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Practice of multicultural education in Dagestan: culturological aspect

m. Sh. Abdullaeva


Work is presented by department of the theory and history of music and a technique of music education of the Dagestan state pedagogical university.

In article the complex analysis of formation of secular education in Dagestan is carried out to XIXv., substantial features of refraction of specifics of secular education in ethnocultural space are shown. On the basis of the concept of cultural dialogue the practice of multicultural education including wide network of secular and religious educational institutions in the territory of the Republic of Dagestan is lit.

M. Abdulayeva


The complex analysis of secular education forming in Dagestan in the 19th century is analysed in the article and the substantial peculiarities of the refraction of secular education in the ethnocultural area are shown. The practice of multicultural education, including a wide net of secular and religious educational institutions on the territory of Dagestan, is widely covered in the article on the basis of the cultural dialogue conception.

Modern society represents variety of the organizations, movements, social groups, political, religious, cultural and other trends, each of which

develops under the specific laws. A key indicator of development of society is culture serving as the intermediary between the state and society.

Contacts between the people were a powerful incentive of historical process always. An important factor in regulation of the interethnic relations is dialogue of the adjoining cultures. In the course of interaction of several cultures there is a possibility of comparative assessment of achievements, their values and probabilities of loan.

Having tracked the history of development of the Russian-Dagestan contacts from the second half of the 19th century on the end of the century of the 20th century, we came to a conclusion: Russia, having achieved inclusion of the territory of Dagestan in structure of the empire, did not regard as of paramount importance only conquest, colonization about what it is much written by historians of the Soviet period. A large number of the documents proceeding from the highest Russian instances in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century, confirm the aspiration of Russia to involve the people of Dagestan in the all-Russian economic and cultural space, on the way to European civilization.

Peculiar "hybrid" societies become result of interaction of the western and east type of culture. A characteristic example is Dagestan coming influence of the bases of the European culture extending in the mountain country during constant communication with Russia. At the same time it must be kept in mind that the Dagestan genetic type is closer to the East, and a considerable part of Dagestanis considers for itself priority attributes of Arab-Muslim culture.

Despite ethnic diversity, language distinctions and cultural diversity, the population of Dagestan it was historically integrated proximity of origin, community of historical destinies, ethnoterritorial contacts, economic and economic and cultural ties, a tendency of the people to integration. The religion also became an integral part of the Dagestan history, spiritual culture. Before adoption of Islam the Dagestan people were dismembered on language, ethnic and religious signs. After adoption of Islam of nationality and tribes were integrated on the basis of religious community. In process of strengthening of the domination

in the conditions of the people of Dagestan Islam was quite strongly included into psychology and life of the people and grew together with national customs, ceremonies, traditions. Influence of Moslem doctrine affected as well on family life, and on national traditions.

Among the main components of this type of culture - religious education. Before official accession to Russia the Arab-Muslim school (maktab and Madras) was the only form of education for indigenous people of Dagestan. Educational programs of Arab-Muslim schools included disciplines of a religious cycle (Arabic, Sharia, philosophy, logic) and studying the exact sciences (algebra, geometry, astronomy).

From total number of the Muslim schools existing in the Caucasus in the 19th century, more than a half was in the territory of Dagestan. Religious schools performed also important social function: in ethnoconsciousness of the people the fixation on literacy, prestige of knowledge and education was created [7, page 10]. Muslim schools were free, are rather available, did not divide pupils on the social status, were obligatory for all Muslims. At the same time the confessional nature of all system of Arab-Muslim school became, owing to intended self-restriction, sometimes to primitiveness of educational process and hostility to the appearing alternative educational institutions (secular schools), an essential obstacle for social adaptation of the Dagestan youth to new realities.

After accession in 1813 of Dagestan Russia took a number of the measures which were objectively contributing to cultural development of the people of the mountain country. Opening in Dagestan of secular schools became one of the considerable phenomena. In general the organization of Russian-language institutions and secular schools accompanied practical inclusion of Dagestan in political and economic and cultural and educational space of the Russian Empire.

The first educational institution opened by the government in Dagestan and intended "for children of the Russian officials and

the officers serving in area" [1, page 6], was the Derbent city school founded in 1837. It is indicative that in the first years the mountaineers did not seek to define children neither in the Derbent city school, nor in the private schools founded in 1842 Port-Petrovska and strengthenings of the Lower reach [2, page 322]. If the attitude of indigenous people towards Russians in the sphere of traditional norms of communication remained in general loyal, then attempts to attract mountaineers in secular schools met religious rejection which could become a powerful brake in the general process of formation of an education system. Opening in 1849 in Derbent of Muslim school which at the beginning of 1855 was translated in Temir-Khan-Shura became the solution of this problem. The representatives of indigenous peoples of Dagestan studying here had an opportunity, besides Arab, to learn and Russian. It became an important step on the difficult way of involvement of Dagestanis to educational space, new to them.

From the middle of the 19th century the emergence in the territory of Dagestan of secular educational institutions gradually began to gain systematic character. In 1856 at the initiative of the regimental doctor I.S. Kostemerovsky in the Lower Jen-gutaye the school was open for children of riders of the Dagestan horse regiment and children of locals. Kosteme-rovsky performed as the active propagandist of the Russian diploma, science and culture among Dagestanis in parallel with execution of the professional duties.

Since the beginning of the 1860th. The Caucasian administration started "wider organization of business of education of mountaineers" [2, page 323], one of indicative results in this direction became establishment in 1861 in Temir-Khan-Shura of district city school which, except three classes (preparatory, the first and second), included also Muslim school. From year to year the number of the studying children from local nationalities grew in school: if in a year of opening together with children of the Russian officials 25 children of Dagestanis studied, then in their 1872 were 57 [6, page 2].

In 1874 the city school was transformed by Temir-Khan-Shurinskaya to a pro-gymnasium as a part of preparatory and first classes with 142 pupils. The second, third, fourth classes opened respectively in 1875, 1876,

1877 . In 1879 the total number of studying reached 227. Transfer in a board at the expense of the state treasury was made depending on that, "what official position was held by the pupil's parents, preference was sometimes given to candidates from such areas from where is less persons interested to be admitted to school and where therefore it would be desirable to develop aspiration to dedication of children in educational institution" [6, page 33, 34]. In January
1878 at a pro-gymnasium the preparatory office was open for children of the mountaineers who are not knowing Russian.

By the end of the 1870th the pro-gymnasium did not satisfy constantly growing needs of local community on average education any more. As a result of numerous addresses of residents of Dagestan the Caucasian administration took measures for expansion of educational and methodical potential of a pro-gymnasium and its transformation to real school.

In September, 1880 the real school opened as a part of a preparatory class (for initial training of children of mountaineers who did not know Russian) and five main classes. From 188 realists who started classes in the first year of existence of school, 55 people were representatives of the Dagestan nationalities [1, page 8]. In 1881 and 1882 the sixth and seventh classes were open.

In pedagogical staff of school the Russian experts worked. Since 1881 the graduate of the Novorossiysk university, the author of numerous works on history, ethnography, study of local lore of Dagestan taught the history E.I. Kozubsky. A.V. Barsov - the author of a number of works on the Russian grammar was a teacher of the Russian literature; in particular, pupils of the first class of school used the syntactic book of problems by Barsov. Besides, in 1882. Leopards published some models of the Dagestan folklore - "The Dagestan fairy tales" and

"Legends of some areas of Dagestan" [5, page 61].

Besides especially pedagogical activity, in real school as the external studies exams were held for a rank of the teacher of initial schools. Passed examination went teachers to schools to various cities and the districts of Dagestan. So, for example, Iza Abdullaev, subsequently one of the famous Dagestan teachers, in the 1880th passed examinations for a rank of the teacher of rural school. Thus, Temir-Khan-Shurinskoye the real school, along with training of the Dagestan youth for receipt in the Russian educational institutions, performed in a certain measure functions on preparation of pedagogical shots from among Dagestanis.

representatives of throne made advances In creation of network of schools of various type to educational needs of local community. It is indicative that opening of secular educational institutions in many cases was initiated by local community. Mountaineers petitioned for increase in schools, promoted their construction by in cash, materials and a personal labor".

In the second half of the 1860th at Kumukhsky school at which Abdullah Omarov worked among the pupils wishing to seize the diploma on the basis of the Russian alphabet of P.K. Uslar, there was also one goryanka. L.P. Zagursky testifies to the fact, exclusive for Dagestan of that time, [4, page 63]. Though full-scale female secular education became only in the 20th century, separate attempts to involve Dagestani girls in education were already in the second half of the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century in the cities of Dagestan there was about one women's school which is contained due to the state allocations and means of city managements. In them only 367 girls studied.

Notes not numerous facts of opening of educational institutions for girls And. - G.S. Gadzhiyev also fairly explains it with the patriarchal installations dominating in Dagestan: on the way of female-goryanok to education there were adats and Sharia. As showed a population census of 1897, competent women of all across Russia there were 13.1%, among

a goryanok of Dagestan this share was lower - 1.74% [9, page 75]. Nevertheless opening of the first women's secular educational institutions played the positive role in Dagestan: female-goryanki studied the diploma, gained knowledge of disciplines of a natural cycle. It was an important step on the way of social adaptation of young people a goryanok in new socio-political and cultural and educational conditions.

Though at the Russian schools by the end of the 19th century only about five percent of children of Dagestanis studied, this training predetermined the prospects, on condition of accounting of mainly Muslim religion of pupils and mountain mentality. For the Government of the Russian Federation the secular schools were the important aspect inspiring socio-political integration of Dagestan into the Russian Empire. The secular schools which became some kind of civilizing means of "conciliation" of Dagestan, and existing in parallel Muslim educational institutions had to strengthen educational process in the mountain country. At the same time for involvement of the Dagestan youth, structural and program elements of religious education were entered into secular schools at Russian-language schools for local community: fundamentals of Islam, Arabic.

Thus, by the end of the 19th century in Dagestan there were 26 Russians of secular schools at which 1896 pupils studied, from them - 495 girls [5, page 68]. Despite extremely low share studying at secular schools from total number of mountain youth, introduction in Dagestan of secular education yielded positive results. As opposed to the historiography of the Soviet period treating a tsarism role in the Caucasus it is exclusively negative, in particular as trampling on national traditions and culture, we will note certainly a positive role of official Russia in the course of familiarizing of mountaineers of Dagestan with space new cultural educational. Creating schools of various type, authorities often met educational needs of local community. It was shown in

the organizations of schools for requests of local community in the remote mountain auls; in reorganization of city schools in educational institutions with higher education status; in a flexible combination of programs of secular and religious education at Russian-language schools; in creation of a system of boards for children of mountaineers.

In general neither the Russian, nor Arab-Muslim schools according to the destination, to program contents reflected objective requirements of development of national education and the culture of the people of Dagestan. They could not perform functions of the centers of culture and distribution of scientific knowledge among broad masses. But objectively they made the contribution to business of distribution of elementary literacy among an insignificant part of the population of Dagestan.

The Russian power stimulated secular education of mountaineers, expressing the geopolitical interests. In a certain measure it could guarantee social stability in the region. Directly participating in origin of the Russian-speaking Dagestan intellectuals, the Government of the Russian Federation saw in it the guarantor of stability and loyalty in relation to the official power.

In turn, secular schools of steel for mountaineers the conductor to the new cultural and educational world. If in the sphere of traditional norms of communication the influence of Russians was shown at the level of material culture, then communication with the Russian teachers, learning Russian yielded positive results in development of spiritual culture of mountaineers.

Creation of a system of secular education made possible for youth of Dagestan receiving secondary and higher education and also continuation of study in various regions of Russia and abroad. The most significant role in familiarizing of young Dagestanis with the European culture was played by the Stavropol gymnasium in which in 1866 vacancies for children of mountaineers of Dagestan opened.

Since 1866 prior to the beginning of the last decade 19th century 124 Dagestanis were sent to the Stavropol gymnasium [5, page 81]. In 1899 in the Stavropol gymnasium 29 Dagestanis, among them - known in the future on - studied

lytic, public figures: D. Kor-kmasov, M.-M. Hizroyev, And. - M. Zulpukarov, one of founders of the Dagestan theater T. Beybulatov.

Receiving secular education guaranteed real increase in the social status of the mountaineer, promoted his participation in the formed society - the Dagestan Russian-speaking intellectuals. By the end of the 19th century in Dagestan experts with the higher education from among local nationalities began to appear. The process engineer Girey Mahomed worked in Dagestan in the 1890th, in 1893 he held a position of the architect of the cities Those - the world - Hang-Shura and Port-Petrovska.

The Russian educational institutions began to let out Dagestani teachers. It was important for development of national education in Dagestan. At the end of the 19th century the pedagogical shots were preparing from the best graduates of mountain schools. It promoted their fixing at schools, adaptation on places, kept continuity in educational practice.

Noting achievements in development of education, it is impossible to hold back, however, and the fact that the orthodox top of Russia did not agree with steady positions of Islam and Arabic-language culture in Dagestan. It, in particular, is confirmed in the researches devoted to missionary activity of orthodox church in the North Caucasus. Rectilinearly such position is expressed by S.A. Razdolsky claiming: "Thanks to missionaries the aboriginals of the Caucasus have an opportunity to study the diploma at the native language. Adoption of Orthodoxy gives to aboriginals (the Caucasus. - M.A.) an opportunity to come to educational institutions of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan and other large cities of Russia" [8, page 20]. The provided statement and also a conclusion about spiritual orthodox colonization of the Caucasus will not be agreed with the real facts in any way: the indigenous people of Dagestan which was positive to secular education and study at secular schools of the state Russian in the sphere of spirituality did not allow compromises. In it is the phenomenon cultural

educational development of Dagestan of the end of the 19th century: having preserved cultural wealth of Islam, Arab-Muslim culture, Dagestan entered new quality of the development, the all-Russian cultural space.

The Arab-Muslim school which was to the middle of the 19th century the only form of education in Dagestan and banned during the Soviet period in the last decades revived on a new cultural and educational basis. The Dagestan culture showed surprising ability "to absorb" new, keeping the steady traditions connected with centuries-old belonging to Arabic-language culture. The Islamic traditions forming the basis of culture of the Dagestan society continue to remain important components and after recognition of the Russian-European culture as dominating.

The events held in the country during the Soviet period, directed to destruction of religious and ethnic traditions (the translation of writing from Arab on the Latin alphabet, then - on Cyrillics, prohibition of Islamic educational institutions, constraint of the Islamic organizations), finally isolated Dagestan from east world. At the same time it promoted the accelerated perception of the Russian-European culture. As a result for the 20th century in the Dagestan spiritual culture at the same time there were two various paradigms: the old, reflecting communication with Arab-Muslim superethnic group, and new, developing in space of the Russian-European culture.

The trend of revival of religious education which appeared during the postsovetstky period was implemented in intensive process of familiarizing of Dagestanis with training in modern Arab-Muslim educational institutions. Thus, in parallel with the system of an average and higher education in Dagestan the wide network of Islamic educational institutions functions.

For the last 15 years in Dagestan the system of Islamic education which is most developed in the territory of the Russian Federation is created; it includes Islamic higher education institutions, branches of higher education institutions, Madras, poppy tabs and short-term courses on study

fundamentals of Islam and Arabic. Graduates of Madras and Islamic higher education institutions depending on the courses taken by them and a step of training at which they stopped receive one of three specializations: the reader of the Quran, the imam-hatib (able to read and translate Islamic literature into the native language); alim ("expert in Arab-Muslim sciences"). According to the vice-chairman of committee of the Government Rerpubliki Dagestan (RD) for K.M. Hanbabayev's religions, for the beginning of 2008 in RD 16 Islamic higher education institutions (about 2500 students), 15 branches of higher education institutions (about 700 students), 116 Madras (more than 3000 students), 94 maktab (about 700 students), all students - more than 6900 people worked [10, page 122, 123].

Islam - a phenomenon, not alien and foreign to Russia. It is an integral part of the Russian history and culture, a way of life of millions of citizens for which Russia is their home. Islam - not only religion, but also a special civilization, ideology and culture within which there was the system of moral cultural wealth the rich ideological heritage was created.

Today in the Republic of Dagestan the most common form of realization of the right of citizens to freedom of religion is association of citizens in the religious organizations by means of which the legal nature of their activity is provided. The new religious situation in the country and RD supported with the democratic legal framework brought the state and confessional relations to qualitatively other level [3, page 35]. Public authorities and municipal management of RD provide financial aid to all traditional faiths of Dagestan: Muslim, orthodox, Judaic.

Within the 20th century the Russian culture strengthened the positions in Dagestan as the dominating culture. It was caused by the state program directed to increase in cultural and educational level of nationalities of the multinational country by means of integration of "the small people" in "uniform community - the Soviet people".

The prerequisites for development of cultural dialogue which developed in the second half of the 19th century were implemented in intensive bilateral cultural ties thanks to which life of the Dagestan ethnoses includes structures of the new European type of culture

For the Dagestan culture the ability "to absorb" new is indicative, keeping the steady traditions connected with centuries-old belonging to Arabic-language culture. Islamic traditions, with -

stavlyayushchy a basis of culture of the Dagestan society, continue to remain important components and after recognition of the Russian-European culture as reference.

Despite integration, realized the value of variety of ethnic groups and religions 20th century therefore their moral interaction has to go not on the way of tough upholding of the interests, and on the way of dialogue of the different nations and faiths.


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