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N.A. Povod

The problems of development of the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Pritobolya the Komi immigrants in the 19th century connected with allocation of land grounds, their use, interaction with the local Tatar community are considered. The contemporary records showing ways of fixing of grounds to immigrants including the agricultural development reflected in local toponyms, construction of cult and economic objects, the appeal to courts, are provided to the Tobolsk governor and the emperor.

Modern the Komi (Komi-Zyrian) population of Western Siberia descends from immigrants from the region of Komi whose beginning of the migration movement belongs to the first third of the 19th century and proceeds to the first quarter of the 20th century [the Occasion, 2006. Page 48-70; GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 31. 79. L. 76-76 about.]. The directions of resettlements depended on economic orientation of migrants. In the north of Western Siberia (the territory modern Berezovsky, Beloyarsk the areas of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, the Nadym, Cisural, Purov-sky, Shuryshkarsky Areas of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area) representatives of the Izhma group of the Komi whose primary branch of economy was a reindeer breeding were settled; more southern areas attracted the Komi of the immigrants who were engaged in agriculture (modern Zavodoukovsky, Yurga, Yarkovsky, Yalutorovsk districts of the Tyumen region, Gorky, Kalachinsky, Okoneshnikovsky, Tarsky districts of the Omsk region).

Now the largest compact settlements of the Komi in the Lower Pritobolye (territory of modern Yalutorovsk, Yarkovsky, Zavodoukovsky, Yurga districts of the Tyumen region) are the village of Staroaleksandrovka (Yarkovsky district), Ivanovka and. Big Tikhvino (Yalutorovsk district) which at the end of the 19th century belonged to the Ivanovo volost of the Yalutorovsk district of the Tobolsk province. From the moment of the basis they appeared in an environment of the Tatar population long since living in this territory and considerably exceeding on the number of immigrants. These two groups lived separately from each other, understanding cultural and community distinctions, first of all in religious and economic traditions; interaction was limited to trade relations [Zenko, 2000. Page 150; PMA, Yarkovsky and Yalutorovsk districts, 2003-2006].

When studying history of formation of group of the Komi in the Lower Pritobolye it is necessary to find out: from where and when there arrived immigrants in what quantity, how intensive were migrations what fixing mechanism on the earth was as they solved the material and spiritual problems as there was their relationship with locals.

During field work in the Komi villages historical legends which confirmed initial formation of group and its fixing in the chosen territory were written down. According to these legends, at first to Siberia the Komi's workmen from the Ust-Sysolsky County went to seasonal work, generally it were tailors and pimokata, in the Yalutorovsk district the Siberian Tatars were their customers most often. It is known that in Prisysolye there was a high level of development of small craft, on an otkhodnichestvo Sysola won first place in the region, especially among the masters specializing in sartorial and felting craft [Ro-gachev, 1987. Page 114]. Resettlement to Siberia in the 19th century was stimulated by adverse conditions of residence in the region of Komi, crop failures, hunger. Forest soils were nizkoplodorodna, abundance of swamps, severe climate caused low efficiency of agriculture that was compensated by continuous expansion of the ethnic territory [Konakov, 1984. Page 8].


Work is performed with assistance of the program of Presidium of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science "Adaptation of the people and cultures to changes of the environment, social and technogenic transformations" (project 4.7 "Sociocultural adaptation of ethnoareal groups of the Komi in Western Siberia (XIX — the beginning of the 21st century)").

By data I.L. Zherebtsova, in the second half of XVIII — the middle of the 19th century the region of Komi to the Urals left 1015 people, and 770 of them — in the 1835-1850th, them Central Vychegda — 140 people, Udora — 107 people, Sysola — 101 people, the lower Pechora — 85 people, Priluzya — 61 people, with Vy-mi — 2 people, the top Vychegda — 519 people [Zherebtsov, 1998. Page 87]. Resettlements of the 1935-1950th from Ust-Tsilma and verkhnevychegodsky Podjelsky, Derevyansky, Kerchomsky, Pomozdinsky rural societies were mass, at the same time the absolute majority of resettlements to the Tobolsk province (especially family) fall on 1842 [In the same place. Page 95]. Especially many immigrants (not less than 124 people) were from Pomozdinsky society: Ignatov' family, Karmanov, Zhangu-rov, Popov, Koktomov of Pomozdino; Shakhov, Mingalevy, Lazhanovy, Shebyrevy, Luzhi-kovykh, Martyushovy, Senkiny of Pozhega; not less than 17 people Ulyashev from Voldino, etc. [In the same place. Page 96]. To the Yalutorovsk district (county) of the Tobolsk province in 1842 Timushev' families, Tarabukiny, Vorobyov, Samariny, Kochanovy of Kerchomya, Rasputin from Zelents and Koytybo-zha, Izjyurova and Yushkova from Chukachoy, Gudyrev and Panyukova from Vazhkurya, Kutkina and Izjyurova from Pezmoga moved [In the same place. Page 96].

In memory of the senior generation of modern Komi data on the territory of initial accommodation — the villages of Mezhador, Kibra remained (modern Kuratovo [Zherebtsov, 2001. Page 245-246]), Ust-Kuly, etc. Originally for justification of constant settlements ran over several Komi of families. In the subsequent for permanent residence to Siberia moved the whole clans of relatives — several brothers usually united with families. From acquaintances rumors reached that in Siberia live well. Left earlier told: there is a lot of bread, there is enough place, bread good will be born [PMA, Yarkovsky district, 2003]. Gradually new settlers were adjoined by other relatives and acquaintances. In the south of Western Siberia the choice of the place for foundation of the settlement at the Komi of immigrants was defined by existence of the river, places for mowings, opportunities of expansion of an arable land. Immigrants developed new lands proceeding from their suitability for certain types of land use, an ethnic and sociocultural environment was of secondary importance.

To get permission to the settlement, immigrants sent to the tsar of walkers. According to a legend of locals, the village of Aleksandrovka (the modern name — Old Aleksandrovka) was formed in 1838 by Samson Kiruschew who the first arrived to these places from the region of Komi together with family. Their arrangement caused negative reaction of Tatars — inhabitants next of Chechkino which forbade them to be under construction on this place. Then Kirushev went to Moscow and got from the tsar permission for construction. When permission was got, founded the village which was called in honor of the tsar's son (possibly, Alexander II) — Aleksandrovka, another — by date of the basis on June 7 (according to the article to style — on June 24, day of John the Forerunner and the Baptist) Ivanovka, the third village received the name of Tikhvin, in the subsequent it was divided into Small to Tikhvin and Big to Tikhvin. At development of the territory of the Komi faced counteraction of the local Tatar community, there were regularly disputes because of mowings which often developed into fights. One lake near which there was a big fight still is called Military.

In the subsequent these legends were confirmed by contemporary records. Komi settlements in the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Pritobolya were based by immigrants from the Vologda, Perm and Vyatka provinces [GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 41. 354. L. 37]. The big group of the Komi, the state peasants, arrived in the Yurga volost of the Yalutorovsk district in 1837 from Ust-Sysolsky and Yarensky Counties of the Vologda province [In the same place. Op. 31. 79. L. 113]. For permission to resettlement they addressed the emperor. After obtaining the affirmative answer by them the Tobolsk State chamber in May, 1841 gave definition about settlement of immigrants on the lands consisting in the general possession of Tatars of yurtas Chechkinsky and Novoatyalovsky [In the same place. Op. 41. 354. L. 3].

Requests of immigrants for investment with the earth in the Tobolsk province were granted not always. So, the peasant Vasily Yershov who moved from the Arkhangelsk province to the Kamensk volost of the Tyumen district with companions among 20 families in 1824 asked the Tobolsk State chamber about the permission to them to lodge on the empty earth lying at the Bukhtalke River from their settlement of Bukhtalki only in 18 versts, with transfer of nearby Shaytanovsky and Eltykulsky lakes to them, but as these lands and lakes consisted before in possession of Tatars of yurtas Tarmansky under serf acts, permission was suspended [In the same place. 257. L. 3-9 about.].

In the Yalutorovsk district lands on the right side of the Tobol River with a total area of 7941 des were allocated to new settlers. 656 sazh. which included about 1000 des. arable lands, more than 1000 des. haymaking, about 280 des. bestial vypaska, more than 5500 des. the different wood (birch, pine, mixed, burned, a bush) [In the same place. 354. L. 37-37 about.]. Allocation of the earth was made for immigrants "on number of 512 souls" [In the same place. L. 37], therefore, the allotment was received according to the standard size — on 15 des. on revizsky soul with a small stock [Balyuk, 2007. Page 159]. Besides, decree of March 25, 1845. The state chamber ordered to provide "I uzakonennoit proportsiyeyu lands" 156 more people, arrived later. The earth to them was allocated from "excessively owned" by Tatars of yurtas of Novoatyalovsky, on the right side of the Tobol River, in number of convenient 2340 des., including by arable lands 232 des. 1950 sazh., haymaking of 1872 des. 1993 sazh. [GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 41. 354. L. 38]. In total in a plot of peasants of the village of Aleksandrovskogo and. To Ivanovskaya and Tikhvin it was allocated the comfortable earth 10281 des. with sazhens [In the same place]. By this time in three settlements 565 male people were registered [In the same place].

Under settlements — the village of Aleksandrovskoye and. Ivanovskaya (Zyryanova) was allocated 51 des. 400 sazh. [In the same place. L. 37-37 about.]. The choice of the place for the settlement was defined by the traditions which developed in the region of Komi. Komi long since lodged on high, flood-free coast of the rivers in a high water, coastal areas were the most convenient for agriculture, in floodplains there were best haymakings. The village of Aleksandrovka was placed at confluence Tobol and Yurga. Date of foundation of the village is determined: a part of immigrants on August 30, 1841 "settled down under the settlement at the mouth of the small river of Yurga and called the village of Aleksandrovka", for "residence" they undertook to build 106 houses [In the same place. Op. 31. 79. L. 113]. On field materials, building of the village was conducted according to the plan, made by the land surveyor. As a result that part of the village which was a postrena according to the plan received the name "Plante", and the part of the village nearby located behind the log was called "Pledge" [PMA, Yarkovsky district]. Streets were allocated: Small (Dzholyaulich), Big (Ydzhitulich), Kalmakov of an ulich, Average (Shyrsaulich) [In the same place].

In 1844-1845 in Aleksandrovka lived: Arkhipova, Bulyshev, Vetoshkina, Vavilova, Vasilyev, Gulyaev, Egorov, Zhangurova, Ignatova, Ivanov, Izyyurova, Kirikova, Kirushe-vy, Kizarinova, Kichipova, Kondratyev, Kutkina, Koltyshev, Lyavutova, Leontiyev, Lizha-kova, Luzikova, Lavrentyev, Mingalev, Mezentsev, Misharin, Nikitina, Nesterov, Ni-pilkovy, Osipova, Popov, Pimenova, Puzhev, Petrov, Rakina, Savina, Samarina, Seliverstova, Smirnov, Sergeyev, Stepanova, Senkina, Tarybukina, Udoritina, Ulyashev, Philippines, Fedorov, Shakhov, Shybyrev, Shikherev, Shorokhov, Kharitonov, Hozyainova, Chuvyyurova, Lozhkina (perhaps, Panyukova), Nozhikova (perhaps, Purtova), priest Serebrennikov [GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 31. 79. L. 123-123 about.]. The family list of villagers in many respects coincides with the surnames of immigrants from the region of the first half of Komi of the 19th century revealed by I.L. Zherebtsov [1998. Page 96], and partly remains at aboriginals of modern Staroaleksandrovka (Bulyshev, Vetoshkina, Ignatova, Karmanova, Kononova, Kirushev (Kirishev), Kutkina, Luzikova, Misharin, Nikulin, Podlasova, Rasputin, Terikova, Ulyashev) [PMA, Yarkovsky district].

Other settlement of the Komi —. Ivanovskaya (Zyryanova) was based also at the beginning of the 1840th [GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 41. 354. L. 37 about.]. According to historical legends by inhabitants the village of Ivanovka, Matvei Danev, known as Matvei-hodatelya, arrived in the Yalutorovsk County the first to get at local authorities permission to the right of the settlement [Popov, 1990 was the founder of the village. Page 1-2]. In 1841 he appealed to the Tobolsk governor to allocate the earth for immigrants, but the decision on this question was made only in 3 years [PMA, the Yalutorovsk district]. Originally the village was placed on the bank of the Tobol River, but because of frequent floods in the 1860th it had to be moved to higher place [Popov, 1990. Page 3]. The following Komi of a surname — Bolotova, Volkov, Vorobyov, Zilina, Katayev, Klyapova, Lyyurova, Makarov, Pimenova, Podorova, Popov, Pudova, Punegova, Rasputin, Rusanova, Senyukova, Sheshukova, Yushkova were characteristic of Ivanovka [PMA, the Yalutorovsk district].

Along with Aleksandrovka and Ivanovka the settlement Tikhvin appeared [GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 41. 354. L. 38]. It was formed on the bank of Tobol, but the first floods flooded the settlement, and inhabitants were forced to transfer it to 1-2 km further from the river on "hillock". During transfer of of Tikhvin it was divided into Big and Small [Popov, 1990. Page 47]. Among inhabitants the opinion prevails that the name of the village is connected with date of its basis on July 9 (on June 26 according to the article to style), day of the Tikhvin icon of the Mother of God [In the same place. Page 16-17]. On

to other assumption, ancestors of immigrants lived near Tikhvin located east of St. Petersburg on the Tikhvinke River (basin of Lake Ladoga). It is possible that in memory of former places the village was called Tikhvin [PMA, the Yalutorovsk district]. Old residents in Small Tikhvin remember a name of the person who put the first house — it was Markel Dudarev, among the first inhabitants were also Sheshukova [Popov, 1990. Page 53].

The total number of immigrants in 1843 made 1003 people, including in the settlement of Ivanovskoye "a male 262 zhensk 270, Aleksandrovsky a muzhesk 245 zhensk 226 and that muzhesk 507 zhensk 496" [GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 31. 79. L. 22]. In 1846 in settlements there were 668 men, but "since then, from among them, many families were listed in Cossack estate, through as their chislitelnost decreased, on the X audit (1858 — N.P.) is considered in 3 settlements only of 565 tithes on 103 souls" [In the same place. Op. 41. 354. L. 98 about.-99]. In 1867 in three settlements — Aleksandrovka, Ivanovka and Tikhvina 565 male people were registered [In the same place. L. 38]. According to the first Russian population census of 1897, in Aleksandrovka there were 132 households where 308 male people and 296 — women's, from them Komi-Zyrians — 567 people (295 men and 272 women) and Russian — 27 people lived, in the village of Ivanovka there were 114 yards in which 492 people, in were registered. Big Tikhvin — 69 yards and 247 inhabitants, in. Small Tikhvin — 47 yards and 218 inhabitants [Patkanov, 1911. Page 114-115].

Immigrants quickly enough got economy though in 1844-1845 from an epizooty — "an infectious disease" — there was "a decline of the cattle" from which, by the certificate of the volost administration, 205 horses and 202 cows, only 454 heads "fell down" the sum up to 3 thousand rubles silver [In the same place. Op. 31. 79. L. 70-70 about.]. Nevertheless it was noted that some peasants of of Aleksandrovskaya have "any" cattle — in 1844-1845 in 86 families there were 252 cows and 201 horses [In the same place. L. 123-123 about.], they have the houses and make arable farming [In the same place. L. 70-70 about.].

Arrangement on the new place was connected not only with "domoobzavodstvo" and development of economy. Practically at once with obtaining permission to the settlement, in 1842, the Komi of Aleksandrovskoy appealed to the archbishop Tobolsk and Siberian about construction at them in the church settlement [In the same place. L. 20 about.-21] as their parish church was in the village of Borovinskom in 70 versts and it complicated "execution of Christian duties" [In the same place. L. 5]. Performance of occasional offices was an important part of the life of the Komi; in the territory of the former residence, in the Ust-Sysolsky County, church construction in the 19th century was intensive, and community, having got the construction license from an episkopiya, the means conducted construction and arrangement of the temple [Rogachyov, 2001. Page 74, 78]. Residents of Aleksandrovka undertook "to construct church with own money, otvest to a pricht the legalized proportion of the arable and haying land, also under a uselitba and the estate and to build decent doma. And entrusted from residents of the village in subscribed from itself claimed, at principals of its earth also enough" [is very rich GUTO GAT. T. 152. Op. 31. 79. L. 5]. Inhabitants of. Asked to allow "to arrange to Ivanovskaya at the cemetery the place (chapel), decent for prayers" [In the same place. L. 21]. In 1847 in. Without the knowledge of a consistory the house of worship was already arranged to Ivanovskaya and it is allocated at it the cemetery [In the same place. L. 10].

Inhabitants of Aleksandrovka got permission to construction of wooden church from a consistory, but, nevertheless, they appealed in March, 1844 to the successor to Crown Prince, its imperial highness to the grand duke Alexander Nikolaevich "about the permission to them to construct... wooden church on the stone base [In the same place. L. 22]. To receive additional resources for construction, residents of Aleksandrovka tried to lease in 1844 for 50 years to the peasant of the Zavodoukovsky volost Vasily Fedotovich Gilev 3 des. lands for construction of a mill and at it "for a wood file" for an annual quitrent and 3 rub silver which half had to go to treasury and the second half — to country society, also in the contract the condition was saw, "that Gilev had precaution not to flood neighboring water a sprudna" [In the same place. Op. 41. 219. L. 1-2].

But in 1846, construction of a mill was stopped because of the complaint of chechkinsky Tatars at whom the mill was on half-versts below across Yurga, and the new mill began to waterlog it. Besides, Tatars began to challenge a possibility of Zyrians to lease the earth as considered it [In the same place in court. L. 7-12 about]. As a result construction of church was delayed though in 1846 the plan and a facade for its "construction" were ready, and the priest the deacon Alexey Serebrennikov was sent to the village [In the same place. Op. 31. 79. L. 1, 5 about.].

The place for church was chosen in the center of the village of Aleksandrovskogo, on the square "from the southern and northern parties there are no doma of inhabitants on 30 is put off, and from east and western parties has no houses" [In the same place. L. 25 about.-26]. The location where it is supposed to be churches, "against other places of its people around, sublime, and the soil of the earth firm, the top layer sandy-argillaceous mixed with black soil two quarters thick and further clay", "the house priestly consists on South side of church among with the house of the peasant Savva Ivanov Ignatov, and from North side the closest house of the widow country wife Lyubvi of Kiri-shevoy" [In the same place. L. 26]. A sentence of parishioners for church it was appointed the farmstead earth in 3 des., haying 21 des., arable 1110 sazh. to "dlinnin", diameter 810 it is put off, besides, the villager Zhansurov undertook to concede for the church pricht the earth which is on the right side of the river of Yurga, and "hay mowings on the island against their village behind the small river Staritsa", only 99 des. [In the same place]. And in a sentence the condition was specified that if svyashchennotserkovno-attendants own pashenny and haying lands, then parishioners will not pay a ruga, i.e. a salary to clergy in bread or money and if pricht uses only hay mowings, then they will leave it a ruga [In the same place. L. 26-26 about.].

In 1849 the residents of Aleksandrovka address the archbishop Tobolsk and Siberian again: "took various measures to preparation of required amount of materials for the God's temple as the wood a brick on the base and we inform... what all managed to prepare shortly, is equal and money about three hundred rub silver and more are collected by us on this Charitable subject; but in May. on found from State Chamber an obstacle in branch for having to be the pricht of lands, construction from church in our settlement is stopped because of which stop we have to lose all materials prepared by us and through what to receive very heavy loss" [In the same place. L. 76-77 about.].

Finally could not refuse to Zyrians because of their address to the emperor [In the same place. L. 73]. But also to make the decision on construction of constant church it was represented impossible. In 1850 it was about it specified in the address of the archbishop to the Tobolsk governor: "this good deed in the course is stopped because they are lodged on lands of Tatars of yurtas Chechkinsky and will be subject to resettlement again. But His Eminence asks to construct to these unfortunate inhabitants the permission your Excellency in the settlement in the form of marching, church, assigned to the Yurga arrival, at which it is required to leave only one tithe of the earth. In case of their inevitable resettlement they. will transfer this Bogolyubezny building. Business is made in Board owing to Aleksandrovsky Vsepoddanneyshey given peasants of the settlement of a request to the Sovereign Imperator, about rendering Monarchical bounties to them on construction of the church desirable to them" [In the same place. L. 88-90]. Business dragged on until the end of the 19th century — the church for the sake of Zhivonachalnyya of the Trinity with a side-altar Saint Alexander Nevsky was constructed only in 1897 [In the same place. T. 156. Op. 24. 566. L. 112-113].

Lawsuits with the Tatar old residents proceeded throughout the second half of the 19th century. In the 1860th the question of the right of Zyrians to live on lands of Tatars became more active again. Lands were, on vypisyam 7195 and 7905 years, in serf possession of foreigners of yurtas Chechkinsky, Novoatyalovsky, Bohr, Tarkhansky, Karbansky and Matmasovsky [In the same place. T. 152. Op. 41. 354. L. 37]. The Yalutorovsk district court in December, 1858 made the decision: ".zeml of Tatars of yurtas Chechkinsky and Novoatyalovsky, Karbansky and Matmasovsky as strengthened behind them under the acts granting them the right of serf possession to consider them property", and the Tobolsk provincial court, having applied to the real case of Articles 515 and 560 X of t. as Part 1 and 669 and 213 IX in t., definition of January 10, 1861 recognized their lands as state, but only being in use of Tatars [In the same place. L. 139 about.]. In 1860 provincial court, inspecting business, found that Tatars of the specified yurtas have to the lands owned by them only the right of use, the right of property for them belongs to treasury. The serfdom on this earth for foreigners the Senate is not recognized, and only the right of use, but also this right is recognized foreigners lost (514, 515 and 569 articles Zac. grazhd.) "as for not introduction of an agreed yasak (that is proved by enormous figure of the quitrent podatny shortage which is registered for them), and behind transition from the nomadic category in settled" [In the same place. L. 174 about.-175]. Tatars of yurtas of Chechkinsky and Novoatyalovsky through the attorneys filed an appelyatsionny complaint to the Ruling Senate on January 29, 1861 [In the same place. L. 90 about.-91]. In 1866 the Senate issued the decree in which it was said that return to Tatars of the earth on which the Vologda immigrants were installed more than 20 years ago is impossible; but compensation in number of 10281 des was offered. lands [In the same place. L. 64-64 about.]. Tatars refused all sites offered them, demanding to return them "lands a blizkiya, pakhotnyya, senokosnyya and stroyevyya the woods, and 19 fishing lakes" [In the same place. L. 99 about., 101]. After several attempts to persuade Tatars to accept other sites as a reward for the lost lands, at the end of the 1870th in the Tobolsk State chamber came to conclusion that "high quality and in general modification... the lands owned by immigrants it was formed only with introduction on them. agriculture, but not when they were at the foreigners who were engaged on an image of the life, the animal industry, paying for the earth in treasury yasak" [In the same place. L. 103 about.-104]. In 1877 the claims of Tatars about return of lands remained unsatisfied, and moreover, owing to unwillingness to take other sites as compensation, their plots were limited to that earth which "they use now" [In the same place. L. 175 about.].

the Economy of the Komi was connected by

generally with agriculture and livestock production that caused, along with stationary settlements, emergence of farms on places of mowings and remote arable lands, a part of which became constant settlements (existed till 1960th). Arrangement of small small villages near the village, so-called nested resettlement, was the characteristic feature of rural settlements of the Komi reproduced and in new conditions of dwelling. Before formation of collective farms everyone had arable lands the, and it was enshrined in the name of pashenny grounds on names of owners. For increase in cropland rooted out the wood, for this purpose dug round trees, cut off boughs. Division of big families led also to division of allotments. Allocated to sons the earth after a marriage, could also give to daughters after a marriage a share. The main grain crops were wheat, a rye, barley, oats; technical — hemp, linen. The agrotechnology provided a trekhpolny system: steam — a rye — steam — oats/wheat. Immigrants reproduced the agricultural traditions characteristic of the southern regions of Komi of edge where it was widespread to a trekhpolya and, besides, the podseka [Konakov, was applied 1984. Page. 9] and also the refalse system connected with development of new sites and a raskorchevka of the wood [PMA, Yarkovsky, Yalutorovsk districts]. The Trekhpolny system demanded a large amount of organic fertilizers for recovery of fertility of the soil [Konakov, 1994. Page 46]. There was a preparation of the earth for crops in the fall. At first the earth was plowed, then added humus, then again plowed. In the spring fertilized manure again, rarely ashes, and again plowed. Couples two time plowed up in the middle of the summer, then at winter sowed a rye [PMA]. Plowed on horses by means of wooden dried, sometimes for convenience to a soshnik beat big nails. Later appeared iron a plow which made in smithies. Harrowed wooden harrows, metal began to be used later. Sowed manually from lykovy seyalnitsa of round shape with a bottom, a sieve or metal Tazy. Women and children weeded generally, also women reaped a crop, reaped a sickle. From the zhit connected knittings with a diameter of 50 cm there are sheaves, put on three sheaves and from above one more that did not wet. Sheaves stood weeks two-four. After drying they were put in ricks. Threshed immediately, sheaves displayed and threshed tsepy; for winnowing of grain wasted, the peel departed, and grains fell on bed curtains. Bread could be dried in a bath, on the Russian oven [PMA].

Peasants were engaged in cattle breeding, held cows, sheep, horses, pigs, birds — hens, ducks, geese, turkey-cocks. The livestock of the cattle depended on prosperity of family. By winter a part of the cattle was hammered that it was easier to support the remained cattle. In winter time it was divided. Cows were in a flock, drive, pigs — in separate cages in flocks, a bird — in podsenka. Birds lived in a log hut, kept geese under an outer entrance hall under the house in the winter, there dug out a hole, in a floor did a trap — lazeyu to [PMA]. Cows grazed on the poskotena. In all settlements the cattle was grazed in turn as before shepherds did not employ: for one cow or three lambs grazed one day. Pigs were on a free pasture, did not touch them and houses did not close. At allocation of economy of sons the property was divided, for this purpose used a lot ("poles pulled: to whom cow, to whom what") [PMA]. Hay was prepared. The area of a mowing was assigned for life to family. Mowing grounds were located in 2-5 km from the village. Mowings carried the name on nearby settlements, lakes, a name of the owner [PMA].

Agriculture demanded big physical work, it was necessary to increase the area of pashenny grounds, it was necessary to root out the wood. Along with arable farming at the Komi of immigrants also forest crafts — preparation of firewood for steamships and timber, a smolokureniye were developed. Favorable location of settlements: the village of Aleksandrovka — to Entre Rios of Tobol and Yurga, the village of Ivanovka and. Big Tikhvino — on the right coast of Tobol,

a large number of lakes (Sankutar, Kalachik, Kuchak, Pisanskoye, Military, Aray) contributed to the development of fishery. Some inhabitants left on earnings further on the East, on gold mines [Popov, 1990. Page 3].

Later immigrants from the region of Komi tried to locate in Aleksandrovka and Ivanovka, but there was not enough earth, and they formed settlements in other volosts and even districts. So, in the Zavodoukovsky volost of the Yalutorovsk County Kamenka was formed Zyrian by. It was based by immigrants from the Vologda province of the Ust-Sysolsky County who in the 1860th wanted to lodge in Ivanovka, but because of a big flood chose other place — between the villages of Tumashovo and Shestakovo [Chukleev, 2002. Page 26-30]. A part of families of the Komi from the Yalutorovsk district moved further on the East. According to I. Shukhov, several families of brothers Ulyashev from the Ust-Sysolsky County lodged at first in Yalutorovsk, having lived three years there, at the beginning of the 1880th moved in the village. Mountain and Ivanovskoye (Tarsky district) from where in 1896 got over in based by them Imshegal, located to the north [1928. Page 103]. The Komi who moved to the Tarsky district kept communications with the Yalutorovsk relatives and in the 1920-1930th visited them and on earnings [PMA, Tarsky district of the Omsk Region, 2008; TF GAOO. T. 514. Op. 3. 1. L. 37 about., 52 about.].

At the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century the Komi of immigrants in the territory of the South of Western Siberia had a settlement network which is characterized by sectional resettlement when several settlements were at small distance from each other (from 3 to 70 km). The proximity of the Komi of settlements promoted preservation of family and compatriot relations, carrying out "sjezzhy" holidays promoted establishment of strong marriage and cultural contacts between inhabitants of the Komi of villages. The number of the Komi allowed to keep a group endogamy, in the majority marriages consisted with residents of the neighboring villages of the Komi.

At the end of the 19th century Ivanovskaya (the villages of Ivanovka, Alexandrov, Big Tikhvin, Small Tikhvin), Pletnyov (of Vyatkin, Belkovk, Chumanov, So-gra, Balagany-Odin, Kurgom), Zavodoukovskaya (Kamenka, Padun) volosts of the Yalutorovsk County [Patkanov, were 1911 the centers of compact resettlement of the Komi. Page 114-115]. According to a census of 1897, in the southern districts of the Tobolsk province 5070 people of the Komi, from them 2510 people — in the Yalutorovsk district, 1754 people — in the Tyukalinsky district, 330 people — in the Tarsky district were registered [In the same place. Page 2-3, 66-67, 88-89, 110-111]. In Tarsky, Tyukalin-sky districts, in Zavodoukovsky and Pletnyov volosts of the Yalutorovsk district of the Komi lived in the basic in an environment of Russians, in Ivanovskaya to the volost the Tatar population became the immediate environment of the Komi. Mass moving of the Komi on the territory of Western Siberia stopped only in the late twenties that was connected with change of public policy in agriculture, collective-farm construction and restriction of freedom of travel of peasants.

In microtoponymy of modern Komi of settlements of Yarkovsky and Yalutorovsk districts Komi of the name remain: a pinery in 3 km from the village of Staroaleksandrovka — Slanyayag, Poskayag — the wood at the bridge, the natural boundary behind a grove — Kuzkolka, the natural boundary the Cheerful island (A sheetrock the island) where sawed the wood, and in the evenings sawyers organized festivities; arable lands — the Kirishevsky arable land (fields), Tri-sanlyaga — the field at the former farm of Mikhaylovka; mowings — Military ("earlier there were at war"), Varlamtal — a mowing (Varlam (name) & #43; tala), Sankutar — a mowing for of Chechkino, the Big mowing, Malinovsky a meadow — a mowing beyond Yurga. The rivers — Yurga, Staritsa, Tobol, Poskashor (a stream from the bridge); swamps: The Mochishcha — the big swamp, "all the time crude"; lakes: The curia — from the lake falls into the Tobol River, Kalachik — the lake and a stream from it falls into Tobol, beyond Yurga there is a big Lake Yd-zhidty, the Glass lake in the middle of the swamp Mochishcha, the lake Farcical received the name in honor of the first farcical camp of the first immigrants, the Military lake is called in memory of the big fight which happened on its coast because of haying and fishing grounds. Local Komi toponyms bear information not only on the nature of landscapes and features of use of natural resources, but also on names of people, the first begun to develop and use grounds, about remarkable events.

Thus, traditions of agricultural settled life of the Komi caused the need for receiving the land grounds various for the functional relation (arable lands, mowings, the wood and so forth), places for arrangement of the constant settlement. But development of the territory of Nizhny Novgorod Pritobolya of the Komi by immigrants in the 19th century was connected with problems of allocation of land grounds, their uses, interactions with the local Tatar community. The main way of fixing of new settlers on the new residence was an economic development of the territory with increase in agricultural potential of grounds which was reflected, in particular, in local microtoponyms. Social development was expressed in construction of cult objects, the address for protection of the interests to courts, to the Tobolsk governor and the emperor.


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Tyumen, IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

The article considers questions of the opening up the Lower Tobol basin by Komi settlers in the XIX century, associated with allotment of arable lands and their use, as well as with their interaction with the local Tartar population. The author cites archive data demonstrating methods of assigning the lands to the settlers, including agricultural utilization reflected in the local toponyms, cultic and economic projects, appeals to the court, to the Tobolsk governor, and to the Russian Emperor.

De Kooker Magdalena
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