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Category: History


UDK 39 (4/9)


© 2009 L.M. Garsayev

Institute of humanitarian researches of Academy The Institute of Humanitarian Researches

sciences of the Chechen Republic, of the Academy of Science of Chechen Republic,

Revolyutsii Ave., 13, Grozny, 364024, Revolutcia Ave, 13, Grozny, 364024,

academy_chr@mail. ru

Leather and felt embroidered and knitted footwear of Chechens and Ingushs is considered. According to the author, Vainakh men's and women's shoes, as well as at other people of the North Caucasus, almost did not differ. Are described, except woolen socks — pazatash, footwear from a syromyatina: na1armachash, a simkhya, hulch, bast shoes — kalbanash, slippers — k1arkhash; winter footwear — b1orzhamash. With some of the listed types of footwear nogovitsa rushed.

Socks, stockings, leather, felt and bought shoes and buttons are considered in this article. According to author s opinion Vainakh men & s and ladies & footwear couldn&t be distinguished from the footwear of other Caucasian nations. Besides woolen socks — pazatash there is given the description and identification of rawhide footwear: naarmachash, symkha, khulchi, lapti-kalbanash, slippers — karkhash; winter footwear — borjamash. Some of above enumerated shoes were worn with outer footwear (nogovitsy).

In footwear, as well as in clothes, natural and geographical conditions and level of social and economic development of the people are reflected. Footwear emphasizes an age and social status and also traditions and customs of the representative of a certain ethnic group. Its main types are the general for all people of the North Caucasus and give in to more detailed study both on illustrative sources, and on finds in land crypts.

Footwear of Vainakhs, as well as other types of clothes, differed in a variety. It was sewed from skin of house and handicraft processing, felt, fabrics, matched from woolen threads and rolled local masters.

Vainakh men and women carried the sewed houses woolen socks from time immemorial.

Only at Chechens and Ingushs they are known long ago. There was for their name also own term - tkha/t1erg1a pazatash - socks from wool. Possibly, distribution of knitting at Chechens was promoted by the neighbourhood with Dagestan which was famous for the knitted products [1]. Socks, knitted from wool, had in the North Caucasus no ancient tradition, unlike Dagestan and Transcaucasia. For example, the name of knitted socks and stockings at Karachays, Balkars, Ossetians comes from the Georgian tsind - socks, stockings that testifies, perhaps, about loan of these products from Georgia.

Samples of ancient socks in our museums did not remain. And the previous researchers did not leave data according to which it would be possible to create about them representation. Therefore we are forced to lean on the ethnographic material transferred by informants generally.

E. Studenetskaya notes that knitted socks among Vainakhs carried persons of both sexes. Unlike other people of the North Caucasus, Chechens wore one-color dark or white socks, knitted from wool. Sushchest-

voval the same as at all mountaineers of the North Caucasus, the socks from morocco which are hardly fitting a leg - makhsesh [2].

According to L. Margoshvili, Vainakhs especially for a sock did not weave wool and used the scraps which remained from a pattern of any element of clothes [3] for this designated purpose. As story-tellers transfer, both parties of socks were stitched from the beginning to the end, they reached knees and are stitched by a cord - bakhtar. Winter socks sewed from a sheep skin, the fleecy party inside. Each woman was able to find them from woolen fabric or sheepskin. In mountainous areas of Chechnya and Ingushetia the women motley a sock did not knit whereas tushina, hevsura and Dagestanis knitted beautiful original socks. That is most of Vainakh population sewed them from woolen fabric and only one-color knitted: white, black or gray. Height a sock of both types reached knees and the middle of a shin. High sewed from white, red, black, brown woolen fabric. "What color the clothes were used, such color there were also socks" [3, page 79]. Wool was both thin, and rough. Sometimes sewed from double fabric that socks were not excessively thin. Knitted socks embroidered multi-colored threads. Especially beautifully embroidered an ornament socks for the bride - be they sewed or knitted.

About it interesting material is recorded in the village of Samashki. Ruknat Magomedov's informant (90 years) tells that "when the girl from mountain Chechnya married, it was necessary to provide the knitted or sewed socks in its dowry. After the courtship prior to a wedding the elderly relatives of the bride prepared for it as a gift on one couple a sock - high or short. Knitted socks were two flowers - white and black. Combinations of other flowers at us were not accepted, however we adopted at mountaineers use of color threads when knitting over time, and socks at the same time turned out beautiful".

High socks used mainly in the winter though elderly women filled in them trouser-legs of linen and carried all the year round. Knitted high socks in comparison with sewed were warmer and were considered as winter, short - summer. Women from prosperous families had socks and manufacturing, but the most part of mountain and flat Vainakh women was content with socks of own production.

According to ethnographic materials, Vainakhs knitted socks from threefold thread needles and a hook, but were more widely widespread sewed from fabric, and then decorated. Their Vainakh women sewed as a gift.

The material found E is very interesting. A croup-new as a result of archeological excavations in Ingushetia according to which in the XIV—XVI centuries "were put on legs (women) in chuvyak or boots on a soft sole from color morocco" [4, page 94]. Proceeding from this message of E. Krupnov it is possible to tell that Vainakhs had a high or short leather footwear. "Usually as footwear served chuvyak. Women from rich families wore boots and shoes of city and local production and also a galosh" [5].

Skin was widely used by Vainakhs both for clothes, and for footwear. For example, footwear of mountain and flat regions were t1arsakan k1arkhash - leather footwear without top, machash - chusta, poshmakhash - shoes without backs (on a heel and without heel), leather soft chuvyak without soles - makhsesh, ne1armachash - footwear from a syromyatina, kaluosh - galoshes, hulch - sandals from wattled skin, kalbanash - paws-tiyevidnaya working footwear from a syromyatina, etc.

K1arkhash (ing. mach, bang. borog, cysts. k1arakh) was leather summer footwear. It was found from two pieces. Seams passed along a foot inside, processed them the hammer - zh1ov, i.e. rumpled that to a leg it was not sore. On top sewed a silk edging. Some sewed to this footwear and a leather bottom. This type of footwear was considered day off. As transfers an informant, soft and light footwear was good for dance. Vainakhs sewed footwear of this kind also from felt with a high and low top, decorated with silk threads and the ornament which is cut out from skin - the boost-mash. This footwear called an istang b1orzhamash, with a low top - b1orzhaman k1arkhash, and batsbiyets and cysts knitted them from thick woolen threads.

It is known that in various mountainous and flat areas of the name of similar footwear differ. G. Sergeyev describes chuvyak - k1arkhash. In this footwear: "Back height - 8 cm, are sewed from two pieces of soft black skin. Seams pass on a back and a sole. Edges of a chuvyak are trimmed by a tight golden lace, such footwear was widespread as among men, and women" [6, page 182].

Chechens and Ingushs used also imported footwear. From Dagestan they imported leather shoes without backs and the chusta which found the broad use among Vainakhs. Except shoes without backs (k1azhash), the above-stated footwear was considered also men's.

G. Sergeyev describes this footwear as follows: "With high tops makhsesh, which length 14, and width - 16 cm. Their edges are also sheathed by a lace 1 cm wide). This footwear reminding a stocking, soft, without attached sole, sewed from two pieces of skin (seams internal, one of which passes along a foot), houses usually carried, and facing the street, put on over it boots without back" [6, page 182]. Aminat Isaev's informant (95 years) notes: "In my youth footwear of Chechens and Ingushs were k1arkhash, makhsesh, poshmakhash, ne1armachash, machash. I was from prosperous family and when I married, dowered on pair of specified footwear. My new relatives had no output footwear, and we wore it serially" [7].

Footwear from a syromyatina - ne1armachash, letters was most widespread in the people. footwear from a skin of cattle (an ing. a nekhyara machesh//h1opkh1op//k1okhazi), but in winter conditions cold therefore for heat inside put hay, later - thick woolen felt. Light and soft footwear was widespread in mountainous areas. E. Studenetskaya paid attention to features of this footwear. She writes that footwear of this type is sewed from a syromyatina, from one piece, with seams on a sock and a back, with a uvula and ties at an ankle. It was put on barefoot, enclosing a sedge or leaves of corn, and sometimes on socks [2, page 69]. Similar footwear meets in Hevsuretiya, Svaneti, Kabarda.

More just other footwear - kalbanash became (cysts. a kalba, cf. cargo. kalman — laptiyevidny footwear from a syromyatina). For its production the piece of skin undertook, openings for a belt cord prodergivaniye at the edges became. Belts dragged on under or over ankles, skin enveloped a leg, and the simplest type of footwear which is not demanding for the production of great efforts turned out.

From a syromyatina also hulch, special type of leather wattled sandals with a sole were made of a wattled belt that in mountains the leg did not slide, with the same purpose often tied triangular iron horseshoes to footwear, as well as a simkhya (bang. dzhan - batsby-Skye footwear from a syromyatina) with indumentum on a sole.

Footwear of this type meets at Ossetians, Karachays, Balkars, it was widespread also among the Georgian mountaineers - hevsur, svan, rachinets, mtiul, mokhevets, tushin, pshav. There are data on its existence in the past in Dagestan for Avars. Probably, simple, easy and convenient for socks in mountains the footwear was a local invention and existed at mountaineers of the Caucasus long since.

Among Vainakhs were widely used machash. This footwear was widespread almost on all North Caucasus and among the next Georgian mountaineers. Similar footwear - machiya and bashmakjlar - meets at Kumyks [8], a machiyler - at Kubachins, machiyal - at Avars [6], etc.

Machash sewed from black and red skin. Top - from goat or veal, and a bottom - from cattle skin.

To a back part of their top cerated thread sewed a skin piece.

Chusta of red color young people, and black - married and elderly women carried.

Were distinguished from women's shoes poshmakhash (an ing. pashmakh, cf. the Turkoman. bashmak, cargo. bashmak, office, lezg., darg. bashmak, Avar. pashmakat) - for the unmarried and brides. It was available not to all. This two types of footwear were delivered by dealers, and over time their began to sew also on the place.

In Chechnya, Kabarda, and sometimes and in Ossetia also leather galoshes met a sole, a low wide heel. Chechens this footwear called an ek of galoshes (rigid galoshes), Ossetians - hkhbkhr kjalos (firm galoshes), and Kabardians - k1elosh. Kumyks had same galoshes - kjata of galoshes (firm). Their shoemakers made, Laks are more often [8].

In mountainous areas of Chechnya in galoshes specially prepared felt laying - utarkhash crept (the singular utarkh, cysts. b1iyekjig).

At the beginning of the 20th century in Chechnya and Ingushetia there are rubber galoshes - laklosh, having the form, almost similar to chusta. But they were available only to the rich. From Chechens they were bought to girls and young guys - grooms. It should be noted that machash Vainakhs sewed form footwear with top from cloth and a velvet. From below the second homespun wool or paper fabric layer - calico became, very original footwear turned out. Front fabric was produced house, and for filing carried to the shoemaker. According to the data recorded among Ingushs, footwear was sewed by men, but some parts were prepared by women. Was the rule at cutting out and sewing of footwear, transfer to its owner to bless it. It is interesting that all people of the North Caucasus have a concept the skin and skin was designated in a word (at Adyghe - fe, the Ossetian - tsarm, the tyursky people - a sloe, Vainakhs - ne1).

With some above-mentioned types of footwear nogovitsa rushed (pezagash) which were very convenient part of a suit of mountaineers of the North Caucasus. They rushed both equestrians, and pedestrians in difficult conditions of a mountainous terrain and forest thickets,

were put on over trousers and densely fitted a leg from an ankle to a knee.

Nogovitsa 3 types - cloth, felt, leather were sewed; reminded a top with one seam which is extending up and narrowed from top to bottom with straps. Carried them with different types of footwear. Cloth nogovitsa rushed men in the summer during field works, a harvest. Felt were used in the winter by shepherds and moving men in way and on pastures for protection against a rain and cold, sometimes put on over leather boots for protection them from wear. The leather nogovitsa called still morocco were output or festive footwear of wealthy people. They were carried with low ceremonial footwear, attaching to it on both sides loops and leather self-made buttons.

Here it should be noted that Vainakhs unlike the people of Dagestan especially did not decorate a nogovitsa with lines or stamping.

Thus, before mass emergence factory Vainakhs were content with the local footwear. There was a certain number of families which were supplied with the footwear made in other places, however local footwear, as well as other elements of clothes in their life there was still long time.


1. G.A. Sergeyev. Knitted footwear of the people of mountain Dagestan//KES. 1984. Issue 8.
2. E.N. Studenetskaya. Clothes of Chechens and Ingushs of X1X-XX of centuries//New and traditional in culture and life of the people of Chechen-Ingushetia. Grozny, 1985. Page 69-90.
3. L.Yu. Margoshvili. Cultural and community ethnic relationship between Georgia and Chechen-Ingushetia. Tbilisi, 1990.
4. Large E.I. Medieval Ingushetia. M, 1971.
5. B.A. Kaloyev. Chechens//People of the Caucasus. M, 1960 T. 1. Page 363; It. Ingushs//In the same place. Page 303.
6. G.A. Sergeyev. Clothes of the people of Dagestan and Chechnya//KES. 1976. Issue 6.
7. The field material collected by the author in Chechnya in 1980
8. Gadzhiyevo S.Sh. Kumyks. M, 1961. Page 236.

Came to edition On May 14, 2009

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