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On tracks of history and crossroads of the present



sergy SULYaK

ON TRACKS of HISTORY AND CROSSROADS of the PRESENT

On June 21, 2009 60 years to the deputy chief editor of the Rusin magazine Pyotr Mikhaylovich Shor-nikov were executed. It became known in rough 90th years as the deputy of parliament, the defender of national equality. In the press and Internet publications it is noted that he is a historian, the political figure, the publicist. Friends and colleagues characterize it as deep researcher, conscientious worker, tireless organizer, talented journalist, the sensitive teacher loving the husband, the father and the grandfather, the loyal friend, the witty interlocutor. Political opponents know it as tough and uncompromising polemist, leader unloved them Interfronta. By the right of the colleague I will give the basic facts of his biography.

Pyotr Shornikov in the village of Peresechina of the Orgeevsky district of Moldova in family of teachers was born. The father, the good organizer, threw on service to villages where it was required to debug process of school training, and the family several times moved from one village to another. Pyotr happened to live among Moldavians, Bulgarians, Gagauz, in the multinational Russian-speaking environment. Studied at school at first on Moldavian, then in Russian. Having graduated from department of history of the Chisinau state university, got a referral in a postgraduate study, but from distribution to work did not begin to evade. Taught at high school of the Gagauz village of Kongaz. Edited the Kishinevsky Universitet newspaper, appeared in republican print. To be happy, the hero of the anniversary says, it is impossible to bend

soul in two cases - at choice of profession and the choice of the spouse. He was not mistaken in both cases. In 1977 he married and on a competition was employed in Institute of history AN MSSR. Here, during the most productive period of existence of this scientific institution, Shornikov was created as the scientist. Having overcome administrative obstacles, itself formulated a thesis. Worked with pleasure. Defended the dissertation, in 1986 its monograph "The Industry and Working Class of the Moldavian SSR in days of the Great Patriotic War" was published. It was followed by other publications on the history of Moldova of this period. Three children were born and grew. But times of peaceful "reorganization" came to an end. In the late eighties in the country the system crisis burst.

As the historian and the journalist P.M. Shornikov possessed a due political outlook, and on what part to take in the political struggle which ran high in the country, did not hesitate. But "democracy in a Chisinau way" allowed not only legislative fixing of national discrimination on the language principle, but also beating of objectionable parliamentarians and journalists, arsons of doors of their apartments, defamation on meetings, in the press, in electronic media, dismissal from work of their family. Therefore only the people capable to work in the absence of guarantees of personal security undertook to protect national equality. P.M. Shornikov acted as one of Interdvizheniya's organizers of "Unitate-Edinstvo" designed to defend the official status of Russian in Moldova that is for the right of citizens on it to study, to use at the appeal to public institutions, to obtain information. He developed the main program documents of the Movement accepted at the Constituent congress in July, 1989. In 1990 he was elected the deputy of parliament and the chairman of Republican Council of Edinstvo. Entered into the management of the deputy Union group, and in 1995-1996 - into the structure of Council of compatriots at the Russian State Duma. Edited the Edinstvo newspaper. However neither popularity in society, nor deputy immunity did not protect it from persecutions. By phone and personally, including on the sidelines of parliament, it was threatened with death, beat him in the presence of police twice, forced to leave Institute of history, and the spouse Galina Grigoryevna, the teacher of department of programming, fired from the university.

Nevertheless, P.M. Shornikov continued the human rights work. In August, 1989 when the bill of the language mode which is secretly prepared by the office of the Supreme Council providing Russian exception of the official sphere came to the headquarters of Edinstvo, he published this document and spoke for about -

conducting the Republican political strike in protection of the official status of Russian in Moldova. In March, 1991. "Unity" organized holding a referendum of the USSR in Chisinau and other cities of Moldova. In parliament P.M. Shornikov tried to obtain providing republican nationality to all residents of Moldova, irrespective of the birthplace, demanded preservation of an education system with teaching in Russian, creations of Department of the national relations, abolition of linguistic police - Department of languages, cancellation of certification on knowledge of a state language. In 1990 the figures of Edinstvo elected to parliament helped to prevent bloodshed in the south of Moldova, and in 1992 promoted cessation of hostilities on Dniester.

After elections of 1994 P.M. Shornikov was elected the cochairman of Socialist Unity fraction and the member of Constant bureau of parliament. Seeking to prevent a new wave of ethnic cleansing in public institutions, Shornikov organized collecting documentary materials about mass dismissals of employees and workers, carried out in Moldova under a language pretext in 1990-1993. These data and also data on curtailment of teaching in Russian, it made public in a series of newspaper and scientific articles, and in 1997 - in the book "Attempt at the Status". The next round of national persecutions managed to be broken. Shornikov participated in development of the draft constitution of the Republic of Moldova, the bills "About Nationality", "Concepts of Policy of Education in the Republic of Moldova", "About Education", "About the Rights of Ethnic Minorities", "Concepts of the State National Policy of the Republic of Moldova" and others. Tried to obtain accession of Moldova to frame international acts of human rights, ethnic, linguistic and regional minorities. Results of this work and until now in many respects define the relations between national communities and the state in Moldova. However we are interested first of all scientific activity of the historian.

In 1990 in educational institutions of Moldova the teaching the Moldavian history was replaced with the course "History of Romanians". It was next - after transfer of the Moldavian writing to Latin graphics and legislative recognition of identity of literary Moldavian and Romanian languages - blow to the Moldavian national identity. Teaching this course was aimed at blasting ideological bases of the existing Moldavian statehood. Besides, the course "History of Romanians" was constructed bypassing the perspective connected with old residence in Karpato-Dnestrovsky lands, and then in the Moldavian principality of sklaven, ant, tiverets

catch, Russinians. In essence, it was the attempt to fix in public consciousness propaganda cliches about Russians as "migrants" and "invaders" whose interests do not deserve respect. There was also a threat of elimination of education in Russian. P.M. Shornikov organized development of the concept of the university independent of the Ministry of Education of Moldova. Such university was founded in Tiraspol at the end of 1990 P.M. Shornikov became his vice rector for science and organized research laboratory in which soon there was the Dnestr historical school. But the leader of Edinstvo did not leave "the Chisinau trenches". In 1993 he together with group of the scientists directed by professor S.S. Budnikov began preparation for creation of the Slavic university in the capital of Moldova.

Initially P.M. Shornikov entered a circle of the historians (V.Ya. Grosul, A.M. Lazarev, I.A. Antsupov, V.N. Stati, V.I. Tsaranov, N.V. Babi-lunga and some other) who decided to fight against falsification of history of Moldova. The leader of Edinstvo rendered assistance to the edition of conceptual works of V.Ya. Grosul, professor-philologist I.D. Ciobanu, the academician A.M Lazarev and also the two-volume book by I.E. Levitte devoted to events of 1917-1918. Shornikov published the book "War Price" in which showed that the genocide pursued by Ion Antonesku's regime in Moldova in 1941-1944 was directed not only against Jews and Roma, but also against other national communities, starting with Moldavians. The most part of demographic losses of Moldova fell to their share in days of the Great Patriotic War. In 1994 P.M. Shornikov initiated writing of the collective work "The History of the Republic of Moldova since the Most Ancient Times Up to Now". Peru Pyotr Mikhaylovich possesses three of 17 chapters of the book, including two last, devoted to the present. In 1997 the synthesis of the Moldavian history, the first after declaration of independence of RM, was published in the Moldavian and Russian languages under edition of the corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of Moldova V.I. Tsaranov. The book became in Moldova the textbook of national history, forbidden, but popular with teachers and teachers.

For lack of scientific arguments P.M. Shornikov's opponents used other arguments. In 1998, upon completion of the second deputy mandate, to it it was refused reemployment at the academic Institute of history. But demand for experts was available, and it became the vice rector of private educational institution of distance learning - the Moldavian office of Modern humanities university with accreditation in Moscow and Oxford. Resumed work and in

Dnestr university. In 2001 returned to public service - headed Information Department and monitoring in Department of the interethnic relations. Results of monitoring confirmed the loyal attitude of most of the population towards the idea of giving to Russian of the official status, and the relevant information went to parliament and the government. In 2002 P.M. Shornikov developed the "Concepts of the State National Policy of the Republic of Moldova" project. In October, 2003 the project revised with the assistance of the department head T.P. Mlechko and deputies M.I. Sidorov, V.N. Stati and I.F. Grek was adopted by parliament. The pro-Romanian national radical answered it with a campaign of attacks in the press, and their supporters in the government achieved abolition of Information Department and monitoring; P.M. Shornikov was forced to leave Department.

He taught at the Dnestr university. As the historian it especially was interested in a perspective of the Moldavian ethnocultural identity, the history of the state idea of Moldavians. It was impossible to recognize as correct that even the Moldavian historians traditionalists hostile to rumynist treated the history of Moldova rather as history only of Moldavians. Existence in the principality of the Carpatho-Russian population, considerable on number, and at Russian - the official status had to influence ethnocultural processes among Moldavians, was subject to new judgment. Its work "Moldavian Originality" published in 2007 in Tiraspol became a powerful contribution to rehabilitation of the Moldavian history and filled up the argument istori-kov-moldavistov. The history of Moldova, it is shown in the book, cannot be full and reliable without that circumstance that a considerable part of its population was always made by the Russian people. In passing P.M. Shornikov subjected to critical analysis more than 40 monographs, textbooks and the generalizing works written from rumynizm positions. The publication of reviews in which contradictions, the jugglings and defaults allowed by authors were opened complicated distribution in Moldova of rumynizm mythology. The result was summed up of the dismantling of the historical concept of a rumynizm which is carried out by it in 2009 in the book "Fields of falling: historiography of the Moldavian ethnopolicy".

In the 90th years P.M. Shornikov discussed an issue of development of history of the Russian population of Moldova with colleagues. It transferred documentation of Edinstvo and materials of the home archive in which public fight for preservation of the education system functioning in Russian was reflected to the academic Institute of ethnic minorities. The manager of the sector of history and a sack -

tours of the Russian population of Moldova of T.P. Mlechko he convinced to prepare the monograph devoted to this subject. The researcher started working, and in 1999 the book "To be or not to be? Russian in an education system of the Republic of Moldova", opening the bright page of history of the Russian population of Moldova and the interethnic relations in the republic, was issued. Having found paper ton, Shornikov rendered assistance also to its edition. In 2001 he initiated writing of the collective monograph "... Also Slavs Dispersed on the Ground" in which mainly Slavic structure of the population of the Karpato-Dnestrovsky region during the domoldavsky period, since 6th century was revealed. In 2002 the book edited by Pyotr Mikhaylovich was published on sponsor's means. But special publications about the fate of the Carpatho-Russian population of the Moldavian principality in a scientific turn were absent, and attempt to eliminate another "a white spot" of the history of Moldova, having organized writing of collective work, it was not successful.

Studying this subject went some other way. Shornikov was often published on pages of the Kishinevsky Obozrevatel newspaper edited by me, I participated in election campaigns, and in parliamentary elections of 1998 stood according to Blok's list of Socialist party and the Movement "Edinstvo", and we were well familiar. Having learned about the search of archival documents on my pre-kakh-Russinians who arrived in Bessarabia from the Austrian Bukovina in the middle of the 19th century undertaken by me he convinced me not to be limited to the biography of my grandfathers and great-grandfathers, and to create something bigger - history of all Russinians of Moldova. Work was fascinating, we discussed the facts collected by me and their treatment with Pyotr Mikhaylovich, often argued. His critic and advice helped to write the book quickly and at the due scientific level. P.M. Shornikov acted as her scientific editor. In 2004 the monograph "Splinters of Sacred Russia. Essays of ethnic history of rusnak of Moldova" was issued.

According to Shornikov's proposal, the monographs devoted to history of Russian (members of the party Great Russia) of Bessarabia in the 19th century and during the Romanian occupation of 1918-1940 were written by his former colleagues from Institute of history A.Yu. Skvortsova and N.V. Abakumova. The propaganda thesis about the Russian citizens of Moldova as "migrants" was evidential disproved. In the same years P.M. Shornikov participated in writing of the collective works "Milestones of the Moldavian Statehood", "Phenomenon of Transnistria", "History of the Dnestr Moldavian Republic", "History and Culture of Gagauz" and others, popularized the works devoted to history of Moldavians, Gagauz, Bulgarians.

Participation in political struggle allowed P.M. Shornikov to perfect skills of the organizer. At a boundary of the 90th years he participated in for-

mirovaniya of the ethnocultural organizations - Fund of Slavic writing and Slavic cultures and the Russian cultural center. In 1993 it headed the Russian community of the Russian compatriots. Though national radical from the Ministry of Justice refused registration to the community headed by "Interfront's chief", RORS successfully worked till 1996. Since 1998 Pyotr Mikhaylovich is included into the management of payment processing center and participates in release of its body - the Russky Albom magazine.

Issue of "Splinters of Sacred Russia" and the publication of a number of scientific and newspaper articles by us about Russinians of Moldova showed that the memory of the Carpatho-Russian origin, let at the family level, tens of thousands of citizens of Moldova - Ukrainians, Russians, Moldavians store. The book presentation on June 9, 2004, became the first forum of Russinians of Moldova. The idea to found the ethnocultural organization of Russinians was in the air. Registration of Republican public organization "Russia" did not meet obstacles. Several months later we started issue of the international historical magazine "Rusin". Pyotr Mikhaylovich was a part of an editorial board of the magazine, having become the deputy chief editor.

Pyotr Shornikov met the 60 anniversary by the public figure, the successful researcher and the publicist, the associate professor of the university. As shows experience of the famous historians, it enters the most productive age for the scientist right now therefore to sum up the results of its activity early. Let's wish to our companion good health, cheerfulness and new progress in its works.

Website "Russinians of Moldova" of http://www.rusyn.md

On the website the book "Splinters of Sacred Russia are posted. Essays of ethnic history of rusnak of Moldova" (pdf), all issues of the magazine "Rusin" and also monographs and articles on history and the culture of Russinians of Moldova.

Ferdinand Mark
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