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Symbiosis of protectionism and the liberal customs and tariff measures in the Russian customs policy of the 19th century

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UDC 339.543.4 (470) "19"

E.V. Ereshko ©


Slavic - on - Kuban the state Pedagogical Institute

The analysis of the Russian customs tariffs of H1H of the century and circumstances promoting their acceptance is carried out. Each tariff is estimated as "prohibitive" or "allowing". Protectionist measures from the state concerning the exported and imported goods are characteristic of the first half of H1H of century. The fritredersky moods which found the reflection in tariffs 1850, 1857, 1868 are characteristic of the middle of the century. The end of century is marked by "customs war" between Russia and Germany and also acceptance of a protectionist tariff of 1891 and the law on the double customs tariff.

the imported goods, "customs war".

Regulation of trade relations in any state depending on the developed circumstances (political interests, level of economic development of the country, etc.) proceeds between two extremes: protectionism and fritrederstvo. As the foreign trade relations from the state are regulated, first of all, by means of customs and tariff measures, the main attention in this article will be paid to the analysis of the Russian customs tariffs of H1H of century throughout which in the customs policy of the Russian state there was a variation of interests from protectionism in a fritrederstvo and vice versa.

Before speaking about features of the Russian protectionism of H1H of century, I will stop on definition of this concept, its positive and negative sides for the state. Protectionism (a fr. rgOesyopshBsha, from armor. r1" 1es1; yu — protection, protection) represents "the economic policy of the state directed to support of national economy". It is carried out by means of trade and political barriers which protect domestic market from import of foreign goods, reduce their competitiveness with domestic goods. Moreover, financial encouragement of national economy, stimulation of export of goods is often characteristic of protectionism. It is interesting that V.I. Lenin emphasized communication of protectionism with a certain historical system of public economy, with the interests of the class predominating in this system relying on support of the government: "... the question of protectionism and freedom of trade is a question

© Elena Viktorovna Ereshko is an expert of the first grade in documentary providing the Yeysk customs post of the Krasnodar customs, the graduate student Slavic - on - Kuban of the state Pedagogical Institute

between businessmen (sometimes between businessmen of the different countries, sometimes between various fractions of businessmen of this country)" [1].

As the ideal way of development of Russia considered protectionism N.S. Mordvinov who considered that only through development of the industry it is possible to reach the high level of the national economy, and first of all agricultural production. E.F. Kankrin was the convinced supporter of protectionism in Russia also. He for the first time drafted the provision on drawing up tariffs and considered that price duties have to be provided by such document and as an exception, duties from a measure and weight. "Nobody, without excluding court department, should not use special privileges", - E.F. Kankrin wrote. He considered that when exporting abroad of own products it is necessary to establish small duty, and to pass duty-free is a prejudice. In modern literature note four main directions of protectionism: selective (protection of domestic market against goods of a concrete type or against the concrete state), branch (protection of the industry of production), collective (mutual defense of several countries united in the union), hidden (not customs methods of protectionism) [2].

It is important to note that protectionism, besides certain advantages (protects young industries of the country, promotes replenishment of income of the state, fights against the structural unemployment caused by import of cheaper and effective products ensures national security, creates favorable conditions for emergence and support of internal monopolies in trade, the industry, the financial sphere), involves also a number of shortcomings. In particular, it slows down the economic growth as tariffs do to reduction of the volume of international trade, in general negatively influencing world economy and welfare of the country. Protection of domestic manufacturers can lead to self-isolation of the country, preservation of backward expensive productions. Protectionism nullifies formation and fruits of specialization of the country. At free trade each country has an opportunity to allocate and develop the least expensive and most competitive industries, most fully realizing the various benefits (for example, a geographical location, etc.). Protectionism interferes with it as it is necessary to redistribute resources from more effective productions in favor of less effective to satisfy various requirements of domestic market. Secondly, protectionism quite often leads to customs wars. The country entering unilaterally an import tariff for protection of domestic manufacturers against flow of cheap goods of their competitors risks to be influenced by countermeasures of her trade partners and introduction of duties on its main export goods by them. Thirdly, protectionism does not promote reduction of prices. The import products rise in price because of tariffs. There is the general price increase. Tariffs lead to the fact that consumers buy local products at higher prices as protectionism does not promote decrease in costs, so and cost. And, at last, protectionism favors to national monopolies which are also interested in price increase. Fourthly, protectionism indirectly undermines export of the country. Reducing income of other countries at protection of domestic market against their producers, the state reduces their income and an opportunity to import including its products. Also in many countries export (and not only) goods include imported components, and tariffs lead to growth of costs of production. It leads to increase in prices, falling of competitiveness of national goods.

Protectionism is not absolutely positive measure from public authorities at protection of domestic production. Often at application of strictly protectionist measures the state faces a number of the specified adverse effects which should be eliminated by certain concessions and eases and also acceptance of the liberal tamozheno-tariff measures,

promoting in general improvement of an economic condition of the country. This direction in political activity of the state was got the name by a fritrederstvo (in translation from English "free trade" free trade means).

The movement of supporters of a fritrederstvo arose in Great Britain in the last third of the 18th century and was connected with the begun industrial revolution. Under pressure of fritreder in the 20th of H1H of century in Great Britain the reform of a customs system was undertaken: duties on many goods are cancelled or are considerably reduced, high protectionist duty on import grain was replaced with a sliding scale of duties according to which tax on the grain imported from abroad was raised with falling of the prices of corn which is grown up within the country and went down with their increase. In the 30th of H1H of century the movement of fritreder in Great Britain amplified, and to the middle of H1H completely won against century: together with cancellation of legislative restrictions of import of grain, raw materials and manufactured goods also other protectionist restrictions were liquidated. Only fiscal duties were kept. Trends of a fritrederstvo were shown also in trade policy of such countries as France (1852-1870), Germany, Russia (in the 50-60th of H1H of century) and some other [3].

However in the majority of the capitalist countries in H1H a century the protectionism which especially amplified during an imperialism era still prevailed. What promoted its obvious manifestation in Russia throughout H1H of century? And what circumstances induced the power to soften or toughen the being accepted customs tariffs?

The beginning of H1H of century is marked by gradual increase in the import customs tariff. So, after permission in 1797 of import to Russia of some goods, in 1800 for development of domestic production the ban of import of separate cargoes was confirmed (silk and paper fabrics, glass, porcelain, faience). With arrival to Alexander I's power "series of the decrees, resolutions and practical measures directed to simplification of trade and weakening of the customs bans followed" which allowed to resolve only single small private questions. On the eve of war with France in 1810 by the commission under the leadership of M.M. Speransky for the benefit of merchants-industrialists and noblemen-manufakturistov drafted extremely prohibitive customs tariff. As a result of December 19, 1810 the provision on neutralny trade for 1811 in ports White, Baltic, by Chernago and Azovskago of the seas and on all Western overland border" is approved ". After that industrialists became as groups, and to send one by one to the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the application on preservation of the taken measures for perhaps longer term. Impresses that historic fact according to which Napoleon chose as an occasion of invasion into Russia the measures taken by it, in essence, broken the economic blockade of England established to them. After the victory over Napoleon was gained influence of Russia in the European affairs considerably grew. It induced at Alexander I once again "illusion about a possibility of entering into political life... Europe of the beginnings of the truth, mutual aid, Christian love and brotherhood" [4].

As a result fritredersky trends got distribution that was reflected in acceptance of such measures as: 1816 - cancellation of the bans on import of the European (generally French) goods, 1817 - introduction in Odessa free port zones (it began to function since 1819 when all preparatory work was completed, the economic zone circled with a ditch is allocated. Two customs - Kherson and Tiraspol for the admission through line of the free port of the goods paid with duty were organized. At registration of cargoes the accompanying documents were sealed the Odessa customs. The free port in Odessa existed till April, 1859), 1819 - acceptance of the "most moderate tariff in Russia" which actually withdrew all ban on import of foreign goods and export Russian. But so liberal measures did not promote the competition of the Russian products foreign (English) at all. Except

that, any country accurately did not follow the principle of freedom of trade. All this led to acceptance in 1822 of the guarding tariff which forbade export 21 and import of 300 goods. For two decades the changes (1824, 1825, 1830, 1831, 1836, 1838, 1841) which once again reflected the fiscal and protectionist nature of a tariff [4] were made to it.

So, when holding customs and tariff, mostly protectionist, actions in the first half of H1H of century the state proceeded first of all from fiscal interests - replenishments of treasury, aspiration of achievement of active trade balance and increase in a rate of credit ruble.

Such circumstances as release of peasants from serfdom, development of network of the railroads, cancellation of a subear tax from petty bourgeoises and peasants, creation of territorial institutions, carrying out judicial reform, adoption of the city provision, etc. contributed to the development of foreign trade of Russia in the second half of H1H of century. After E.F. Kankrin's leaving from a post of the Minister of Finance in the country there was a movement for cancellation export and decrease in import duties. In 1844 the adviser V.A. Popov addressed the government with a note "About measures to distribution of foreign trade of Russia" which was given for consideration of select committee. And in February, 1845 the chairman of this committee count Orlov prepared the note comprising criticism of the prohibitive system of import/export of goods constraining as a result domestic production and burdening consumers with the high prices. Work of Select committee was continued for preparation of a new tariff. Manufacturers and manufacturers took part in discussion of questions of customs policy by different direction of petitions in competent authorities also. Often between them the serious tensions emphasizing existence of branch and regional interests in the commerce and industry environment were found. The new tariff was approved on October 13, 1850. He allowed import of 64 of 89 goods forbidden in 1841 thereby "punched the first gap in the prohibitive system of foreign trade which dominated since 1822, laid the foundation for moderately protectionist stage of customs policy proceeding for 1877". In Committee it was with satisfaction noted that any branch of the domestic industry did not suffer from introduction of a tariff of 1850. Therefore in a new tariff it was offered to keep the developed balance of interests: foreign trade and state treasury, industry and consumers. Over the new project work proceeded in fierce debate between supporters of free trade and accurate protectionists. Influence of the second caused care and gradualness of government measures in the field of tamozhennotarifny regulation. Therefore the tariff accepted in 1857 represented no more than a concession in favor of the system of free trade. The tariff actually protected the bulk of the Russian industrialists from foreign competitors. Any attempts of foreigners to convince of advantage of low import duties for goods of mass demand (British) or raw materials and semi-finished products (Germans) were rejected. But at the same time appeals of fritreder to free competition as to a necessary condition of reaching world level in Russia did not remain unaddressed. So, the Moscow manufacturers proved that each people have to go to free rivalry in trade and the industry step by step, finding it not any change of tariffs, and by development of own production and the internal competition [3].

The period from 1857 to 1868 differed in the same liberal reforms in customs policy. Decreases in the import raw customs duties for the benefit of such circles as representatives of railway construction, mechanical engineering, textile industry were the most frequent. So, the Minister of Finance A.M. Knyazhevich tried to obtain for the benefit of domestic engineering industry of duty-free import to the country of cast iron, iron, in 1863 the decision on duty-free import to the country of cotton-raw through the European border was made. In 1861 the ban on import Chinese is withdrawn

tea from Europe, for the benefit of domestic sakharozavodchik import duties for sugar were lowered [3].

In 1865 the next revision of the operating tariff took place, and at the end of June, 1867 Alexander II enjoined the materials collected in the Ministry of Finance after consideration Manufactory and Commercial councils and also the Vladimir manufactory committee and some representatives of commerce and industry interests to give to the tariff commission chosen by them. The new tariff was approved on June 3, 1868. In general he answered the principles of free trade, but had a number of features. So, decrease in import duties affected generally raw and consumer goods for the purpose of promotion of their import, counteraction to smuggling and increase in state revenue. The tariff introduced duties on cars, taxes on wool, linen yarn, a cloth and some other goods were raised. It is possible to say that the tariff of 1868 had character, moderate and protectionist, guarding for the main branches of the domestic industry. Moreover, the tariff was productive and in terms of fiscal interests. In the first fifth anniversary after 1868 the customs income of the state increased more than by 50% in comparison with the previous fifth anniversary, having exceeded in average annual calculation 45 million rubles [5].

With the first signs of crisis of 1873, deterioration in the balance of payments and a condition of finance of the country the government policy began to depart quickly from the liberal doctrine, to some extent it was caused by the termination in the mid-seventies for of H1H of century of inflow of foreign investments, need to pay considerable interest on earlier concluded bond issues. In the 1870th the customs policy came down to increase in tariffs for import goods because the actions directed to protection of interests of the Russian capitals against the competition of the foreign organizations and also replenishment of means in the state treasury [4] were a main objective of these measures.

The last decade H1H of century is marked by acceptance of a protectionist tariff of 1891 according to which on many objects of duty in comparison with a tariff of 1868 from two to ten times increased.

The next moment is not less important. World history knows a lot of so-called "customs wars" about which content it was told above. Relationship of Russia and Germany during 1893-1894 when within half a year these countries concerning each other raised the stakes of the import customs duties three times can be an example. It was caused by failure to provide privileges by Germany for import and transit of the Russian goods. In 1893 the law on the double customs tariff according to which goods from the countries which refused granting preferential terms for import and transit of the Russian goods were assessed with the duties for 15-20% exceeding usual rates was adopted. After several months wearisome and in effect customs war, senseless for both parties (full examination with unloading of goods on border) Russia and Germany came at the beginning of 1894 to the agreement and signed the trade agreement for a period of 10 years according to which the lowered rates for Germany, France and some other countries came into force. Since then the customs policy is characterized by refusal of strictly carried out principle of customs and tariff autonomy.

Summing up of

the result, it is possible to agree with PhD in Law, associate professor I.V. Tymoshenko that at all complexity and discrepancy of a historical way of the Russian customs the experience demonstrates that customs affairs, the customs policy in Russia developed as the most important sphere of economic policy of the state, the instrument of regulation of foreign trade and protection of national interests. Despite certain stages in the history of Russia when it is possible to speak about the fritredersky directions in customs policy, in general the national interests of the Russian state, as well as in H1H of century, and during the modern period, are on the first place. And therefore to claim that the middle of H1H

it can be characterized as blossoming of fritredersky moods in Russia century, in my opinion, it is not absolutely correct. In this regard it is possible to speak only about symbiosis of protectionism and a fritrederstvo in the customs policy of the Russian state throughout HK of century


1. V.I. Lenin. Complete collection soch., 5 prod.
2. V.V. Pilyaeva. History of customs affairs and customs policy of Russia. M, 2007.
3. Yu.G. Kislovsky. History of customs of the state Russian 907-1995. M, 1995.
4. Customs affairs in Russia X - the beginning of the 20th century. (Historical essay. Documents. Matreiala). SPb., 1995.
5. I.V. Tymoshenko. Customs law of Rossi: course of lectures. M, 2006.
6. K. Marx, F. Engels. Protectionism and freedom of trade. Soch., 2 prod. M, 1955.


Slavyansky-na-Kubany state pedagogical institute

The analysis of the Russian custom tariff of the XIX th century and the circumstances promoting their acceptance is carried out. Each tariff is estimated as "prohibitive" or "allowing". For first half of XIX th century protectionist measures from outside the states concerning the exported and imported goods are characteristic. For the middle of the century the liberal moods which have found the reflection in tariffs 1850, 1857, 1868 are characteristic. The End of century is marked by "customs war" between Russia and Germany, and also acceptance of the protectionist tariff of 1891 and the law on double custom duties.

Jespersen Jan
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