The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

The Pavlovsk and Gatchina schools of gardening for pets of educational houses and the fate of their pupils (1816-1861)


T.G. Frumenkova,

associate professor of the Russian history


The empress Maria Fiodorovna patronizing educational houses from 1797 to 1828 cared for professional! education of pets. In 1816 she decided to open school on purpose "to avert a lack of erudite gardeners, and equally to deliver to pets an opportunity to become useful to society and to open for them a way to a sniskaniye itself livelihood" 1. Tutorial councils received the instruction to choose in Moscow and St. Petersburg 5 pupils making progress in learning Latin, German and geography, to supply them with all necessary "for initial acquisition" and to send to Pavlovsk. The set of the school transferred under the beginning city boards, made

12 pupils. 4,500 rub were annually allocated for their maintenance. The project of the garden master I.A. Weinmann was the basis for training. Within 4 years of pupils it was necessary to train at German during the winter period of geometry, literature, history, theoretical botany, terminology, knowledge on how to part trees and flowers, and in warm time — to practical skills on cultivation of plants and care for fruit trees.

The organization of school dragged on. The first list "appointed to training" included 11 pupils (10 from St. Petersburg and 1 from Moscow) and 2 of "the guest of Her Majesty". In the list of the Pavlovsk pupils in September, 1817 13 young men aged from 15 up to 22 years (18-19-year-old prevailed) appeared, and only 3 of them were among candidates. Guests, unlike pets, are orphans of the famous parents who were held in the house at the expense of the empress. One them carried them German them — K. Pfeyfer, and another — Innokenti Mungalsky — was from Kyakhta and probably belonged to one of indigenous people of Siberia: was "to growth small, it is swarty", had "hair black, eyes brown" 3. 5 pupils delivered from Moscow, but one of them soon got sick and died.

Data on how training was conducted, are not revealed yet. It is known only that tutorial council regularly transferred money for the maintenance of school. New pupils received wide trousers and a jacket of gray cloth with copper buttons, a dress coat and drawers of green cloth, a pique vest, a frieze overcoat, a cloth peak-cap, shirts, scarfs, kerchiefs, on 3 pairs of stockings, boots and boots. Each of them was provided with a bed, a chest, a comb and shchetkoy4.

In 1819 Maria Fiodorovna who was constantly reforming the educational and educational institutions made changes and to training in gardening. In its decree it was said that in other country residence — Gatchina — "there are more ways to practical exercise of pets in the maintenance of fruit trees and plants". The empress wanted to expand school, to cut down costs, and, probably, realized that four years — too long term for training of gardeners. The school was transferred to Gatchina. The course became two-year-old then release -

nicknames took examination. "Capable to the highest botany" it was necessary to send to the Pavlovsk botanical school. The staff of the Gatchina school of practical gardening remained the same — 12 people, on their contents 1600 rub a year were released. Successfully ended it, as well as the Pavlovsk pupils, could receive monetary rewarding from percent from the capital, "for this purpose defined". In the end of the year Maria Fiodorovna needed to deliver the information about pupils, worthy rewardings which were necessary on the state and partially was given from her personal treasury. One part of prize money was planned to be given cash, and to bring another in safe treasury. The garden master of a foreign origin — Gerard or Gerhard began to work with pupils in Gatchina. In Pavlovsk it was necessary to train 4 pupils, on them 2,000 rub in god5 were released.

In the Pavlovsk botanical school trained "in the initial basis of gardening, the history of gardening, botany history, theoretical botany, with all belonging objects, to practical botany, the theory of garden growths, practical gardening" 6.

Problems arose at once. At a boundary of 1817-1818 on places chetrekh incapable other pets of the St. Petersburg house were accepted. At the beginning of 1819 by order of the empress Fedor Andreyev and Pyotr Ivanov "for thin behavior" were "under a penalty at the St. Petersburg educational house in manual labor", but later were returned to Pavlovsk. One more pupil incapable "to studying botany" and differing in "bad behavior", not only was punished by definition "in manual labor", but also excluded from uchilishcha7.

At last, in 1821 from Pavlovsk in a journeyman "at imperial gardens" Ilya Nikitin, Fedor Andreyev and Andrey Nikolaev were let out, and the first two studied 5 years. The master Weinmann testified that they "in botany and gardening and other sciences are awarded in the knowledge expert". In November, 1822 the tutorial council transferred 300 rub which were supposed to be given to the former pupils subsequently in favor of the first graduates. So far, in December, 1822, they were given 25 rub which relied all graduates of educational houses for an addition in estate. Receipts of young people are written by good, confident handwritings. In the spring of 1824 the gorodovy board demanded delivery of 300 rub with percent to A. Nikolaev — he was going to marry. In two years A. Nikolaev serving as a journeyman in the Pavlovsk greenhouse left "for receipt by the gardener by to Kusov", having received the remained capital — 200 more rub with percent. It was probably the first case of hiring of the young gardener in a landowner garden. His companion F. Andreyev left "dependence of Pavlovsk" in 1825, and in November, 1826 addressed for the capital. He lived in St. Petersburg "in the Foundry part in the second Spassky Lane in the house of the tradeswoman Safonova No. 508" and hardly worked as the gardener. I. Nikitin served "at Tsarskoye Selo greenhouses", addressed for rewarding in January, 1827, but did not manage to receive it. In February of the same year in 31 years he died of a tuberculosis. Its modest property — clothes, footwear, a bed, a stool, a chest, three Russians and one French books — sold "from bidding" as it usually became in case of death of lonely pets. The obtained 50 rub 25 kopeks were transferred to council. One more pupil of the first set — I. Mungalsky — "ended a doctrine course" only in 1825 and returned in Kyakhtu8.

In June, 1821 the problem of accommodation of "cool pupils" of the St. Petersburg house was solved. Three graduates of Latin classes approved "on abilities and behavior" — Maxim Mikhaylov, Larion Nazarov and Ostap Ionin — showed willingness "to devote themselves to studying garden art". The empress, meaning that in Pavlovsk "three vacancies open", allowed "to place this time pets directly in this botanical school, without passing through Gatchina

office of practical gardening". In December, 1821 to Pavlovsk sent still two pupils the 3rd Latin a class

The St. Petersburg house — Pyotr Petrov and Ivan Vasilyeva9. The last in the summer 1826 ended a course of the doctrine and was determined "by department of Pavlovsk by a garden journeyman". Admitted to the Pavlovsk school slightly earlier and also ended it in 1825

M. Mikhaylov at the end of 1826 was sent to "the botanical garden at the Moscow university consisting". Both young gardeners, as well as all subsequent graduates, received 150 rub with protsentami10.

In February, 1827 in the Pavlovsk botanical school, probably, from Gatchina, Alexander Mikhaylov, Andrey Arkhipov, Mikhail Fedorov and Ivan were sent to Aleksandrov11. In the same 1827. The Pavlovsk school was uprazdneno12. So, except the Gatchina graduates, admitted to the Pavlovsk botanical school those, who ended or finished

Latin classes of educational houses. His graduates became garden journeymen.

The curriculum of the Gatchina school was considerably already. Besides general education objects which Latin and German languages usually were among the pupils studied "practical gardening" 13. In the 1820th usually sent the young people for various reasons excluded from classes of the St. Petersburg and Gatchina educational houses to school (the ended classes had the right to go to the university or medico-surgical academy). Occasionally added Muscovites to them. In 1833 transferred 7 pupils of pisarsky school in school at Gatchina dome14.

Idlers and violators of discipline were punished, as well as other pupils of houses. In May, 1821 Efim Afanasyev and Mikhayla Osipov who "at mediocre behavior" had "no hunting to studying gardening and besides" "were lazy and disobedient", two More pupils — Saveli Sidorov used "in manual labor before correction" and Gavril Gordeev — "were lazy, noticed in bad acts and even in alcoholism".

The honourable trustee A.I. NeLidov suggested to send them "in military service", i.e., to hand over in soldiers.

In reply Maria Fiodorovna reminded that the pupils appointed in manual labor lost rewarding in 150 rub from the educational house, but the amount transferred on their name from its personal treasury remained in circulation "with the fact that if within a year improve, they still can use it, otherwise at all will lose". The empress softened a sentence concerning two chief violators. She paid attention that they did not commit crimes (in soldiers usually sent the adult pets of the house who committed serious offenses). They were told to be sent "to manual labor", and then to treat them by the general rules. They lost monetary rewardings, but in case of correction could use "care about them the educational house" 15. In a year guilty "of behavior improved". They were suited "in number of office attendants" on the St. Petersburg post office. The empress disposed to dress them at the expense of the House, to contribute addressed to each of them 150 rub in safe treasury. In September, 1828 Grigoryev submitted the required documents and received the kapi-tal16.

The Gatchina graduates, as well as Pavlovsk, determined by garden journeymen in imperial and state gardens. Five graduates of 1821 were sent to service to the cities far from both capitals. For their employment the secretary of state empresses

G.I. Villamov addressed Minister of Internal Affairs V.P. Kochubey. The minister with -

sheathed that in its department there are two schools of gardening — Poltava and Penza in which pupils of provincial educational houses of Orders of public contempt studied. The minister considered that "skilled and capable journeymen can be benefited there". They needed a salary on 150 rub a year with the apartment, a table, clothes and footwear. The salary could increase "on ability and diligence". Having served a certain term, journeymen could leave and acquired the right to register to "the sadovnichesky shop", to join private and state service or to get own gardens. Caused a stir in bad behavior it was allowed uvolnyat17.

Three graduates — Yaks Grigoryev, Danila Semyonov and Ivan Petrov — went to Poltava, and two — Semyon Samsonov and Gavril Grigoryev — to Penza. In two years the Little Russian military governor informed tutorial council that in the Poltava school of a journeyman from pets indulge "in alcoholism, a svoyevolstvo and other thin acts, corrupting also juvenile pupils". He asked permission tutorial for suggestions to return them in soldiers. "We have truly no right to send them in the Defense Ministry because they are excluded from lists of educational houses" — honourable trustees answered, having added that council asked to inform him if any of pupils leaves the place of the 6-year term which is earlier appointed by it, only for control over how graduates carry out the duties. The ministry had the right to treat violators at discretion. To find out the future of the Poltava gardeners from pets of the house not Uda yet -


Unlike them, the gardeners sent to Penza worked honestly, but on the new place did not take root and sought back to the capital. At the beginning of 1824 S. Samsonov submitted the application on dismissal. He reported that his mother who left behind "juvenile children, his brothers and sisters" however of any data on S. Samsonov's mother neither in St. Petersburg died, nor in Gatchina it was revealed not. The former pet could prisochinit to return to St. Petersburg. In June, 1825 both gardeners again "found desire to leave school", but to them ordered to serve not less than 6 years. Let's remind that concerning the first graduates of school serving near St. Petersburg, this rule was followed not so scrupulously. By the way, the Penza governor reported that both young men "in the art render sufficient progress, especially Samsonov, with the best abilities, having improved itself in knowledge, could be the good and useful gardener over time" 19.

In a year, in June, 1826, G. Grigoriev submitted the new application on dismissal because of "weak addition". The governor asked to iskhodataystvovat permission to his dismissal at Maria Fiodorovna. The empress agreed. In the certificate issued to G. Grigoriev it was reported that it served a garden journeyman of 5 years and 7 months and "over jealous constant execution of the

a duty and good behavior, he still facilitated to education ucheni-


k" 20.

Four graduates of 1823 were sent to Pavlovsk. One of them — S. Savvatiyev — served 2 years "at a greenhouse of the city of Pavlovsk", and in 1825 with the permission of the empress was fired "for receipt in civil service" to the St. Petersburg merchant Ivan Michurin. In 1826 he was detained in Narva "with a horse and droshky on doubt to sale". As Savvatiyev's case in 1826 was solved, it is unknown, but 3 years later he decided to take the vows in Trinity-Sergius lavre21. Thus, the empress maintained 6-year term not always and easily allowed transition to service to individuals.

Graduates were directed to individuals and, so to speak, "on distribution". In November, 1826 Nikita Larionov and Ivan Ilyin were defined "on parti-

kulyarny places gardeners of the Pskov province in the Opochetsky county at landowners Peshchurov and Valuyev with a salary on 400 rub a year and a domonical table". S.N. Larionov tutorial council had to meet once again, in the middle of the 19th century. In August, 1850 he filed a lawsuit the application on loss of the vechnouvolnitelny certificate (this document replaced to pets the passport and confirmed that they belong to free people). Case of issue of the copy dragged on, and in April, 1853 N. Larionov fell under investigation for production of false documents. Not clearly, whether he reached the landowner Peshchurov, but since 1827 lived four years in the Penza province, "then in different places where year where two" and, at last, it appeared in the Peterhof County "on the grange Sumin, was engaged in patrimonial office in a written part". The copy of the certificate of N. Larionov was sent to state chamber for an addition in any sosloviye22. In March, 1827 Spiridon Stepanov went to the Velikolutsky county of the Pskov province in a manor of the landowner Anninsky. Promised it 300 rub a year, "the apartment, firewood, candles and own

table" 23.

In December, 1826 Pyotr Alexandrov who graduated from school went to the Babruysk fortress. It needed a salary of 600 rub a year "with the state apartment, firewood and candles". The engineering department of the Ministry of Defence warned that "it cannot be employed at all, and will remain in Babruysk only to a priobucheniye to gardening of the people put to this from treasury, and on a minovaniya of need for it will be released with the appropriate certificate" 24.

Also short data on the fate of the pets who graduated from the Gatchina school of practical gardening in 1827-1835 are found. For these years 25 people were let out.

13 from them were directed to service in an imperial Botanical garden, 3 graduates got on private service, one came the garden pupil to the Gatchina garden, one was left in the school, one was sent to the Tiflissky model garden, one more — to the Gatchina city pharmacy. Three pupils after the termination of school, probably, did not work in the specialty: one of them studied in To academy arts, another arrived

"to the free master", the third returned to the father. Most of pupils of the first period

graduated within 2 years, however some of them carried out to school up to 4 and a half let25.

In 1837 Nicholas I signed the decree under which all pets of educational houses of unknown origin needed to be sent for education to the village. It was forbidden to return such children to the city for education. However the emperor made some exceptions of this rule. For example, rural pets were allowed to be placed in medical assistant's schools. Data on their sending to the Gatchina school of practical gardening it is not found yet, but, most likely, the set of pupils in the 1840-1850th was formed of them. In October, 1846 the board of the 3rd district of means of communication asked to notify him on the rights of pupils of school which 5 graduates were directed to service in department of means of communication. From office of tutorial council reported that they still needed to serve not less than 6 years. Then they could choose other state service or "to choose a way of life of a podatny state".

September 15, 1861. The St. Petersburg tutorial council sent to Alexander II "the vsepoddanneyshy report". Having stated the short history of the Gatchina school, trustees told the emperor that his graduates "till 1859 were distributed by the Gatchina palace board on service in palace and other state gardens on regular vacancies, and from that year, for the lack of available seats, they began to arrive on places over the state; current year for 8 pupils who are let out

from school, the Palace board could not seek places neither at state, nor at palace gardens at all". Besides, the sum allocated for its maintenance did not change since 1819, and "since then requirements of food rose in price" therefore trustees, according to the petition of the Gatchina palace board, proposed abolition of school. The emperor approved the report, and in December, 1861. The Gatchina school of practical gardening was closed. The educational house had to employ his pupils "in compliance with their abilities", and

it was offered to sell property with auktsiona26. At the beginning of Alexander's reign II

many institutions created by Maria Fiodorovna for pets of educational houses were for various reasons closed. The page connected with her name fully became

their history.

The Pavlovsk and Gatchina schools trained several dozen qualified gardeners from pets of educational houses, created base for definition on

state service of subjects from graduates who did not wish to connect the life with gardening. Application was not found for educated experts in "the highest botany", and the empress closed the Pavlovsk school. As a result of change of position of pupils the educational institutions promoting increase in their social status became unnecessary.

1. RGIA. T. 759. Op. 32. 223. L. 1-1ob.
2. Monographs of institutions of department of the empress Maria. SPb., 1880. Page 216-217.
3. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 10. 54. L. 2, 5, 58.
4. In the same place. Op. 20. 314. L. 2-8, 29-71; op. 10. 54. L. 14; 59. L. 3.
5. In the same place. Op. 10. 59. L. 1, 6 about., 9 about., 61g-61g about.; Monographs... Page 217.
6. In the same place. Op. 10. 54. L. 59 about.
7. In the same place. Op. 10. 54. L. 13-13 about.; op. 20. 314. L. 23-23 about.
8. In the same place. L. 18-55, 58, 77, 82, 103-122.
9. In the same place. 54. L. 16-17, 28.
10. In the same place. L. 56-57, 68-69, 71b-71b about-76 about.
11. In the same place. Op. 20. 314. L. 74.
12. Monographs. Page 217.
13. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 10. 77. L. 44, 52.
14. In the same place. 59. L. 6-7 about, 23-24, 64-64 about., 66, 116; T. 759. Op. 32. 77. L. 32.
15. In the same place. 59. L. 9-11 about.
16. In the same place. L. 173-173 about.
17. In the same place. L. 13-14.
18. In the same place. L. 81-84.
19. In the same place. L. 111-115.
20. In the same place. L. 159-163, 171 about.-172.
21. In the same place. L. 60, 61a-61v, 63, 68-76.
22. In the same place. L. 130-135, 141-142, 179, 182-183, 195-195 about., 202-202 about.
23. In the same place. L. 149-153, 155, 158.
24. In the same place. L. 139-140, 143-146, 154-154 about.
25. RGIA. T. 758. Op. 10. 77. L. 1-1ob.
26. In the same place. T. 759. Op. 32. 223. L. 1-6 about.
Robert Jones
Other scientific works: