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Women's jewelry of prebaikal drills



v. A. Bakayeva

WOMEN'S JEWELRY of PREBAIKAL DRILLS

The author investigates decoration of western drill, occurring in the territory Predbayka-lya in XIX — the beginning of the 20th century.

V. Banaeva

FEMALE ORNAMENTS OF THE PREDBAIKAL BURYATS

The ornaments of Western Buryats residing in the Predbaikal territory in the XIX th — the beginning of the XX th century are described.

An obligatory element of traditional clothes of any people is jewelry. There are territorial, ethnic differences in jewelry and also distinctions on gender and age.

In this article we considered women's jewelry of prebaikal drills. Materials which were used by this group the Buryat in production of jewelry is a silver, gold, copper, corals, coins.

For writing of article collections of the Museum of history of Buryatia, Irkutsk Regional Museum of Local Lore, the Ust-Orda national museum and materials of methodical fund of the Ust-Orda national center of art national crafts were used.

In society often not the esthetic, but material value of jewelry is on the first place. The woman covered with jewelry is kind of a symbol of material welfare and solvency of her family. The complete set of jewelry is presented in festive and wedding dresses.

Jewelry prebaikal the Buryat is classified on head, temporal and breast, naspinny, jewelry for hands and nashivny jewelry.

Head jewelry

Speaking about jewelry, it is impossible to ignore traditional hairstyles. The hairstyle was always sign to belonging of the person to a certain age period.

Girls carried one braid on the top, a part of hair on a nape was shaved off. At achievement of a maturity in 14-15 years the breed of a dress and a hairstyle changed.

In 13-15 years the braid on the top remained, other hair were grown and braided two braids on temples (a shankha, Iabiga). On a nape from the remained hair braided 1-3 braids (gezege). Such hairstyle meant transition of the girl to the following age step and was the first sign distinguishing it from boys. In 14-16 years on gezege put on decoration of a saazh, and on a darkness strengthened a metal plate of a heart-shaped form — yubun.

Head ornament from silver or the silvered plate of the paliform, arrow-shaped extended form was called yubun (fig. 1). His adults carried

marriageable girls at the age of 15-16 years. After a marriage the young woman could carry yubun till the birth of the first child. Yubun were attached to braids on temples (kanshag, a shankha) and on the top (saazh). Met at Buryat Predbaykalya, in particular in Kudinsky steppes, and to the Barguzin region it was brought by verkholensky Buryats in HUP-HUSh of centuries [12, page 249; 2, page 68; 1, page 72; 14, page 59; 5, page 117; 3, page 50; 13, page 59-60; 10, page 450; 9, page 183; 8, page 30].

Fig. 1. Arrow-shaped plates from silver. Yubun

Temporal and breast jewelry

Temporal and breast jewelry is compositionally a difficult complex varied in form and to the sizes of the pendants which are consistently fastened among themselves. Each pendant had the art and decorative decision.

Temporal and breast jewelry consisted of pendants which are attached to temporal braids or to headdresses and hangs down on a breast, covering a face, a neck on both sides (rice 2).

Metal tubules of two types belonged to nakosny jewelry of married women. The first look was passed throughout a reinforced part of the spit at the level of the person, in a form reminded the keg which is narrowed to edges (boolto — verkholensky Buryats) [16, to page 74; 2, page 68; 13, page 56]. The second look — thin smooth cylinders which were passed in the ends of braids (hobool — verkholensky Buryats) [16, page 74; 2, page 68; 13, page 56].

* Figures 1-10 provided in article are made by the author.

Fig. 2. Breast and temporal ornament

The ends of braids connected among themselves a chain of coins (teleedken — the verkho-Lensk Buryats) [2, page 68], sometimes instead of coins used the overwound wire.

Carry to temporal jewelry plank beds-hintsag of ceremonial value, remaining at verkholensky drill at the end of the 19th century. It consisted of three strips of fabric (skin) which were attached to a headdress (or to hair): two — on both sides of the person, closing whisky, and one behind along a back. In width these strips were about 10 cm, in length went down below a belt, slightly extending from top to bottom. On them sewed the squared oblong metal (silver) plates about 3 x 6 cm decorated with nothing, sewed in three ranks [9, page 182]. According to B.E. Petri, in old times this ornament was almost in each house and represented two wide belts decorated with oblong quadrangular plates with a pattern in the form of a notch silver up to gland. By the lower ends of belts hung up metal plates — pendants. These belts put on the bride's head so that they went down on both sides of a face [12, page 221].

According to references, this attire was put on by the bride at execution of a ceremony of worship of patrimonial ongona and fire, allegedly acquiring these the right for the center and kind of asking protection from the chief of family of the husband. An ornament on plates — rogoob-different (eber), on the ends of wreaths — a combination of a circle, a cross and an arrow [2, page 68].

The following type of temporal jewelry is presented long (50 cm) by the pendant of a kabig made of a bunch of small coral beads. The pendant was fixed to the bases of temporal braids of girls or to a headdress, came to an end with small coins [6, page 32]

A peculiar temporal and breast decoration of a tuyb (verkholensky Buryats) consisted from "pestilence" (a gold coin in a frame) and the small beads of a coral attached to them [2, page 68]. There were types of this ornament — kiikhe — a pestilence (ekhiritsky Buryats) which basis was also formed a round plate with a carved ornament or the thin silver ringlets of different diameter connected among themselves in two-three places. From them there were freely going down coral snizk intercepted by one or two leather crossing points.

To breast jewelry are carried by ho-olobsh; it is known that in the past it was only wedding ceremonial ornament which was brought to the bride during the courtship. The most ancient is ho-olobsh from the metal silvered plates in two ranks fixed on cloth and leather (fig. 3) [2, page 68]. Hoolobsha was made of tawing skin. The belt by width in three fingers was cut out from skin, and the belt was narrowed up. The belt became covered with red or black cotton velvet or did not become covered by anything. On cloth, cotton velvet or on skin sew the iron necklace covered with silver with different patterns. The necklace which is in the middle becomes more than the others. It has usually heart-shaped form, is ornated by patterns [6, page 31].

Fig. 3. Breast decoration of the bride.

Hoolobsho. Buryats of ekhiritsky childbirth (upper course of the Lena River). To Predbaykalya.

Game. XVIII \head of the 19th century IIB. Inventory OF2881

The following type of a hoolobsha consists of five metal plates which are gradually made heavier from top to bottom where there is largest of them having an appearance of an eight-pointed cross (fig. 4). The central circle is bordered with teeth, between four large four smaller are visible; that and others are located a cross crosswise, fitting into a square with slightly curved parties. Here steadily repeating motive of the combined figures which symbolize a solar disk and eight directions — four main and four intermediate [12, page 221, 248 meets; 13, page 61].

Hoolobsh in the form of a gold or silver coin on a ribbon or a chain [17, page 46 meet; 7, page 7] or made of several rows of beads with crossing points from cloth and coins (fig. 5) [2, page 68]. The silver necklace was replaced in the fifties last century with a golden necklace, gold coins were passed in a vein thread mixed up with corals (marzhan). The golden necklace was worn girls in one, two and three rows — depending on a condition of parents [6, page 31; 17, page 66].

Fig. 4. Breast decoration of married women. Hoolobsho. Riverhead of Lena

Fig. 5. Breast

decoration of married women. Hoolobsho

There was one more type of a hoolobsha — women's ornament in the form of a strip from rigid fabric or a lace more than 1 m long and 10 cm wide. It was put on a neck, and the ends lowered on a breast. Gold coins or snizk of a coral beads were sewed symmetrically [11, page 160].

Thus, it is possible to allocate five types of breast jewelry (hoolobsha) at prebaikal drill: 1) consisting of a coin on a ribbon; 2) made of several rows of beads with crossing points from cloth and coins; 3) from the metal silvered plates in two ranks fixed on cloth and leather; 4) consisting of five metal plates which are gradually made heavier from top to bottom where the central metal plate has an appearance of an eight-pointed cross and 5) in the form of a strip from fabric (tape) which was thrown through a neck and the ends lowered on a breast, with symmetrically sewed gold coins or snizka-m of a coral beads.

Naspinny jewelry

Naspinny jewelry is subdivided into two types — naspinny and naspinnno-nakosny.

Jewelry (soot, gezege, Marjane, narkhinsak) which carried belongs to naspinno-nakosny, having attached to the braid lowered on a back (fig. 6 - 8).

Fig. 6. Ornament women's on the spit. Narkhinsak.

The second half

19th century. Irkutsk

area, Kachugsky district.

Ir. 186-70 MK528

Fig. 7. Women's wedding ornament. Narkhinsak. The second half of the 19th century. The area of existing and the collector are unknown. Date of receipt — 1916

Fig. 8. Women's wedding ornament. Narkhinsak. The second half of the 19th century Irkutsk region, Ka-chugsky area. Ir. A-374-1 MK541

Gezege (russk.: a braid, a nape), a saazha represented a strip from tawing skin of 90-100 cm. From above sewed red cloth, on cloth — plates and coins from iron. Maidens carried one, and brides and married women — on two. Gezege it was attached to yubun [6, page 33].

At Olkhon drill the ornament replacing the Buryat braid, with brushes of black silk, covered in two ranks with silver coins, was called Marjane [4, page 292].

Jewelry belongs to naspinny (a saazha, zayash) which put on behind a back, from above tied to a necklace (hoolobsha), and from below — connected by thongs with a dress (rice 9, 10).

Fig. 9. Naspinny decoration of the bride. Saazha. Buryats of ekhiritsky childbirth

(upper course of the Lena River). Acquired in 1935-1936

S.P. Baldayev in the Ulus of Tumontoy of Kachugsky district of the Irkutsk region. IIB. Inventory OF 7265

Fig. 10. Women's wedding ornament. Narkhinsak. The middle of the 19th century Date of receipt — 1916. IRoM

Saazha (zayash: dialect.) was made of tawing skin, from above sometimes became covered with red cloth. The Saazha has the squared shape which is narrowed from top to bottom, or rounded off in the lower part. On skin or on cloth plates and coins from iron covered from above with silver, sometimes with patterns and an ornament were sewn [6, page 32].

After a saazh replaced with a scarf, tied up it during the wedding ritual to the bride from above of a dress or sleeveless jackets. It is characteristic of verkholensky drill. Was manufactured a saazha also in tribes of ekhirit and partially bulagat [6, page 33].

of Ornament for hands

Are most widespread at drill wrist jewelry — rings, rings, bracelets. In ring old times the Buryat were not divided into men's and women's. Cast mainly from silver, they were some kind of universal, suitable for persons of any age and of both sexes. Less often rings were made of gold. However gilding of silver rings widely practiced [16, page 74].

A buldara and rings bekelig women usually carried rings on index and ring fingers, the whole four ringlets. Earrings, bracelets, rings of the woman carried daily, performing any work — at preparation of food, sewing, etc.

Bracelets ugaabar, bugaag — the most widespread type of ornament — carried women and men on both hands. Bracelets were smooth and integral, round and flat section, with the lock and without it [16, page 76; 13, page 65].

In the Western Buryatia the lock at the same time is a decorative element of a bracelet. It becomes on bracelets of round and semicircular section in the form of two spherical heads crowning the ends of a bracelet. In a closed position of a head come the friend for the friend and are densely latched. The bracelet with such lock rushes on a hand wrist heads up [16, page 77].

Unlike women's maiden rings and bracelets were already more thinly.

Nashivny jewelry

Decoration of a sleeveless jacket. The most ethno-differentiating element of a women's suit is the sleeveless jacket which details have pronounced symbolical value.

There were two main types of sleeveless jackets: 1) short and the options modelled on its basis with an attached skirt and 2) not detachable tselnokroyenny flared [9, page 188].

Deglee (degelee, degeley a dabkhasa) are local names of the long-skirted sleeveless jacket extended at verkholensky and ekhiritsky drill in Predbaykalya (in Ka-chugsky, Olkhon, Ekhirit-Bulagatsky districts) and also in Transbaikalia at Barguzin drill. Treats the first type of sleeveless jackets [9, page 188].

Junctions of top and a bottom of sleeveless jackets, an armhole, a back, a collar cut, a cut on a breast were bordered with cloth strips with metal cast plates from tin, brass and the sewed coins in a salary. The local community called rectangles from brass the Polish silver, and they were sewed on sleeveless jackets of poorer part of the population [15, page 121]. The waistline was allocated with metal pendants — it, consisting of metal rectangular figured plates to which, in turn, round or figured plates were suspended, they were fixed on a leather basis.

As ornament degelee also served strips of cloth or a velvet with the nacreous buttons sewed on them — erzin tobsho which decorated a bodice and a hem of the elegant sleeveless jackets sewed from fabric.

The following type of registration degelee consisted of leather strips with metal stripes which were located not only on a belt, but also on boards and a coat hanger. Fixed plates of an arrow-shaped form in a breast part of a sleeveless jacket. On sleeveless jacket boards — horizontally located plates. From the right top board — a square plate. At the left on a belt rectangular plates with an arrow-shaped figure are fixed.

Thus, it is possible to allocate the following types of ornament degeley: the top parts of a sleeveless jacket issued by metal plates or with a combination of silver coins, nacreous buttons to metal plates

Hubays is not detachable tselnokroyenny sleeveless jacket of the second type with narrow

armholes, in front with a section, from top to bottom flared [9, page 190]. Features of flared sleeveless jackets of a hubaysa were levels with the sewed coins — a hadalga or with round nacreous buttons erzhen, erzin along the line of a board, characteristic it is more for festive costume complexes. At bokhansky drill this ornament was called simply tukeron — "kruglyashka" [9, page 190]. Coins were sewed from the line of a mouth (and sometimes directly and from a humeral seam) approximately to a waistline. In certain cases from one to three coins sewed below — in the corner formed by the line of a board and a hem [9, page 190].

Alarsky Buryats on hubays sewed a level a little below than a humeral seam, on a hem and decorated with small coins. Sometimes the front level to a waistline was decorated in one row with large coins, and below — in two ranks small.

Coins recovered in gold or silver; they could alternate with a coral beads. Were sewn at the distance equal to diameter of the coin, and is more often — end-to-end to each other. For fixing of coins on a product in them did holes or sewed the whole coins cross-wise, fixing by threads [9, page 190].

Decoration of costume complexes coins in the area of a board was one of the most ethnodifferentiating lines of a women's suit as it was characteristic only of a suit Buryat Predbaykalya

[1, page 32].

Thus, in decoration of the sleeveless jackets characteristic of ekhiritsky and bulagatsky drill the general, there were stripes from coins, nacreous buttons. The difference was that at bulagatsky the Buryat there are inserts from a coral, there are no stripes of metal cast plates from tin and also a belt — it.

Decoration of a headdress. Verkholen-sky Buryats for ornament on a cap sewed in one row a white beads and coins, and

also as jewelry served round buttons, metal plates [2, page 67; 13, page 48].

The Biizga malgay — the women's cap reminding a skullcap. Its crown was cut from a direct narrow piece of fabric 68 cm wide. However though the cap top in the plan was round, it was cut from a rectangular piece of fabric which was collected on one long edge in soft folds (eight folds around or four inverted pleats [9, page 199]), thereby forming the center of a cap.

On a women's cap of a biizg malgay, the skullcap reminding in a form, from above on the center sewed a silver coin (fifty) (balagansky Buryats), a beautiful button or the round piece of cardboard fitted by elegant fabric. Sometimes under a coin sewed brushes (sasek). At elegant caps the crown was sheathed silk, a braid ("that surely shone") [9, page 199], decorated with fabric or paper flowers, sometimes with the embroidered vegetable ornament [13, page 49]. This type of a cap could act as an elegant wedding headdress, then instead of a braid sewed flowers, leaves from a velvet, silks, brocade, the painted feathers. The top was cut from cloth, a velvet or silk.

The Biizga malgay met generally in Bokhansky and Osinsky districts of the Irkutsk region [9, page 199].

Thus, the important place in traditional culture the Buryat was allocated for jewelry. Besides basic purpose — "to paint", decorate, they bore big symbolical loading.

Jewelry, especially from silver and gold, was perceived as the evils and diseases comprising "the vital force", averting. Wearing the jewelry playing a role of a charm, performing magic function was considered necessary both for women, and for men. Owing to

it even the poorest families, despite big material difficulties, tried to get jewelry — generally silver — and only as a last resort — from copper and brass.

A full range of jewelry was used at all people mainly in

a festive suit or in especially solemn occasions, is frequent — in a wedding ceremony where they had to emphasize exclusiveness of an event, give to shape of the people participating in a ceremony the corresponding emotional expressiveness.

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