements were multifunctional and could be used both for metal smelting, and for house needs. From here he comes to a conclusion about existence of metallurgical furnaces practically in each room. The real facts with fixing of the remains of metallurgical process in the form of pieces of slag, ore, splesk except for several cases are almost not given. So, on the settlement of Sintashta it mentions only one furnace with a piece of slag [In the same place. Page 458]. On the edge of the basis of one of furnaces of Arkaim the clay nozzle was revealed [In the same place. Page 460]. In our opinion, the author's conclusion about general prevalence in the sintashtinsky environment of classes metallurgical production and smelting of metal in ordinary furnaces in all dwellings serving for cooking is extremely doubtful, considering especially high extent of sublimation of oxides of arsenic when melting, annealings and even in process of cooling of alloys. Flying oxides of arsenic have high degree of toxicity and very notable garlic smell for this reason in premises the similar constructions are inadmissible. In our opinion, exactly for this reason S.A. Grigoriev's opinion on house shape of metallurgy of sintashtinets based on lack of specialized sites on settlements is not true.

Interesting results on technology of melting of ore were received by S.A. Grigoriev who studied pieces of ore (96 samples) and slag (193 samples) occurring from settlements of sintashtinsky culture of Sintasht, Arkaim, the Mouth, Olgino, Springs 2, the Berry Dale could. Curve Lake [2000. Page 461-524]. Studying pieces of ore from a layer of sintashtinsky settlements showed that the bulk of samples was presented by malachite streaks, the kowellina in serpentinite, malachite in limonite or in an ozheleznenny kvartsitopeschanik is more rare [In the same place. Page 472474]. The increased or average concentration of impurity Co, Ni at the low content of arsenic (groups I-II on S.A. Grigoriev) were characteristic of these samples [In the same place. Page 474]. The analytical research of slags showed that were used oxidized (malachite, cuprite) and sulphidic (kowellin, chalcosine, chalcopyrite, tennantit less often, bornite) ores in serpentinites and quartz veins [In the same place. Page 481-485]. Contents and the nature of inclusions in slag samples allowed the author to indicate absolutely definitely a temperature interval of melting within 1300-1400 °C, losses of metal were absolutely small, melting took place in the recovery atmosphere [In the same place. Page 486-487]. According to S.A. Grigoriev, alloying happened at an ore melting stage, at the same time the question of origin of myshyakosoderzhashchy minerals remains open so far and ore sources are not clear [In the same place. Page 504-505].

The problem of differentiation arsenical bronz and arsenical copper still is unresolved, considering especially the fact that when smelting metal from ore there is a sublimation of arsenic and its percentage sharply decreases. Researchers at allocation of group arsenical bronz as border use different threshold sizes — from 0.1 to 1 and even 5% [Eaton, NcKerrell, 1976. P. 169-170]. Noting the difficulties connected with exarticulation of border of a legirovannost of metal arsenic on the example of metal of the North Caucasian culture, E.N. Chernykh revealed certain regularities in selection of raw materials for cast jewelry and tools forged after casting. If the first contained higher concentrations of As, then the second group of products had impurity from 0.25 to 4% that, according to the researcher, obviously demonstrated knowledge of properties of copper-arsenic alloys and their skillful application depending on the choice of appropriate technology of production [Chernykh, 1966. Page 42]. Considering metal of sintashtinsky burial grounds, E.N. Chernykh carried the main part of products of the Sintashtinsky burial ground with the increased concentration of arsenic to the tash-kazgansky group which is earlier allocated on the materials Volga-Uralya — natural copper-arsenic alloys [Chernykh, 1970. Page 15; Chernykh, 1992. P. 231-232]. In one of the latest works of E.N. Chernykh used for designation of group with the increased concentration of arsenic of abashevsky and sintashtinsky cultures the term "arsenical copper", meaning its natural origin from ore of the Tash-Kazgansky field [Chernykh, 2007. Page 81]. According to L.I. Avilova who collected and processed the huge database of metal of the Middle East, the bulk of products RBV and SBV contains low concentration of arsenic, to 1-2% that is explained by the increased volatility and losses of arsenic at its heatings [Avilova, 2008. Page 20]. For definition of border of the alloyed arsenical alloys it offered threshold size in 0.5%.

In modern technical and historical and metallurgical literature the problem of receiving arsenical bronz in the ancient time as a result of the natural or artificial nature of additive of arsenic to copper is extremely debatable. The report of the existing points of view on this subject supported with experimental results on smelting of metal from ore is provided I.G. Ravich and N.V. Ryndina [1999. Page 81-83]. Authors note that most of researchers as Russian [Pazukhin, 1964; Squash, Selimkhanov, 1973], and foreign [Badd et al., 1992. P. 4-5; McKerrel, Tylekote, 1972. P. 212; Eaton, NcKerrell, 1976. P. 177178; Rovira, 1990], hold the opinion on receiving arsenical bronz direct alloyage of the copper and arsenical ore minerals as oxidized, and sulphidic, previously annealed. At the same time control over arsenic content in final metal could not be practically reached owing to considerable volatility of oxides of arsenic and its sublimation, insignificance of content of arsenic in alloys is explained by it. Other authors incline to a hypothesis of artificial origin of impurity of arsenic, but at the same time do not provide proofs of process of production of bronze [Lechtman, 1996]. Experimental smelting arsenical bronz was rather successfully carried out by V.A. Pazukhin in the course of joint roasting of the oxidized copper ores with sulphidic ores of arsenic — realgar, an auri-pigment, arsenopyrite. At the same time interaction of components happened prior to melting of metal in the course of arsenic volatilization, ready alloy contained up to 8% of arsenic. Sublimation of the last continued even after completion of metallurgical process when cooling the furnace and at each its subsequent processing, including at the forging accompanied with heatings [Pazukhin, 1964. With 156; McKerrel, Tylecote, 1972. P. 216-217]. Arsenical bronze was also received in the course of smelting in a crucible of mix of malachite and olivenite in laboratory of department of archeology of the Bradford university [Budd et al., 1992. P. 81]. In the course of heat treatment and the subsequent hot forging there was a fast sublimation and volatilization of arsenic from the surface of tools [Tylecote, 1976. P. 7-8].

V.V. Zaykov, V.A. Kotlyarov and E.V. Zaykova carried out studying structure of inclusions in slags from settlement materials. Áland, Mouth, Arkaim by methods of optical and electronic microscopy. The majority of metal inclusions is presented by reguluses of copper and arsenical bronze. At the same time approximately in a third of samples the two- and three-phase inclusions containing arsenical bronze with drops of selenious sulfides, nickel-arsenic bronze, alloys Cu-Ni-As, Fe-Cu-As in interstition, copper sulfides [Zaykov, etc., 2008b meet. Page 400-402; 2008 ampere-second. 403-405]. The obtained data, according to researchers, say that ancient metallurgists used along with ores from zones of oxidation of copper and pyritic fields arsenic-nickel-containing deposits. Ore cobalt-mednokolchedannye, the increased concentration of arsenic and nickel containing oxidations in products can be carried to the last. At the same time were used both secondary oxidized, and primary sulphidic ores. According to the conclusion of researchers in slags a large number of inclusions of hromshpinelid which on structure correspond to chromites from copper ores in serpentinites of ofiolitovy zones of South Ural is also noted. According to them, ore from arsenic-nickel-containing copper arsenidnykh fields which are present at the ultramain breeds of ofiolitovy zones (Ishkininsky, Ivanovo, Dergamyshsky) [Zaykov, etc., 2008 ampere-second was used mainly. 405]. The conclusions of V.V. Zaykov and his colleagues correspond to our analytical data; so, about 20% of the analyzed products had the increased concentration of nickel, as a part from 0.2 to 0, 96%, along with the increased concentration of arsenic (tab. 2).

The similar picture was revealed by N.V. Ryndina and I.G. Ravich at analytical studying metal of the Maykop culture. Approximately in half of products of the Maykop culture nickel with concentration from 1 to 4-5% which, according to authors, got in bronze as a result of joint melting of the copper and arsenic-nickel minerals connected with For - the Kuban ore occurences of the North Caucasus enriched with uranium was found. In the North Caucasus, arsenates and arsenides of nickel, including the NiAs nickeline having golden and bronze color meet. The experiments made by them showed that melting of malachite or copper with nickeline allows to receive when heating to 1100-1200 °C of bronze without slags and defects, and, above all, without loss arsenic [Ryndina, Ravich, 2008. Page 335-336].

The total number of the sintashtinsky metal objects considered both when studying collections and of the published data, reaches 599 (taking into account Mouth materials this

the indicator will increase approximately up to 750 units; see tab. 1). The vast majority of bronze tools and jewelry — 96% of total number of products come from funeral complexes whereas the share of settlement metal makes only 4% (fig. 1). The metal stock is distributed on the main categories classes as follows: instruments of labor — 38.8%, jewelry — 38.9% (the real share of tools was higher, jewelry — below, considering the fact of inclusion in total number of beads from sets), weapon — 2.3%, brackets, rivets, bars — 20% of objects. From metal objects most often found knives and prickers which number reached a half of the found instruments of labor in burials, is much more rare — tesla, sickles, chisels, hooks, axes, a spear and tips of arrows. The settlement metal stock coming from Sintashta's group and Arkaim is presented by chisels, prickers, hooks, sickles, knives, brackets, a bracelet, a ring and also a stone shutter of a form for casting of sickles.

Table 1

Distribution of metal products on monuments

A monument All metal wares Instruments of labor Weapon Jewelry Brackets, other Products from Si and alloys on its basis Products from Ai Products from Hell

Burial grounds

The curve Lake 121 14 93 (72 beads from 2 bracelets) 14 120 1

Stone Barn 5 66 35 1 12 18 63 2 1

Sintashtinsky 146 40 2 68 (46 beads 36 100 6 40

big and holders from 2 nakosni-k)

Sintashtinsky 1 57 35 — 7 15 57 — —

Sintashtinsky 2 42 7 7 15 13 32 10 —

Gerasimovka 2 2 2 — — — 2 — —

Berezovsky 1 1 — — — 1 — —

Malinovsky 2 2 2 — — — 2 — —

Bolshekaragansky 19 17 1 — 1 19 — —

Novokumaksky 2 2 — — — 2 — —

Tanabergen 2 91 37 2 32 20 80 5 6

At the mountain Birch 4 4 — — — 4 — —

Zhaman-Kargala 1 17 11 1 5 — 17 — —

Obilkin Lug 3 5 5 — — — 5 — —

Only 575 212 14 232 117 504 24 47

on burial grounds

Settlements

Sintashta 12 9 — 1 2 12 — —

Arkaim 12 11 — — 1 12 — —

All on settlements 24 20 — 1 3 24 — —

Only 599 232 14 233 120 528 24 47

on monuments 38.8% 2.3% 38.9% 20% 88.1% 4.1% 7.8%

Besides metal products in a cultural layer of the settlements of Olgino, Ustye, Sintashta the remains of metallurgical complexes — melting furnaces in which congestions of the remains of products of melting of bronze — ore, slags, splesk, bronze scrap, preparations [Vinogradov, are noted 2003 were found. Page 14-15; Grigoriev, 2000. Page 458-460]. In the basis of the melting furnace the settlement of Arkaim the built-in clay nozzle [Grigoriev, was revealed 2000. Page 460]. On the settlement. The mouth, according to N.B. Vinogradov, roundish stone vymost-k — the bases of horns of dome type near which there were wells from which air in the furnace moved were recorded. In a layer of settlements Springs, Chernorechenskoye 3, Kuysak were found ore, metallurgical slags, fragments of clay vessels with oshlakovanny edges, the settlement of Arkaim is a shutter of a talc casting mold for casting of two sickles. In the territory of the settlement of Bersuat the room from the remains of small metallurgical furnaces was dug out. The last were connected with a well and the system of kanavoobrazny deepenings. Here the nozzle fragment, pieces of slags, ores, stone tools [G.B. Zdanovich, Malyutina, were found 2001. Page 74-75].

Fig. 1. The card of distribution of metal of sintashtinsky culture on monuments

Pieces of copper ore (including malachite), slags, ingots are known also in sintashtinsky funeral monuments (Sintashta, the Curve Lake, the Stone Barn 5, the Sun 2) [Vinogradov, 2003. Page 134; Epimakhov, 2002. Page 51-57]. In collective burial with traces of the chariot could. Sun 2 (kurg. 5, pogr. 1) two nozzles, preparations of casting molds are found, in peripheral women's burial could. Stone Barn 5 (kurg. 4, pogr. 3) — pieces of ore, ingot; in pogr. 3 and 6 kurg. 1 could. at the mountain Birch — a piece of slag, a stone nozzle; in pogr. 1 Sintashtinsky 3 — two clay nozzles which surface is decorated with a fir-tree ornament [Gening V.F., etc., 1992. Page 337; Epimakhov, 2002. Fig. 37, 11-12; page 51; Halyapin, 2001. Page 419-421].

Data on the chemical composition of products of sintashtinsky culture were obtained on 95 products coming from burial grounds the Curve Lake, the Stone Barn 5, Sintashtinsky 2, Gerasimovsky 2 (tab. 2) 1. On the structure the metal objects are distributed on copper and alloys on its basis — 88.1%, billona and silver — 7.8%, gold — 4.1%. Silver and billona were used for production of jewelry, first of all details of nakosnik — the extended diamond-shaped pendants, holders, bracelets, gold — for roundish pendants and pendants in one and a half turns which copper basis turned back a gold foil. According to E.N. Chernykh, the share of billon in materials of the Sintashtinsky burial ground made up to 10% of all products [OpetukI, 1992. River 250-251].

1

The atomic and issue spectrometer analysis is carried out to laboratories of Institute of inorganic chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. I bring the sincere gratitude to O.V. Shuvayeva for the given opportunity of use of results of the analysis.

Table 2

Results of atomic and issue spectrometer and spectral analyses

metal of sintashtinsky culture *

Subject Drawing number No. strukt. anat. No. range. anat. Si Bp R Jp B1 Hell B Av Re No. With Ai

Could. Sintashta 2

Bracelet 65, 24 469 194 Osn. 6.5 0.08 0.04 & lt; 0.001 0.15 & lt; 0.01 0.4 0.02 0.005 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Bracelet 65, 21 470 195 Osn. 0.07 0.12 0.08 0.025 0.03 0.05 1.5 0.25 0.009 0.004 0.006

Bracelet 65, 23 471 196 Osn. 0.15 0.03 1.8 0.008 0.13 0.2 0.4 0.05 0.004 0.003 0.005

Knife 52, 10 472 197 Osn. 0.02 0.03 0.2 & lt; 0.001 0.06 1.2 3.25 0.04 0.28 & lt; 0.001 0.008

Knife 46, 8 473 198 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.004 0.04 & lt; 0.001 0.02 0.02 1.65 0.12 0.09 0.003 0.01

Knife 46, 5 474 199 Osn. 0.005 0.03 0.1 0.003 0.075 & lt; 0.01 0.55 0.16 0.02 & lt; 0.001 0.005

Tesla 36, 1 475 200 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.001 0.02 0.004 0.025 & lt; 0.01 0.5 0.09 0.03 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.003

Needle 58.43 476 201 Osn. 0.005 0.03 0.01 & lt; 0.001 0.02 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.02 & lt; 0.001 0.006

Hook 57, 9 477 202 Osn. 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.004 0.05 0.02 2.5 0.08 0.07 & lt; 0.001 0.005

Knife 46, 2 478 203 Osn. 0.006 0.005 0.02 0.002 & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.01 0.75 0.14 0.09 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Arrow 61, 8 562 154 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.02 0.05 0.004 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.18 0.35 0.003 & lt; 0.001 0.003

Arrow 61, 9 563 157 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.02 0.04 0.005 0.044 & lt; 0.01 0.23 0.45 0.02 & lt; 0.001 0.02

Arrow 61, 12 564 189 Osn. 0.08 0.015 0.025 & lt; 0.001 0.035 & lt; 0.01 0.18 0.07 0.005 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Arrow 61, 10 565 190 Osn. 0.02 0.004 0.04 & lt; 0.001 0.13 & lt; 0.001 1.5 0.07 0.009 & lt; 0.001 0.005

Arrow 61, 11 566 191 Osn. 0.05 0.02 0.1 0.002 0.03 & lt; 0.01 0.18 0.15 0.01 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Arrow 61, 13 567 192 Osn. 0.04 0.05 5 0.004 0.01 & lt; 0.01 1.65 0.02 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001 0.006

Needle 58, 42 568 193 Osn. 2.5 0.008 0.04 & lt; 0.001 0.01 & lt; 0.01 1.65 0.05 0.05 0.007 0.005

Tesla 37, 6 569 155 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.009 0.1 0.001 0.12 0.05 0.4 0.5 0.09 0.003 0.003

Tesla 37, 8 570 156 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.01 0.06 0.03 0.044 & lt; 0.01 0.91 0.1 0.21 & lt; 0.001 0.004

Could. Curve Lake

Knife 43, 7 415 003 Osn. 0.002 0.01 0.01 0.002 0.015 0.02 0.12 0.2 0.02 0.0007 0.0006

Bracket 68, 22 416 004 Osn. 0.0005 0.003 0.008 0.0004 0.014 & lt; 0.01 0.06 0.08 0.01 & lt; 0.0005 & lt; 0.0003

Bracket 68, 21 417 005 Osn. 0.009 0.03 0.001 0.002 0.06 0.09 0.32 0.8 0.02 & lt; 0.0005 0.003

Knife 48, 10 419 007 Osn. 0.0005 0.003 0.003 0.0005 0.02 & lt; 0.001 0.4 0.3 0.01 & lt; 0.0005 0.002

Bracelet 65, 28 420 272 Osn. 0.008 0.009 & lt; 0.001 0.002 0.09 & lt; 0.05 1.3 0.09 0.1 0.003 0.01

Bracelet 65, 26 421 273 Osn. 1.4 0.87 0.05 0.01 0.22 0.07 0.3 0.06 0.04 & lt; 0.002 0.01

Bracelet 65, 25 422 274 Osn. 0.02 0.004 0.09 0.001 0.02 0.01 6.9 0.11 0.3 0.002 0.02

Pricker 58, 19 423 275 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.004 0.12 0.001 0.02 & lt; 0.05 2.2 0.11 0.55 0.003 0.01

Pricker 58, 10 424 276 Osn. 0.009 0.007 0.18 0.002 0.04 0.22 2.9 0.14 0.25 0.004 0.02

Rivet 68, 37 425 277 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.15 0.002 0.02 & lt; 0.05 0.1 0.23 0.01 0.02 0.008

Rivet 68, 32 426 278 Osn. 0.01 0.02 0.15 & lt; 0.001 0.05 0.04 1.1 0.15 0.25 & lt; 0.002 0.01

Knife 51, 14 427 279 Osn. 0.009 0.015 0.2 0.003 0.05 & lt; 0.05 1.1 0.15 0.25 0.004 0.01

Pendant 65, 1 428 280 Osn. 0.01 & lt; 0.005 0.07 0.005 0.01 & lt; 0.05 0.2 0.12 0.03 & lt; 0.002 0.002

Bracket 68, 15 429 281 Osn. 0.007 0.008 & lt; 0.01 0.003 0.08 0.06 0.5 0.17 0.17 0.002 0.02

Bracket 68, 13 430 282 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.011 & lt; 0.01 0.001 0.006 & lt; 0.05 0.2 0.11 0.08 & lt; 0.002 0.009

Bracelet 65, 20 431 283 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.52 0.2 0.004 0.02 & lt; 0.05 1.7 0.16 0.19 0.003 0.01

Tesla 36, 3 432 38504 Osn. 0.0072 0.002 0.001 0.0015 0.032 0.021 1.4 0.27 0.16 0.0032 0.0026

Knife 48, 3 433 38505 Osn. 0.006 0.001 — 0.0004 0.038 0.0021 0.035 0.054 0.012 0.0043 —

Knife 48, 16 434 38503 Osn. 0.022 0.001 0.001 — 0.058 0.014 1.2 0.2 0.16 0.0053 0.0012

Pricker 58, 9 435 38507 Osn. 0.013 — 0.001 — 0.027 0.031 1.2 0.13 0.23 0.0029 0.0008

Bead 65, 29 436 38508 Osn. 0.0072 0.0011 0.001 0.0004 0.089 0.015 0.54 0.024 0.07 0.0017 0.0012

Bead 65, 29 437 38509 Osn. 0.0026 0.0012 0.001 0.0005 0.089 0.018 0.69 0.063 0.087 0.0017 0.0017

Bead 65, 29 438 38510 Osn. 0.0022 0.0018 0.001 0.0006 0.089 0.013 0.79 0.039 0.064 0.0021 0.0017

Bead 65, 29 — 38511 Osn. 0.0055 0.0022 0.001 0.0003 0.089 0.015 0.69 0.024 0.064 0.0014 0.0015

Bead 65, 29 — 38512 Osn. 0.005 0.0025 0.0017 0.0006 0.089 0.017 0.69 0.054 0.064 0.0021 0.0024

Bead 65, 29 — 38513 Osn. 0.0024 0.001 0.0012 0.0004 0.14 0.013 0.79 0.046 0.07 0.0024 0.0016

Bead 65, 29 — 38514 Osn. 0.0016 0.0014 0.001 — 0.0055 0.0038 0.12 0.4 0.28 0.015 —

Bead 65, 29 — 38515 Osn. 0.0026 0.0025 0.001 0.0004 0.032 0.012 0.79 0.02 0.064 0.0014 0.001

Bead 65, 29 — 38516 Osn. 0.0024 0.001 0.0012 0.0003 0.023 0.012 0.42 0.017 0.052 0.0017 0.0011

Bead 65, 29 — 38517 Osn. 0.0022 0.0025 0.0017 0.0008 0.076 0.015 1.0 0.024 0.052 0.0032 0.0022

Knife 46, 3 441 286 Osn. 0.02 & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.01 0.004 0.06 & lt; 0.05 0.4 0.13 0.1 & lt; 0.002 0.011

Knife 48, 1 442 287 Osn. 0.01 0.006 & lt; 0.01 0.003 0.1 & lt; 0.05 0.3 0.08 0.04 0.008 & lt; 0.001

Pricker 58, 41 443 288 Osn. 0.02 0.003 & lt; 0.01 0.001 0.04 & lt; 0.05 1.1 0.11 0.12 0.005 0.004

Bracelet 65, 18 444 289 Osn. 0.4 0.009 & lt; 0.01 0.002 0.09 0.11 2.2 0.2 0.16 & lt; 0.002 0.02

Bracket 68, 31 446 291 Osn. 0.01 0.011 0.14 0.001 0.04 0.1 0.8 0.11 0.09 & lt; 0.002 0.01

Pricker 58, 38 447 292 Osn. 0.04 0.008 0.01 0.001 0.05 0.06 0.7 0.11 0.06 & lt; 0.002 0.01

Pricker 58, 11 448 293 Osn. 0.07 0.006 0.18 0.001 0.02 0.05 1.6 0.13 0.11 0.002 0.02

Bracket 68, 12 449 294 Osn. 0.032 0.005 0.01 0.001 0.03 0.05 0.2 0.11 0.02 & lt; 0.002 0.007

Bracket 68, 14 450 295 Osn. 0.01 0.005 0.04 0.001 0.02 0.05 1.0 0.07 0.11 0.003 0.01

Bead 65, 28 533 272a Osn. 0.007 0.009 0.002 0.002 0.09 & lt; 0.05 1.4 0.09 0.09 0.003 0.01

Could. Stone Barn 5

Tesla 37, 23 617 115 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.002 & lt; 0.01 0.003 0.002 & lt; 0.01 0.1 0.25 0.08 & lt; 0.001 0.005

Pricker 58, 36 618 116 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.4 0.01 0.009 & lt; 0.01 0.18 0.24 0.09 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Termination of tab. 2

Subject Drawing number No. strukt. anat. No. range. anat. Si Bp R gp B1 Hell B Ae Re M With Ai

Pricker 58, 7 619 117 Osn. 0.03 & lt; 0.005 0.02 0.008 0.006 & lt; 0.01 0.6 0.12 0.1 & lt; 0.001 0.01

Pin 65, 32 620 118 Osn. 0.03 & lt; 0.005 0.4 0.006 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.015 0.46 0.008 & lt; 0.001 0.005

Needle 58, 44 621 119 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.01 & lt; 0.001 0.005 & lt; 0.01 0.35 0.08 0.04 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Sickle 41, 17 622 120 Osn. & lt; 0.005 0.005 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.07 0.05 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Tesla 37, 9 623 121 Osn. 0.005 0.06 0.01 0.001 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.1 0.25 0.01 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Pricker 58, 3 624 122 Osn. 0.007 0.007 0.08 0.005 0.06 & lt; 0.01 0.36 0.07 0.14 & lt; 0.001 0.001

Knife 51, 2 625 123 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.015 0.004 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.45 0.2 0.14 & lt; 0.001 0.003

Knife 51, 10 626 124 Osn. 0.06 0.005 0.06 & lt; 0.001 0.05 0.02 1.1 0.5 0.33 & lt; 0.001 0.003

Tesla 37, 11 627 125 Osn. 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.27 0.03 0.55 0.42 0.14 & lt; 0.001 0.005

Knife 51, 17 628 126 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.04 0.005 0.35 & lt; 0.01 0.9 0.45 0.06 & lt; 0.001 0.02

Tesla 37, 12 629 127 Osn. & lt; 0.00 0.007 0.08 0.04 0.018 & lt; 0.01 0.72 0.1 0.09 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Spear 61, 5 630 128 Osn. 0.007 0.02 0.03 & lt; 0.001 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.34 0.05 0.08 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Knife 48, 8 631 129 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.04 0.001 0.06 & lt; 0.01 0.65 0.25 0.86 0.006 & lt; 0.001

Knife 48, 6 632 130 Osn. 0.008 & lt; 0.005 0.05 & lt; 0.001 0.01 & lt; 0.01 0.03 0.22 0.03 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Bracelet 65, 22 633 131 Osn. 5.1 0.09 0.12 0.015 0.13 & lt; 0.01 0.24 0.03 0.09 & lt; 0.001 0.03

Needle 58, 37 634 132 Osn. 0.015 0.002 0.25 & lt; 0.001 0.003 & lt; 0.01 0.68 0.08 0.48 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Knife 51, 16 635 133 Osn. 0.045 & lt; 0.005 0.22 & lt; 0.001 0.06 & lt; 0.01 0.58 0.2 0.08 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Tesla 37, 22 636 134 Osn. 0.03 & lt; 0.005 0.02 & lt; 0.001 0.004 & lt; 0.01 0.15 0.17 0.04 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Bracket 68, 28 637 135 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.04 & lt; 0.001 0.007 & lt; 0.01 0.05 0.11 0.14 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Core 68, 39 638 136 Osn. 0.03 & lt; 0.005 0.06 & lt; 0.001 0.002 & lt; 0.01 & lt; 0.03 0.23 & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Bracket 68, 11 639 137 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.025 & lt; 0.001 0.01 & lt; 0.01 0.45 0.24 0.44 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Knife 43, 2 640 138 Osn. 0.008 & lt; 0.005 0.015 & lt; 0.001 0.003 & lt; 0.01 0.18 0.2 0.05 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Chisel 41, 3 641 139 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.05 & lt; 0.001 0.004 & lt; 0.01 0.6 0.04 0.19 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Pricker 58, 12 642 140 Osn. 0.025 & lt; 0.005 0.03 & lt; 0.001 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.7 0.25 0.96 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Bracket 68, 20 643 141 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.03 0.001 0.06 & lt; 0.01 0.94 0.27 0.23 0.003 & lt; 0.001

Tesla 37, 21 644 142 Osn. 0.04 & lt; 0.005 0.08 & lt; 0.001 0.006 & lt; 0.01 3 0.2 0.12 0.002 & lt; 0.001

Pricker 58, 8 645 143 Osn. 0.02 0.007 0.03 & lt; 0.001 0.005 & lt; 0.01 0.35 0.24 0.1 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Hook 57, 11 646 144 Osn. 0.05 0.006 0.13 0.002 0.01 & lt; 0.01 0.17 0.1 0.07 0.002 0.004

Spiral 65, 30 647 145 Osn. 0.005 0.005 0.04 & lt; 0.004 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.17 0.24 0.05 0.001 0.001

Chekan 41, 1 648 146 Osn. 0.035 0.002 0.22 & lt; 0.001 0.02 & lt; 0.01 0.46 0.5 0.1 0.003 & lt; 0.001

Plaque 65, 31 649 147 Osn. 8.2 5 4.6 0.01 0.32 & lt; 0.01 0.2 0.34 0.18 & lt; 0.001 & lt; 0.001

Bracket 68, 10 650 148 Osn. 0.17 0.05 0.12 0.008 0.007 & lt; 0.01 0.12 0.24 0.02 & lt; 0.001 0.01

Pricker 58, 31 651 149 Osn. & lt; 0.005 & lt; 0.005 0.043 0.006 0.004 & lt; 0.01 0.65 0.095 0.2 & lt; 0.001 0.003

Could. Gerasimovka 2

Knife | 52, 3 | 505 | 309 | Osn. | 0.02 | 0.006 | 0.6 | 0.001 | 0.02 | 0.05 | 2.3 | 0.11 | 0.1 | 0.002 | 0.008

* Results of analyses with three-digit numbers were received in laboratory of Institute of inorganic chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, with five-digit — in laboratory of natural science methods of news agency of RAS.

Copper and alloys on its basis are subdivided into nine metallurgical groups: pure copper, double alloys — arsenical bronze, latuny — copper alloy with zinc and also complex three-, four-, five-component alloys — tin-arsenic, lead-arsenic, antimony-arsenic, zinc-arsenic, tin-lead-arsenic and so-called sea brass (with a ligature tin, lead, zinc, arsenic; fig. 2). As the lower threshold of alloying of alloy with arsenic we accepted the conditional size & gt; 0.1% because on the histogram of distribution of concentration of impurity Ae the set of analyses with borders in the range from 0.1 up to 3% is rather clearly visible, at the same time over 80% of objects have concentration of Ae to 1.5% (fig. 3). For other ligatures the border is higher: for Bp, R, gp — & gt; 0.5%, for B — & gt; 1.0%.

Receiving the arsenical alloys mainly low-alloyed as in the subsequent technology the receiving not completely cast products, but cast with forge forging prevailed was a main goal of sintashtinsky metallurgists. The leading metallurgical group certainly are binary alloys copper-arsenic, their share makes 79.9% of total number of the analyzed products (76 objects with concentration of arsenic within 0.1-6.9%). At the same time arsenic is present practically at all types of the mentioned alloys. Taking into account quantity of the objects made of multicomponent alloys, the real share of alloys at which there is an arsenic reaches 92.6%. Arsenical bronze of sintashtinsky culture belong to the category of low-alloyed — 88.1% of products incorporate arsenic impurity to 1.5%. Only six objects contain concentration of Ae from 1.5 to 3.5%, and only one bracelet is alloyed by arsenic within 6.9%.

>-80 - 60 - 40 - 20

0

Fig. 2. Distribution of metallurgical groups of non-ferrous metal in metal of sintashtinsky culture

Fig. 3. Distribution of concentration of impurity Ae in metal of sintashtinsky culture

The group of pure copper is insignificant, contains 6 objects among which a bracket, preparation, two knives and a tip of an arrow (6.2%). In group tin-arsenic bronz four products (4.2% of total): 2 bracelets, knife, needle. Concentration of arsenic are in objects ranging from 0.12 up to 2.2%, is slightly higher than tin, from 0.4 to 6.5%. From myshya-kovo-zinc bronze four products — a bracelet, an arrow tip, a knife, a pricker (4.2% of total number of the analyzed products) are cast. Impurity of Ae low, are ranging from 0.18 up to 1.65%. Concentration of zinc vary from 0.4 to 5%. One semi-finished product preparation is cast from brass with concentration of zinc within 0.4%. The remained four metallurgical groups — Si & #43; Ae & #43; R, Si & #43; Ae & #43; B, Si & #43; Ae & #43; Bp & #43; R, Si & #43; Bp & #43; R & #43; 2p & #43; Ae — contain in only one subject. Two bracelets with concentration of arsenic of 0.3-1.7%, lead of 0.57-0.87%, tin of 1.4% are made of arsenic-lead and arsenic-tin-lead bronze. Arsenic-antimony bronze (Ae — 3.25%, B — 1.2%) was used for casting of a knife. The plaque is made of the four-component bronze containing additives of tin, lead and zinc (concentration respectively 8.12; 5; 4.6). Arsenic contains in the number of 0.2%. Similar alloys in special technical literature call sea latunyam as introduction of the alloying additives of tin and zinc increases corrosion resistance in sea water [Gulyaev, 1977. Page 609].

Copper alloys with zinc — brass were rather unusual occurrence in the cultures of a bronze age. So, according to E.N. Chernykh, in a cultural layer of the settlement of Meshoko of the Maykop culture was

79.9%
6.2% of 4.2% of 1 4,2% of 1 1,1% of 1 1,1% of 1 1,1%
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1.1%

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the proniza fragment from zinc which was the earliest find from known in the territory of the former USSR [Chernykh, 1966 is found. Page 37]. Several products from brass and arsenic-zinc bronze are known in burials of catacomb culture [the Hook, 2005. Page 18-19]. High content of zinc — 1% was characteristic of an ingot from could. Top Alabuga [Kuzminykh, Chernykh, 1985. Page 350]. Within 0.2-0.68% about a third of the tools coming from the cult Shaytanskoye Ozero 2 complex in which more than 130 objects seyminskogo-turbinsky types were followed by ceramics of koptyakovsky shape [Serikov, etc., 2008 contains the increased concentration of zinc. Page 342]. Analytical researches of this metal were conducted by method of the X-ray fluorescent analysis in laboratory of natural science methods of RAS news Agency. At the same time in a number of objects the increased concentration of nickel — 0,20,3% and also arsenic — 0.1-1% [Lunkov, etc., are noted 2009. Page 103-106; Serikov, etc., 2009. Page 7172]. The monument is near two groups of fields, Pyshma and Klyuchevsky and Shaytansky mines. Berezovsky the mine of Shaytansky group as a part of ore has a zinc blende and lead connections. Ore minerals of Pyshma and Klyuchevsky group are presented by chalcopyrite, chalcosine, bornite while the top horizons contain the oxidized ores. A conclusion about use of these fields of copper is represented quite logical, as was reflected in a qualitative originality of composition of metal of copper and bronze products.

In Eastern Siberia the technology of receiving latuny becomes known already in I karasuk-will hold down an era thanks to development of the oxidized zones of fields of polymetallic ores. So, lugavsky arsenic-zinc bronze were obviously artificial origin, according to S.V. Kuzminykh, when melting minerals with the high content of zinc [Bobrov, etc., were added 1997 to ready copper. Page 51]. The share latuny with the concentration of zinc reaching 3-10% in metal of the early Iron Age in Baikal region, Transbaikalia, in tagarsky bronza of Minusinsk Depression [Sergeyev, was rather high 1981. Page 24-24, 32, 41]. The irregularity of concentration of zinc in N.F. Sergeyev's alloys explains with presence of minerals of zinc at initial copper ore. As zinc ores in the nature almost do not meet, connections gpb usually are a part of polymetallic ores from which zinc at incomplete sublimation passed into liquid metal [Sergeyev, 1981. Page 52]. Jewelry of brass or with a covering from it is known also in the sargatsky funeral Tobolo-Ishimya complexes [Degtyareva, Shuvayeva, 2008. Page 29-30]. Mass distribution of alloys with zinc begins in Eastern Europe only at the beginning of the I millennium AD

The data on distribution of metallurgical groups of sintashtinsky metal obtained by us quite correspond to the results of spektroanalitichesky studying stock of the Sintash-tinsky burial ground given by E.N. Chernykh. In laboratory of natural science methods of RAS news Agency about 120 samples of metal products from the Sintashtinsky big burial ground were investigated. Among the allocated metallurgical groups the group of arsenical bronze was prevailing — up to 80% of products. The share of pure copper made 5%, tin bronze — to 7% [SIegpukI, 1992. River 250].

A certain similarity on chemical and metallurgical indicators is planned between sin-tashtinsky and catacomb metal. The research of metal working of catacomb tribes of steppe Ciscaucasia, the Lower Don and the Seversky Donets conducted by E.I. Gak allowed it to isolate seven chemical and metallurgical groups in catacomb metal. Among them products from pure copper (5% of sample), silver (3.8%), two- and three-component alloys on the basis of copper — Si & #43; Ae (83.5%), Si & #43; gp (2.8%), Si & #43; Ae & #43; R (0.6%), Si & #43; Ae & #43; B (2.2%) of Si & #43; Ae & #43; gp (2.2%) [Hook, 2005. Page 18-19]. The similarity is shown in prevalence low-alloyed (up to 6%) arsenical bronz, the instruments of labor used for receiving, presence of small group of the alloys alloyed by zinc, lead and antimony. At the same time in catacomb metal there are no groups with a tin ligature which in a small amount are available in sintashtinsky stock.

Thus, in funeral sintashtinsky complexes the arsenical bronze (79.9% of products) alloyed by arsenic with low concentration to 1.5% in isolated cases up to 7% dominated. The share of pure copper among funeral metal stock made according to us 6.2%. Also the quantity tin bronz was insignificant — within 5.3% taking into account products from the multicomponent alloys in general not characteristic of sintashtinsky metalproduction which went generally for production of jewelry — bracelets, pendants and also a needle, a knife. Existence of a small series tin bronz objyas-

it nyatsya by contacts with turbinsky and Petrovsky tribes which were the main intermediaries in distribution of a tin ligature. The group arsenical bronz is presented almost only by instruments of labor and jewelry while in the environment of jewelry dominate low-alloyed tin bronze. The two- and three-component alloys containing zinc were not characteristic of the centers of the Eurasian metallurgical province — their share made about 6.2%. Judging by availability of similar alloys in materials could. Top Alaba hectare, the cult Shaytanskoye Ozero 2 complex, later — in burials of sargatsky culture Pritobolya, local copper-zinc fields of Youzhny and the Central Trans-Ural region Kyshtym, Pyshminsko-Klyuchevskoy group.

could be a zinc source quite

The compounding of sintashtinsky alloys is almost identical to technological features of production catacomb bronz steppe Ciscaucasia, the Lower Don. The similarity is shown in prevalence low-alloyed (up to 6%) arsenical bronz, the instruments of labor used for receiving, presence of small group of the alloys alloyed by zinc, lead and antimony. At the same time in catacomb metal there are no groups with a tin ligature which in a small amount are available in sintashtinsky stock.

Analytical studying pieces of ore and the metallurgical slags coming from a layer of sintashtinsky settlements showed

(S.A. Grigoriev, V.V. Zaykov) that ancient metallurgists used, along with ores from zones of oxidation of copper and pyritic fields with high content of copper (malachite, cuprite), also arsenic-nickel-containing deposits. Ore cobalt-mednokolchedannye, the increased concentration of arsenic and nickel containing oxidations in products can be carried to number of the last. Perhaps, also sulphidic ores in serpentinites and quartz veins — chalcosine, chalcopyrite were developed, tennantit, bornite. Also the spatial confinedness of the main massifs of metal products can serve as indirect evidence in favor of this fact. The area of sintashtinsky metal is brought closer to various trans-Ural groups of fields: Tash-Kazgan, Nikolskoye, Thieves' hole, Ishkininsky, Gayevsky, Ivanovo. The main groups of arsenical bronze, or copper, on E.N. Chernykh, are connected with the territory of the Southern Trans-Ural region, in the cultural plan with sintashtin-sky culture (see fig. 1 [Chernykh, 2007. Fig. 5.6]). Exactly from here — from a zone this metal in the form of finished products, semi-finished products and strip ingots to potapovsky, Don abashevsky, Petrovsky pritobolsky tribes dispersed from ore fields. By the way, the similar strip preparations ingots containing concentration of the alloying components — Ae and Bp from 0.5-2 to 14-15%, are known for materials of settlements Kulevchi 6, the Mouth, Ubagan while?

Sarah Richardson
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