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Development of pedagogical tradition in the international contacts of the Russian Abroad in China in the 1920-1930th years

170 KNOWLEDGE. UNDERSTANDING. ABILITY ______________ 2008 - No. 3


Development of pedagogical tradition in the international contacts of the Russian abroad in China in the 1920-1930th years

O.A. Kosinova (Moscow humanities university) *

Article opens one of activities of the Russian abroad in China in the 19201930th years — establishment of contacts with other centers of accommodation of Russians. Contacts had various character: educational, scientific, public and pedagogical. Keywords: Russian abroad, international contacts, pedagogical activity, education, education, scientific activity, training program, book exchange, scientific correspondence, Russian national culture.

Extension of pedagogical relations in international contacts of Russian emigration in China in 1920-30-th years

O. A. Kosinova

(Moscow University for the Humanities)

Abstract: The article tells about one of directions of activity of Russian emigration in China in 19201930 years — contacts with other centers of Russian emigration. Connections were difference: educational, scientific and social activities.

As a result of emigration there were several centers of the Russian abroad. One of them was created in the territory of China. Despite remoteness, the Far East Russian diaspora was not isolated. Need of contacts was caused by aspiration of the Russian emigrants to maintaining the ethnocultural identity.

Pedagogical activity of the Russian abroad in China in the 1920-1930th years consisted of several directions: educational and educational, scientific, public. Most fully and variously they were presented in the northeast of China, through the Chinese-east Railroad (CER). Leading role of this region and Harbin, as its cultural

* Oksana Anatolyevna Kosinova is the associate professor of pedagogics and psychology of the higher school of the Moscow humanities university, the candidate of pedagogical sciences. Ph.: (495) 374-74-59; 8 (903) 679-24-20.

education center, it was caused by fixing of tradition of the Russian pedagogical activity before revolution.

By the beginning of emigration in the region were available: Russian education system, scientific, including pedagogical, children's and youth organizations, public and pedagogical associations. In the 1920-1930th years the network of educational and educational institutions grew, the public initiative of teachers spread that was promoted by preservation in the area of KVZhD of the right of exterritoriality. In 1918 in Harbin the first higher education institution of the Russian abroad — Law department was open.

Other centers of the Russian abroad, the largest of which was the Russian diaspora of Western Europe, were at the same time formed. In the 1920th years there was a process of consolidation of separate parts of the Russian abroad. An important role was played in this process by education.

The ideological basis of the international pedagogical contacts was formed by intention of the Russian abroad to keep and develop the best traditions of domestic education and education. In the 1920th years the structures providing the organization of such contacts were created: Pedagogical bureau for the lowest and high Russian school abroad with the center in Prague, the Russian academic union, Association of the Russians who ended higher educational institutions abroad (OROVUZ), etc.

In the international pedagogical contacts of the Russian abroad in China of the 19201930th years it is possible to allocate several directions. Treat them: educational contacts between educational institutions, scientific contacts between scientific communities and certain scientists and between public organizations in education. Need of streamlining of the general secondary education in the direction of creation in emigration of the high school relying on the best traditions of Russian education predetermined contacts of teachers of the Russian abroad in China

with Pedagogical bureau for the lowest and high Russian school abroad (further — Pedagogical bureau). From the Far East diaspora the body of the management of Russian education in Northern Manchuria — Committee of educational institutions kept in touch. Two organizations regularly exchanged pedagogical magazines. The pedagogical bureau sent the official publication — "Russkaya Shkola Za Rubezhom" magazine to China and received the Harbin magazines "Voprosy Shkolnoy Zhizni", "Vestnik Manchzhurii", etc.

The main issue of interaction was connected with formation of maintenance of primary and secondary education. For this purpose at Pedagogical bureau and Committee of educational institutions the program commissions were organized. The ideological unity of the developed training programs was provided with their theoretical basis. The ideas of the project of a gymnasium of the mixed type developed under the leadership of P.N. Ignatyev were taken as a basis of development of programs. Besides, figures of education sought to lay the substantial foundation of model of labor school in her treatment pre-revolutionary domestic pedagogics. Realization of these ideas was reflected in the following principles of formation of maintenance of secondary education of the Russian abroad: priority value of objects of Russia, the finished nature of education at each step of school training, obligatory teaching one of modern foreign languages, the right of educational institutions to supplement curricula and programs, etc. Thus, on the one hand, teachers of the Russian abroad both in China, and in Western Europe addressed the best ideas of the domestic theory and practice of education. On the other hand, they understood them innovatively, taking into account new living conditions of the Russian school. As reflection of urgent need of school of the Russian abroad these innovations were noted by the head

Pedagogical bureau A. Bemom (Bem, 1923: 218-219) in article made according to the report of Educational department of Board of KVZhD.

The Russian abroad in China had the large educational institutions known is far outside the Far East. The Law department treated them, in particular. Former harbinets and historian of the Russian abroad in China G.V. Melikhov (Melikhov, 1997: 126) writes that the fact that in "the semi-colonial country which did not have neither libraries, nor the universities, nor scientific forces except those several privatdozents who arrived until recently from Russia they literally from nothing created in Manchuria the fine higher education institution which gained recognition of Sorbonne and all European and American universities" demonstrates to the high level and effectiveness of organizational and educational and methodical work of the Harbin law department.

G.S. Starodubtsev (Starodubtsev, 2000: 141) compares two law departments — in Harbin and Prague: "The law department represented the interesting phenomenon in the history of the Russian higher school. It along with the Russian law department in Prague gave the Russian higher legal education in emigration. In its activity certain beddings both the Russian emigration, and Soviet, and Chinese, and Manchurian, and Japanese influences were reflected".

In Western Europe also other higher education institution of the Russian abroad in the Far East — Institute of oriental and commercial sciences was known. Its features were emphasized in the works by the chairman of department of high school of the Parisian office of the Russian academic group, the historian of culture of the Russian abroad P.E. Kowalewski (Kowalewski, 1971: 88): "Under the terms of work in KVZhD right-of-way shots with vocational east education constantly were required and therefore since the beginning of the current century in Harbin and in the major cities of Manchuria worked vospitanni-

ki Vladivostok institute of east languages. After falling of the Provisional Seaside government to Harbin with the last wave of refugees of profit and those who worked at the Russian Far East before. All of them at once found application of the knowledge in quickly developing economic and cultural life of edge".

The international scientific contacts of the Russian abroad in China of the 1920-1930th years developed through the Union of the Russian academic organizations abroad (The Russian academic union) formed in October, 1921. Most actively the Parisian Academic group under the chairmanship of professor A.N. Antsiferov acted. In particular, the Union, according to "Rules about the state test commissions" of April 26, 1922, at Law department organized the test commissions for holding qualification examinations. Rules specially stipulated the structure of such commissions approved by board of the Union. The list of persons who can be allowed to tests was provided: taken a full course at the Russian universities and submitted the corresponding certificate; submitted the certificate of the termination of a higher educational institution abroad and recognized as board of the Union of the Russian academic organizations abroad conforming to requirements of the Russian universities; not taken a full course at the Russian universities yet could be allowed with special permission of board of the Union. The circle of objects, the program of tests and an order of their carrying out was defined, the system of assessment of knowledge examined was given also many other things were told about the diplomas issued by the test commissions about a possibility of a re-examination. These measures were adopted for the purpose of streamlining procedures of preparation and passing qualification examinations, for granting an opportunity to the Russian students to end higher educational institutions and to receive master

the degrees recognized by all higher education institutions of the Russian abroad. The union organized protection of master and doctoral dissertations for what the special faculty commissions which considered theses were organized. As the Russian higher education institutions in China had no right to appropriate academic degrees, for teachers from the Far East academic trips were organized.

In 1923 the business trip to Western Europe with the scientific purpose (collecting material for the scientific work "Value of Money") was received by the economist M.V. Abrosimov. The same year for protection of the master's thesis the lawyer N.E. Esperov was sent to Western Europe.

In 1925 on a six-month academic trip in Europe and the USA there was a law professor V.V. Engelfeld. From the moment of recognition of the work meeting requirements imposed to master theses prior to a debate there had to pass three-months term. However exceptions were in certain cases allowed. So, the specified term was reduced for V.V. Engelfeld who arrived from Harbin because of remoteness of his accommodation. It was considered that his book went on sale in advance and the scientific community could get acquainted with it. In 1926 after defense of a thesis on the subject "Essays of the State Law of China" at the Russian office of the Parisian Law department on degree of the master of the state law it returned to Harbin and brought scientific materials from the Californian, Washington, Colombian, New York universities.

Professor N.I. Nikiforov after the trip to Paris and Prague (1927-1928) in 1928 defended the dissertation "the Senyorialny mode in France on an outcome of an old regime" and received an academic degree of the master of general history.

Activity of public organizations of the Russian abroad in China was also characterized by well come international contacts. For example, Distant

east association of the Russians who ended higher educational institutions abroad (further — DalOROVUZ), being the Far East office OROVUZA with the center in Paris, conducted active correspondence with office in France. One of tasks Dahl-OROVUZ put to himself preservation and development of the Russian national culture. The organization included graduates of all large higher education institutions of Harbin: Harbin polytechnical institute, Pedagogical Institute, Law department, etc.

In the letter of May 8, 1932 the French office OROVUZA informed board of the Harbin committee of the help to the Russian refugees (GAHK, LL.1 — 2): "According to your request we send you materials about activity of our organization — Associations of the Russians who ended higher educational institutions abroad (France), for short OROVUZ. As you see from the "bulletins" sent to you custom by book-post, except France similar OROVUZY exist and in other states, in the same countries where they are absent, there are representations OROVUZOV. In the Far East our representative is the mining engineer Anatoly Evgenyevich Grachev at whom persons interested to be a part of our organization have to be registered and to which it is necessary to apply for all references. If the sufficient number of the full members who graduated from higher education institution abroad, 30-40, then initiative group was registered, having received from us "the normal charter" OROVUZA and having accepted it a general meeting, could form independent association and enter into Federation OROVUZOV". To France A.E. Grachev wrote in the response letter (GAHK, L. 27): "... I according to the order of the Parisian Central board OROVUZA already created an initiative group of persons from graduated from higher education institution (in number of more than 50 people) which at my request allocated from the structure Temporary board Far East OROVUZA and established relation with the representatives in Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities...

I received kind consent from board of the Russian student's society of a message our work as autonomous section RSO... Bringing about it to the attention of all graduated from higher education institution, I invite them to register at me in office of board local OROVUZA...".

Celebration of Day of the Russian culture was a big event for the Russian abroad both in Europe, and in China. The tradition of celebration dated for a birthday of A.S. Pushkin was put by emigrants of Western Europe in 1925. The Russian abroad in China began to celebrate annually this holiday since 1926. The initiative of celebration belonged to the First mixed real school. Other educational institutions, figures of orthodox church, public organizations joined it. Pressing issues of the Russian culture were the following: to find out an identity and identity of the Russian culture, to understand ways to its preservation and development; to unite all creative forces of the Russian people for the benefit of Russia. Usually entered the program of a holiday: a prayer, greetings, issue of certificates and awards, recitation, speeches of teachers, choral singing, a march performed by orchestra of pupils. Chairman of the Harbin committee of the help to the Russian refugees V.I. Kolokolnikov (Kolokolni-kov, 1937: 9) in the editorial of the brochure "Day of the Russian Culture" noted: "In Harbin it is necessary that the holiday of the Russian culture was not only day of memoirs and reports, it is necessary that it became day of a review of all achievements of the Russian minority in science, art, literature, educational work, day of the critical review of all important events of emigrant life.... Therefore establishment at us in Harbin, by an example of other countries, standing committee on celebration of Day of the Russian culture is extremely desirable".

Celebration passed across all Harbin, extended also to other cities of residence of the Russian emigrants later. Every year by a holiday it was published

eponymous brochure. Due to Pushkin anniversary of 1937 richly illustrated collection "A.S. Pushkin and his time" under the general edition of professor K.O. Zaytsev was published. Century from the date of A.S. Pushkin's death was noted not only in Harbin, but also in other cities and the settlements of Manchuria.

By means of celebration of Day of the Russian culture the Russian diaspora in China felt the unity with other regions, the participation to saving and development of national culture as this holiday was celebrated also in Shanghai. Their correspondence testifies to a close cultural unification of the emigrant public in China with other places of residence of emigrants.

The Russian abroad in China during the 1920-1930th years had active contacts with the Russian teachers in other regions of residence, first of all Western Europe. Interaction was organized in different forms: developments of approximate samples of curricula and programs, opening of offices of the European public organizations in the Far East, polemics concerning the theory and practice of education, academic trips, exchange of literature, etc. Ideological unity and organizational relations allowed to strengthen and develop tradition of activity of the Russian teachers.


GAHK. T. 1128. Op. 1. 41.

Day of the Russian culture. Anniversary collection. Harbin: Prod. Harbin committee of the help to the Russian refugees.

Kowalewski, P.E. (1971) Foreign Russia. Additional issue Paris: B. and.

Melikhov, (1997) the Russian emigration in China (1917-1924). M.: IRI RAS publishing house.

Russian school abroad. Book 5-6. Prague: B. and.

Starodubtsev, G. of Page (2000) the Russian legal education in Harbin (1919-1937)//Problems of the Far East. No. 6.

Shirley Butler
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