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Studying food of the medieval population of the forest Trans-Ural region on deposits on ware



IZUCHENIYE of FOOD of the MEDIEVAL POPULATION of the FOREST TRANS-URAL REGION ON DEPOSITS ON POSUDE1

N.P. Matveeva, N.S. Larina, T.N. Rafikova

The food allowance of the medieval population on the basis of data of the analysis micro and macrocells as a part of deposits on ware of Badger and Krasnogorsk ancient settlements and their correlation with data of experimental samples is recreated. Comparison of structure of dishes of two settlements located in a different environment revealed some differences in a food allowance of communities that, perhaps, depends on various balance of ancillary industries in their economy. Attraction of ethnographic data allowed to add idea of the menu of the medieval population.

The model of food of the person, i.e. structure, a way of production, preparation and storage of food, reflects an originality of material culture and it develops under the influence of a number of factors: climatic conditions, economic and cultural type, the need of an organism for a certain amount of chemicals, ideological representations, interaction with other people, etc. Its study touches on an issue of adaptation of the person to the environment, abilities to build not only the consumer, but also making nature of economy.

The research of a food allowance of people of the past owing to specificity of sources demands attraction of methods and humanitarian and natural sciences. So far several ways of the solution of this problem are known.

Reconstruction of a food allowance of ancient people is carried out by means of the chemical analysis of a bone tissue buried [Kozlovskaya, 2002; Matveeva, etc., 2004]; data of anthropology on identification of degree of a stertost of a chewing surface of teeth [Razhev, 2001]; the chemical analysis of a time of the stones used for cooking of food [Malinova, Malines, 1988. Page 71-72]. Indirectly it is possible with attraction of materials of ethnography or a palynology, etc. But the most objective and reliable method is the analysis of structure of deposits of the food on ware from archeological sites. Reconstruction of dishes of the Old Slavic population is carried out by K. Mareshova by comparison of prigar on vessels with trial samples of the food cooked according to the recipes, known from written sources, [In the same place]. By means of the analysis macro-and minerals as a part of a deposit on ware the population of sargatsky culture and a ratio of results with experimental hinge plates under the leadership of N.P. Matveeva and N.S. Larina the conclusion about existence of dense soups, soups, porridges on meat broth with addition of cereals, thistle family, malvovy and also insects, river mollusks, fish, bird's eggs in food of the sargatsky population of the early Iron Age was made by group of authors [Matveeva, etc., 2002]. L.L. Gayduchenko established morphological features of particles of a scum on ancient vessels from monuments of a steppe zone of South Ural and Kazakhstan and identified them on structure of comparative medicines. The conclusion on existence throughout the Neolithic, the eneolit and bronze of composite food with increase by an era of bronze of a share of cereal and dairy ingredients [Gayduchenko, was as a result drawn 2000. Page 150-169].

The purpose of this work — determination of nature of food of the population of yudinsky culture by means of identification macro - and minerals as a part of deposits on pots of an era of the Middle Ages and their correlation with data of experimental samples. At the same time, based on a hypothesis of the protomansi accessory of the population of yudinsky culture [Chernetsov, 1957. Page 180; Viktorova, 1968. Page 252-256; Burial grounds, 1987. Page 175], we have an opportunity to correlate our conclusions to the given to modern ethnography and written sources of XVII — the beginnings of the 20th century about traditional food of Mansi, to designate presence at the menu of the products of collecting prepared and stored in birch bark ware and also the ingredients consumed in a crude or dried look. It should be noted that work does not apply for completeness and faultlessness of a research, being the first attempt of reconstruction of structure of food of the population of medieval cultures of the forest Trans-Ural region.

Works are supported by a grant of RAS according to the "Ethnocultural Interactions of the People of Eurasia" program.

For the analysis 62 samples of deposits from ware Badger (42 copies) and Krasnogorsk (20 copies) ancient settlements of yudinsky culture in the Tyumen region were selected. The badger ancient settlement is located in Nizhnetavdinsky District in the natural boundary with the name of the same name on the right coast of river. Claims, it was investigated in 2001 by N.P. Matveeva. Radio carbon dating, the analysis of a stratigraphy and planigrafiya of an excavation allowed to allocate two stages in existence of the ancient settlement. Initial development of the platform of a monument is the share of the second half of X — the beginning of the 11th century, and resumption of life on it — for the end of the 13th century [Matveeva, Zaytsevo, 2004. Page 62]. Samples are taken from vessels from dwellings occurring at different times and interhousing space. The Krasnogorsk ancient settlement is localized on the right coast of the Iset River in Isetsky district, studied in 1983 by N.P. Matveeva, in 1984, 1986 A.V. Matveev. The medieval layer of a monument combines the yudin-sky and bakalsky complexes dated the 11-13th centuries [Matveeva, 1997. Page 253]. Tests are selected only from vessels of the first. The choice of monuments is caused by their arrangement in different conditions of the environment, in forest-steppe and taiga zones that can characterize a diet yudinsko-go the population of northern and southern local options.

In the studied samples of deposits the content of the following mineral substances was determined: gland (Re), magnesium (Md), phosphorus (P), cadmium (Federation Council, calcium (Sa), nickel (No.), zinc (2p), manganese (MT), strontium (Bg), copper (Si), lead (R). Their choice is caused by high informational content and variability of contents in various products of plant and animal origin. Strontium, nickel, zinc, copper, cadmium, lead are defined atomnoabsorbtsionny, manganese, iron and phosphorus — photometric, calcium and magnesium — a titri-metric method (tab. 1, 2)2.

Table 1

Results of the analysis of samples of deposits of the Badger ancient settlement, %

No. Sa Md Re*10-2 Mp*10-2 R Si*10-3 Bg * 10-2 R*10-4 С^10&4 Ы1*10&3 gp

1 25.24 2.76 4.78 0.281 0.962 43.3 1.98 29.2 24.7 23.8 0.135
2 22.63 2.14 8.18 0.506 0.461 29.4 3.63 9.49 12.5 22.4 0.246
3 19.21 1.06 4.49 0.249 0.679 12.9 1.8 11.4 3.95 55.7 0.0151
4 14.14 2.34 4.98 0.127 0.173 66.7 1.71 15.7 5.81 27.8 0.25
5 9.76 1.05 2.66 0.098 0.082 15.1 9.1 2.06 5.56 3.33 0.067
6 21.63 3.16 4.05 0.417 0.71 12.3 2.97 4.21 13.2 19.09 0.186
7 26 1.34 2.2 0.657 0.41 17.2 2.65 9.63 7.92 1.56 0.219
8 23.24 3.56 2.5 1.028 0.077 97.5 3.82 2.46 12.3 38.2 0.508
9 19.21 2.35 2.62 0.345 0.142 35.1 1.31 3.91 3.13 31.8 0.096
10 30.17 3.05 3.74 0.474 0.603 39.6 3.41 9.32 4.55 4.02 0.269
11 15.09 0.76 3.05 0.201 0.724 38.1 2 16.2 15.3 26.53 0.292
12 16.36 1.42 2.21 0.903 0.29 48.4 2.45 6.61 12.6 29.3 0.148
13 10.56 1.13 1.54 0.348 0.474 10.5 1.16 3.22 2.81 4.47 0.127
14 15 3.76 1.17 0.789 0.445 24.7 2.76 4.21 8.47 28.2 0.182
15 27.15 2.44 3.56 0.864 0.756 69.5 3.25 7.91 10.3 7.87 0.221
16 8.68 1.45 2.34 0.191 0.016 42.5 8.4 3.15 2.32 0.89 0.045
17 24.05 5.55 2.95 0.572 0.275 42.4 1.87 1.54 7.61 7.64 0.149
18 19.14 0.73 3.15 0.446 0.103 20.7 2.45 2.12 6.76 17.2 0.18
19 21.74 3.93 2.6 1.5 0.203 95.5 3.17 4.14 15.2 11.1 0.327
20 31.96 4.47 2.43 1.24 0.762 24.9 4.09 1.62 14.4 11 0.292
21 30.91 1.56 3.76 0.4 1.48 16.6 2.37 19.86 26.39 20.49 0.0017
22 11.04 6.7 0.99 0.2 1.27 32.14 1.52 13.51 29.17 26.79 0.0989
23 10.04 4.45 0.65 0.31 2.86 9.83 1.12 12.25 17.92 21.71 0.11
24 37.95 5.02 0.71 1.06 3.59 31.79 4.23 23.21 3.57 21.86 0.232
25 6.12 0.8 5.84 0.1 0.84 14.81 2.56 6.23 1.89 23.27 0.068
26 3.25 0.33 3.18 0.14 0.58 20.62 3.42 0.46 9.81 28.89 0.137
27 15.7 1.13 4.67 0.15 1 7.94 1.02 4.68 10.48 22.5 0.111
28 12.91 1.12 1.36 0.34 0.93 11.73 2.31 24.03 2.84 24.15 0.0911
29 5.24 1.55 4.04 0.092 0.63 16.77 1.11 2.81 8.17 28.29 0.0413
30 5.22 0.35 3.38 0.12 0.81 17.31 1.76 5.1 2.51 21.71 0.107
31 11.91 0.59 3.82 0.64 0.94 16.18 1.21 20.42 8.33 28.19 0.103
32 2.21 1.09 3.73 0.05 0.61 17.6 2.45 23.75 2.08 27.68 0.0884

Analytical works are performed under the direction of to. x. N, dots. TYUMGU N.S. Larina.

Termination of tab. 1

No. Sa Md Re*10-2 Mp*10-2 R Si*10-3 Bg * 10-2 R*10-4 С^10&4 Ы1*10&3 gp

33 12.36 1.17 1.87 0.24 1.2 21.04 3.02 12.5 5.01 34.42 0.101
34 13.09 7.03 3.23 0.63 1.63 27.74 1.03 4.11 6.45 35.08 0.192
35 10.54 3.52 2.88 1.37 0.17 14.43 1.89 19.38 27.27 27.58 0.225
36 7.82 1.41 6.55 0.13 1.21 26.44 2.42 2.53 13.13 32.81 0.159
37 34.77 3.52 12.4 1.08 2.95 35.75 3.25 11.49 23.75 32.02 0.913
38 10.09 3.86 4.74 0.68 3.04 11.73 1.96 15.04 16.13 7.02 0.175
39 6.69 5.03 3.65 1.15 1.45 26.01 2.54 10.34 21.15 20.58 0.189
40 12.68 1.1 1.26 0.28 0.76 8.2 2.87 23.24 13.28 23.44 0.0418
41 3.65 0.44 2.03 0.19 0.42 6.54 3.67 5.12 4.73 8.27 0.0441
42 9.05 0.66 5.11 0.31 1.09 13.95 1.03 4.14 18.75 10.35 0.118

Table 2

Results of the analysis of samples of deposits of the Krasnogorsk ancient settlement, %

No. Sa Md Re*10-2 Mp*10-2 R Si*10-3 Bg*10-2 R*10-4 С^10&4 Ы1*10&3 gp

1 41.34 5.14 0.983 15.4 0.557 3.46 1.25 8.24 0.0735 0.0629 0.0684
2 23.13 6.05 1.02 7.34 0.469 10.36 4.31 24.45 1.823 4.58 0.145
3 54.03 6.65 0.464 17.5 0.497 4.35 5.68 15.81 0.403 0.161 0.074
4 58.46 6.01 1.173 7.21 0.202 5.77 1.02 13.85 0.385 25.96 0.0263
5 26.67 7.07 1.106 19 0.416 7.3 4.75 7.94 5.049 23.33 0.0615
6 57.28 4.68 1.153 4.39 0.23 5.23 6.01 13.64 5.909 3.18 0.0701
7 56.38 11.04 0.671 11.4 0.0996 11.25 2.31 18.19 11.14 25.89 0.0286
8 29.51 3.58 0.634 6.01 0.303 2.99 3.05 19.51 0.208 7.95 0.0414
9 54.01 8.04 1.963 25.1 0.279 22.69 2.06 15 26.73 25.38 0.457
10 49.38 9.13 10.995 91.9 0.933 6.27 1.11 15.08 3.21 12.4 0.0762
11 47.22 5.72 1.02 15.3 0.716 27.92 2.34 2.02 0.139 29.77 0.135
12 50.8 14.31 0.999 7.15 0.238 1.39 0.31 23.61 20.83 32.22 0.0268
13 40.26 12.2 1.025 10.5 0.246 2.5 2.33 64.41 11.38 2.63 0.0369
14 18.78 6.03 1.427 16.7 0.348 8.7 6.02 40.84 0.0649 1.07 0.104
15 17.23 4.18 1.029 4.81 0.172 1.55 3.45 20 3.18 3.04 0.00385
16 30.83 3.53 1.313 9.99 1.791 58.36 4.01 1.62 1.96 4.04 0.0909
17 52.5 6.06 1.482 13.8 0.457 7.21 2.22 41.25 0.147 10.59 0.086
18 44.27 17.76 1.403 20.3 0.547 4.61 5.01 6.9 4.22 9.05 0.0784
19 34.46 6.97 1.184 12.3 0.388 22.5 0.98 27.16 1.76 8.92 0.0908
20 34.69 4.2 1.228 11.1 0.341 9.9 1.13 12.47 5.41 3.06 0.232

Influence of microelement structure of food on human health became a subject of medicobiological researches more than once. Their results are transferred to a technique of reconstruction paleodit. Without stopping here on a problem historiography, we will list substances markers of products of a certain type. According to V.G. Rebrov and O.A. Gromova, intake of zinc in a human body happens mainly to meat, fish, eggs. A phosphorus source, except proteins of animal origin — milk, cheese, cottage cheese, eggs, vegetable products, for example grain can serve. Content of calcium is more in cheese, the insignificant share in meat, grain, fish is less in milk and greens. Nickel as well as manganese, is a marker of vegetable food. Copper is acquired generally with a liver, cheese, nuts, greens, grain, in a small share with meat, fish, a bird, eggs. High concentration of iron is revealed in a liver, kidneys, eggs; magnesium — in nuts, seaweed. Mollusks, Crustacea, cereals could be a source of cadmium. Kumulyator of strontium are herbs, forest mushrooms, in a big share it can arrive through grain crops [Rebrov, Gromova, 2003].

For identification of a share of content of the main mineral substances in products (regardless of places of their production) we carried out experimental studying 16 deposits of modern food of animal and plant origin (tab. 3). Prepared from 3 products of a dish specified in the tab.: porridges, boiled meat, fish, fresh cheeses, cottage cheese, brynza — were turned into prigara and brought to combustion similar to a condition of the remains of food from archaeological objects. Let's consider the obtained data.

Table 3

Contents macro - and minerals in deposits of modern food, %

Product Sa Md R Re*10-2 Mp*10-2 Si*10-2 Bg*1SG2 R*10-3 С^Ю4 N1*1 C2 2p*10-2

Animal products

A bone of a horse 28.61 ±0.86 0.31 ±0.01 39.32±1.18 1.23±0.04 0.0505±0.0015 0.175±0.005 1.175±0.035 2, C5l0, C6 1.375±0.041 With, 798l0, C24 With, 99l0, C3

A domestic duck 28.1±0.84 2.07±0.06 44.35±1.33 2.86± 0.09 0.268±0.008 0.280±0.008 0.602±0.018 14.65±0.44 3.65±0.11 0.17^0.005 With, 239l0, CC7

A wing of chicken 27.16±0.81 5.27±0.16 46.1±1.38 3.39±0.10 0.129±0.004 0.147±0.004 0.971 ±0.029 0.021^0.0006 0.05^0.002 With, 228l0, CC7 0.0179±0.0005

Pork 6.05±0.18 1.49±0.04 45.7±1.37 0.34±0.01 — 3.65±0.11 — 11.2±0.34 2.66^, 08 0.15^0.005 36.7±1.10

Govyadin's

> 0.91 ±0.03 0.36±0.01 4.04±0.12 2.77±0.08 — 0.130±0.004 — — 1.72±0.05 0.64±0.02 —

Brynza 49.28±1.48 23.54±0.71 22.22±0.67 0.0029±0.00009 0.047±0.001 — With, 123±C,CC4 6.13±0.18 0.280^, 008 With, 232l0, CC7 1.77±0.05

Cheese 59.49±1.78 21.64±0.65 22.39±0.67 0.0016±0.00005 0.0180±0.0005 0.218±0.007 0,51210,015 3.73±0.11 1.0^0.03 0.081 ±0.002 5.11 ±0.15

T vorog 16.91 ±0.51 11.83±0.35 23.41 ±0.70 0.0007±0.00002 0.037±0.001 0.118±0.004 0,13510,004 2.42±0.07 — With, C36l0, CC1 1.28±0.04

Fish 5.74±, 17 1.33±0.04 17.2±0.52 0.96±0.03 0.410±0.001 0.210±0.006 — — 1.88±0.06 1, C9l0, C3 —

A mutton edge 27.59±0.83 2.90±0.09 45.22±1.36 9.32±0.28 0.0105±0.0003 0.242±0.007 1.073±0.032 1.59±0.05 2.23±0.07 With, 423l0, C13 0.0144±0.0004

Products of plant origin

Barley 11.4±0.34 4.93±0.15 — 0.48±0.01 — 16.4±0.49 — 49.8±1.49 — With, 68l0, C2 66.2±1.99

Millet 12.4±0.37 16.9±0.51 52.7±1.58 0.61 ±0.02 — 13.3±0.40 2.17±0.07 22.1 ±0.66 — 0.30^0.009 46.4±1.39

Pearl barley 0.32±0.01 0.160±0.005 0.75±0.02 0.69±0.02 0.76±0.02 0.090±0.003 — — With, 625l0, C19 0.052±0.002 —

Wheat 3.12±0.09 5.21 ±0.16 31.7±0.95 9.73±0.29 15.1±0.45 2.64±0.08 — — 2.33±0.07 2.57±0.08 —

Oats 2.19±0.07 3.12±0.09 38.6±1.16 7.15±0.21 18.5±0.56 0.87±0.03 — — 1.74±0.05 7.44±0.22 —

Buckwheat 3.17±0.10 8.54±0.26 17.4±0.52 3.75±0.11 8.54±0.26 1.96±0.06 — — 3.53±0.11 7.1 ±0.21 —

The research showed that calcium prevails in dairy products, such as cheese (59.49%) and brynza (49.28%) and also in high shares contains in meat of a horse (28.6%) and a ram (27.59%). From cereals calcium is generally expressed in barley and a millet. Concentration of magnesium is big in products of dairy origin and is practically not expressed in meat. Phosphorus was presented in equal quantity both to animals, and in vegetable products of our sample. Concentration of iron in cereals (wheat, oats, buckwheat), just as in mutton meat, makes up to 10%, in dairy products does not exceed 0.003%. Level of manganese is on average seven times higher in plants, than in animal products. The share of copper is more in barley (16.4%) and a millet (13.3%), in pork is revealed up to 3.6%, in other products of plant origin the maintenance of this element does not exceed 3%, in animals — 0.3%. The amount of nickel is high in such porridges as oat (7.4%), buckwheat (7.1%), wheat (2.57%). In fish nickel makes 1.09%, in meat and milk its share does not exceed 0.7%. From cereals zinc is more often fixed in barley (66.2%) and a millet (46.4%), from animal products — in pork (36.7%).

Comparison literary yielded and results of studying experimental samples shows their discrepancy for zinc and calcium. In our medicines the share of the specified mineral substances in meat products turned out more that it is possible to explain with the strong concentration of chemical elements occurring when burning food.

Comparison of deposits of different territories shows that the difference for calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium is very big. The difference for phosphorus, strontium, nickel is insignificant (tab. 4, fig. 1).

It is possible to assume that deposits are divided into groups on sign "animal — vegetable — composite food". To check this assumption, we calculated coefficients of a ratio of elements for modern animal and vegetable food. For each group received as a result of the cluster analysis of all samples of medieval prigar ratio coefficients To = by E1/E2 were also calculated and compared to those for modern food (tab. 5-8).

Table 4

Average sizes of contents macro - and minerals in food deposits

from the studied monuments

Element, % Badger ancient settlement Krasnogorsk ancient settlement

Software 73.26±5.03 0.206 66.7±4.62 0.183

Sa 16.05±1.94 0.569 41.1±3.28 0.325

Md 2.402^, 304 0.738 7.42±1.67 0.507

P2O5 0.9002^, 0041 0.234 0.461^, 039 0.803

Re 0.035^, 009 0.112 1.61±0.06 0.885

Megapixel 0.005^, 001 0.167 16.4±2.95 0.913

gp*10'2 17.4± 1.71 0.0087 9.67±1.61 0.902

Si*10-2 2.84±C,26 0.751 1.12±0.37 0.987

Bg*10-2 2.684±0.954 0.611 2.97±1.06 0.616

M*10 ~ 2 2.16±0.31 0.541 1.17±0.11 0.940

R*1S3 0.98^, 09 0.794 19.7±2.54 0.758

SsLS4 11.01±1.1 0.691 30.6±6.21 0.903

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Fig. 1. The histogram of distribution of data on contents micro and macrocells in tests

Table 5

A ratio of elements for deposits of modern vegetable food

Element 2, % Average Element 1, %

Sa Md yu about 2 P2 Re*10t2 Мп*10"2 7p*10t2 Си*10"2 vg*10-2 N¡*10^ РЬ*10&3

Sa 5.43

Md 3.98 1.36

yu about sch 0_ 28.23 0.19 0.14

Ре*10"2 3.74 1.45 1.06 7.55

Mp*1SG2 10.73 0.51 0.37 2.63 0.35

gp*10-2 56.3 0.1 0.07 0.5 0.07 0.19

Si*1SG2 5.88 0.92 0.68 4.8 0.64 1.82 9.57

vg*10_2 2.17 2.5 1.83 13 1.72 4.94 25.9 2.71

Ы1*10&2 3.02 1.8 1.32 9.35 1.24 3.55 18.6 1.95 0.72

РЬ*10&3 35.92 0.15 0.11 0.79 0.1 0.3 1.57 0.16 0.06 0.084

С^ЮГ4 2.06 2.64 1.93 13.7 1.82 5.21 27.3 2.85 1.05 1.466 17.4

Table 6

A ratio of elements for deposits of modern animal food

Element 2, % An average Element 1, %

Sa Md yu about 2 P2 Ре*10"2 Mp*10t2 7п*10"2 Си*10"2 vg*10-2 N¡*10_2 РЬ*10&3

Sa 4.23

Md 1.06 3.99

yu about 2 P2 22.85 0.19 0.05

Re*1S2 1.36 3.11 0.78 16.8

Mp*10t2 0.41 10.3 2.59 55.7 3.32

7п*10"2 2.72 1.56 0.39 8.4 0.5 0.15

Si*10t2 1.33 3.18 0.8 17.2 1.02 0.31 2.05

vg*10t2

N¡*10-2 0.63 6.71 1.68 36.3 2.16 0.65 4.32 2.11

R*10-3 11.2 0.38 0.09 2.04 0.12 0.04 0.24 0.12 0.056

С^ЩГ4 2.09 2.02 0.51 10.9 0.65 0.2 1.3 0.64 0.301 5.36

In deposits of the Middle Ages of the 2nd group the similarity of coefficients of a ratio for calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and for phosphates is observed, there are no iron, nickel, lead it. Coefficients coincide for the elements characteristic of animal food, therefore, deposits of meat and milk food belong to this group. In deposits of the Middle Ages of the 1st group coefficients of a ratio of elements for phosphates, iron, zinc, manganese and copper are close. For calcium, magnesium, strontium, nickel, lead there are more distinctions. It can speak the fact that the considered remains belong to vegetable food. The special group of samples which is connected with two above-stated is allocated. We assume that the prigara containing the elements characteristic both for animal and for vegetable food enter it.

Table 7

A ratio of elements for the 1st group of deposits of the Middle Ages

Element 2, % Average Element 1, %

Software Sa Md Yu O 2 P2 Re*10g2 Mp*10g2 gp*10g2 Si*10g2 vg*10g2 ygyu-2 R*10g3

Software 69.31

Sa 24.4 2.841

Md 3.62 19.15 6.74

yu about sch 0_ 0.62 111.8 39.35 5.84

Ре*10"2 0.604 114.8 40.4 5.99 1.03

Мп*10"2 5.74 12.07 4.251 0.63 0.11 0.105

gp*10t2 14.42 4.807 1.692 0.25 0.04 0.042 0.4

Si*1SG2 1.97 35.18 12.39 1.84 0.31 0.307 2.91 7.32

vg*10t2 2.98 23.26 8.188 1.21 0.21 0.203 1.93 4.839 0.66

N¡*10^ 1.95 35.54 12.51 1.86 0.32 0.31 2.94 7.395 1.01 1.53

R*1SG3 8.27 8.381 2.95 0.44 0.07 0.073 0.69 1.744 0.24 0.36 0.24

С^ШТ4 16.61 4.173 1.469 0.22 0.04 0.036 0.35 0.868 0.12 0.18 0.12 0.5

Table 8

A ratio of elements for the 2nd group of deposits of the Middle Ages

Element 2, % Average Element 1, %

Software Sa Md Yu O 2 P2 Re*10g2 Mp*10g2 7p*10 ~ 2 Si*10g2 vg*10g2 N¡*10^ R*10g3

Software 72.44

Sa 24.03 3.01

Md 4.52 16 5.32

yu about 2 P2 0.88 82.3 27.3 5.14

Re*10g2 0.36 201 66.8 12.6 2.44

Mp*10g2 3.62 20 6.64 1.25 0.24 0.1

gp*1a2 20.07 3.61 1.2 0.23 0.04 0.02 0.18

Si*10g2 3.22 22.5 7.46 1.4 0.27 0.11 1.12 6.233

vg*10g2 2.47 29.3 9.73 1.83 0.36 0.15 1.47 8.126 1.3

N¡*10^ 1.9 38.1 12.6 2.38 0.46 0.19 1.91 10.56 1.69 1.3

R*10g3 4.46 16.2 5.39 1.01 0.2 0.08 0.81 4.5 0.72 0.55 0.43

С^10г4 16 4.53 1.5 0.28 0.06 0.02 0.23 1.254 0.2 0.15 0.12 0.28

We will consider medieval materials of the Badger ancient settlement. Having analyzed the average content of mineral elements in deposits of its collection, we note a high share of nickel, big scope of a variation of values of calcium and cadmium, magnesium. Zinc and manganese are not enough, copper prevails over other minerals. Cadmium and lead are presented approximately in equal shares.

The analysis of concentration and a ratio of mineral substances in each deposit separately, perhaps, will allow to assume a type of products from which the dish was prepared. So, in samples No. 1, 3, 12, 17, 21 the high share of calcium and also in No. 1 and 17 — magnesium, the dairy products which are indicators is revealed. In deposits No. 12, 17, 21 the manganese content, in No. 1, 3, 12, 21 — nickel with which plants are rich is increased. The combination of these minerals can demonstrate preparation in these cases of the mixed food, for example porridges from cereals on a dairy basis with addition of oil or sour cream.

The high amount of copper (35.1%), calcium (19.21%) and nickel (31.8%) in sample No. 9 and copper (42.5%) and strontium (8.4%) in sample No. 16 demonstrates preparation in this case gus-

that soup on meat broth and internals of animals filled with grain or flour. The increased magnesium content (6.7%) in sample No. 22 can speak about addition in food of oil or fat. The similar dish called "саламат", according to E.G. Fedorova, is rather widespread at the Ob ugr, it is preparing on meat or, more rare, fish broth with addition of flour or grain and surely fat or oil [Fedorova, 2000. Page 170].

In deposits No. 25, 26, 28-32, 40, 41 the exceeding average values of concentration of iron, strontium, nickel, manganese and a small share of zinc, calcium and magnesium are found that suggests an idea of preparation in this ware of vegetable food, most likely the porridge from cereals cooked on water. The high concentration of phosphorus, nickel, manganese and strontium in tests No. 2124, 27, 33, 34, 36, 42 indicates a fish dish. It could be the fish fish soup and also from scales or the talker from fish flour [In the same place. Page 170].

The raised share of zinc, the indicator of meat products, is characteristic of samples No. 2, 4, 6-8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18-20, 35, 37, 38, just as the high values of nickel and manganese typical for vegetable products allow to make the conclusion about preparation in these vessels of composite food, i.e. including both meat and vegetable ingredients.

For a bigger specification the cluster analysis which showed isolation of several groups (fig. 2) is carried out. The first branched cluster consists of samples No. 1-3, 7-9, 15, 1719. The structure of elements in them speaks about the mixed nature of food. High values of strontium in deposits No. 2, 6-8 can be sign of addition in grain soup. Possibly, it were dense soups on saturated meat broth, with addition of vegetable ingredients, for example cereals or wild onions, umbellate plants (bear pipe). Perhaps, it is similar to Mansi, used broths of herbs with milk, cream, for example a dogrose, Maryino of a root, leaves of a willow-herb, a meadowsweet, currant and other plants [In the same place. Page 79].

Other branched cluster is formed by a number of the tests grouped in five subgroups. Deposits No. 4 and 9 differ in a high share of calcium and nickel, small — phosphorus it is probably porridges. Deposits No. 5, 13, 14, 16, 42 differ in low indicators of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, to interpret them difficult probably it there were dishes without dairy components. Samples No. 28, 33, 36 and 40 are characterized by a small share of calcium, magnesium, average values of cadmium, nickel, strontium, a little higher, than averages, on iron, lead and phosphorus. In samples of this cluster, probably, concentration of vegetable components was big that, in our opinion, demonstrates preparation in this ware of soups on meat or fish broth. In a pogruppa from No. 25, 26, 29-31, 41 relatively there is a lot of strontium and nickel, it is possible to assume that it is generally vegetable food. Approximately the same can be told about samples No. 11, 12, 27, 32 united by a high share of nickel and average of calcium. The third group of samples (No. 23, 35, 22, 38, 10, 20 and 21, 34, 39, 37, 24) does not form a uniform cluster, and joins in separate couples two previous, association has them generally accidental character as the dispersion of values on elements is quite high. Let's note only that a big share of magnesium in samples No. 10, 20, 24, 34, 35, 37, 38, as well as in samples of the first cluster — No. 2, 6, 8, 14, 15, 19, indicates addition in food of milk, oil or sour cream.

Thus, the analysis of concentration and ratios of mineral substances showed existence in a food allowance of the population of the Badger ancient settlement of meat soups with addition of cereals, the edible herbs filled with flour, oil, fat and also porridges on milk, broth or water.

24 20 10 22 23 12 11 41 29 25 33 28 42 13 14 9 3 8 6 15 1

Fig. 2. Dendrogramma of distribution of concentration of elements in deposits of the Badger ancient settlement

Considering values of elements in deposits of the Krasnogorsk ancient settlement (tab. 2), we note high shares of markers of vegetable products — manganese and nickel. Calcium which interval fluctuates from 17.23 to 58.46% is in the lead in sample. Concentration of zinc on average very low. Shares of lead and magnesium are approximately equal. Fluctuations of indicators up to gland are quite big. Sizes of content of phosphorus are low (tab. 2, fig. 1).

High concentration of zinc is recorded in samples No. 2, 9, 11, 14, 16, and in No. 9 it exceeds average value five times that demonstrates preparation in the studied vessels of the concentrated meat dishes. Existence in deposits No. 9, 11, 16 of high concentrations of copper which values in a hinge plate of sample No. 16, for example, are fifty (?) times higher than average values, speaks about addition in food of a liver and kidneys of the cattle. In a number of the analyzed samples (No. 2, 14, 16) the increased amount of strontium is noticed that can indicate presence of vegetable components, for example grain. Addition of edible herbs and cereals is demonstrated by the increased content of manganese and nickel. The shares of calcium (No. 9, 11) and magnesium (No. 9) surpassing average value indicate filling of food with oil or sour cream. As the zinc ratio to strontium in deposit No. 2 makes 1:29, and the relation of zinc and nickel is equal in No. 14 1:160, it is possible to assume preparation in the latter case of thin soup on meat broth with addition of a small amount of edible herbs, cereals, root crops. According to ethnography, the Mansi women often cooked the similar meat or fish soups filled with flour or grain [Sokolova, 1982. Page 64].

Excess of average values of zinc by 2.5 times at low values of other mineral substances in hinge plate No. 20 suggests an idea of preparation in this ware of rich meat broth. In vessel No. 19 boiled an offal, and, it is possible, repeatedly, without washing a pot what twentyfold excess of an average value on copper testifies to. Washing down boiled meat which was eaten with broth, the food which is rather extended for Mansi [Sokolova, 1982. Page 64; Fedorova, 2000. Page 170]. The high value of calcium and magnesium and also copper and nickel is characteristic of sample No. 7 that gives the chance to assume preparation of dense soup from a liver or kidneys, cereals or other edible plants with dairy gas station.

Domination of indicators of vegetable products — nickel, manganese and strontium at a low share of zinc in deposits No. 3-6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 18 demonstrates preparation of porridges. In some cases from vessels No. 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 13, 18 added milk or oil to dishes.

Phosphorus which content exceeds an average value by 4.2 times along with the increased concentration of strontium and copper are revealed in sample No. 17 that indicates preparation in this vessel of fish soup with some additives except plants.

Thus, the analysis of structure of deposits of ware of the Krasnogorsk ancient settlement leads to a conclusion about distribution in a food allowance of porridges from the cereals prepared on milk or water and also liquid and dense soups on meat broth with addition of cereals or edible herbs.

At interpretation of the received results it is necessary to consider the wide use of edible plants known in national culture. Partially these data can be taken from palynological materials. Unfortunately, similar data are still single. The flora of the medieval period of the western part of a forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia reconstructed by N.E. Ryabogina on settlement Nizhneingalskoye-3 materials is characterized by birch pine forests with impurity raznotravya, a wormwood, a goosefoot family, cereals [Matveeva, Volkov, Ryabogina, 2003. Page 119-127]. Now in this territory the dogrose, a hawthorn, a bird cherry, a guelder-rose, raspberry, currant, a rowan, a wild strawberry, stone bramble, cowberry, a cranberry, a sorrel, wild onions, hop, a marjoram, wheat, barley, oats, a buckwheat, etc. grow. The rowan, a honeysuckle, cowberry, a juniper, a dogrose, bilberry, blueberry, stone fruit, cloudberries and the other plants which were undoubtedly gathering people during the medieval period are characteristic of a subtaiga zone. Use by the medieval population of the Trans-Ural region in food of grain from cultural cereals is very probable, besides wild-growing plants as agriculture rudiments at Mansi and Tatars in this zone at the time of arrival of Russians are known. Mansi grew up a rye or barley, could receive flour or grain as a result of exchange [Pavlovsky, 1907. Page 28].

Besides the described dishes, an integral part of the menu of Mansi which is possible for restoring only by means of ethnographic data were sun-dried, dried or crude fish and meat. The game, meat of an elk, deer, fish cut on strips, dried, dried, smoked over a fire, prepared for the future [Sokolov, 1982. Page 64]. Ate a stroganina from the frozen fish or meat in the winter [Fedorova, 2000. Page 169]. Berries — cowberry, a cranberry, a bird cherry collected, stored in

birch bark ware also used in a fresh or dried look [In the same place]. The great value in a food allowance of Mansi was played by bread. Based on G.F. Miller's data on existence of agriculture at some groups of the southern Mansi, it is possible to assume that bread from antiquity entered their food allowance. In later time it was exchanged at the Russian population for furs [Pavlovsky, 1907. Page 28].

Thus, the research of contents macro - and minerals as a part of deposits from ware of the Krasnogorsk and Badger ancient settlements showed that the menu of the medieval population included the dense soups and the soups cooked on meat broth, internals of animals, filled with grain or flour with addition of edible plants, fish dishes. Barley or a rye on grain grew up or exchanged at neighbors, from them and dried fish produced flour. On meat broth or water cooked porridges where surely added milk, oil or fat.

Comparison of structure of dishes from vessels of the population of two settlements revealed some differences in a food allowance of communities that, perhaps, depends on various balance of ancillary industries in their economy (collecting, agriculture), but to attach them significance by results of the analysis of rather small samples would be premature. Fish, meat, wild plants played a major role in food of Mansi. Because of the use of these products in a crude, dried, smoked or dried look and also storages in bags, sheaves, boxes their presence is restored only by means of ethnographic data.

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Tyumen state university

The paper restores a diet of a mediaeval population through the analysis of micro- and macroelements composing the soot upon dishes obtained from Barsutchye and Krasnogorka fortified settlements, correlating those with the data to experimental specimens. A comparison of the food composition from the two settlements located under different nature conditions revealed certain differences in the diets of the communities, which might depend on a different balance of their secondary economic activities. An attraction of ethnographic data allowed to enrich the menu of the medieaval population.

Robert Willis
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